NOTES THE BOWMAN AND THE BIRD ON THE RUTHWELL CROSS AND OTHER WORKS: THE INTERPRETATION OF SECULAR THEMES IN EARLY MEDIAEVAL RELIGIOUS ART MEYER SCHAPIRO I In interpreting works of mediaeval religious art, the question often arises whether all figures representedin them are properly understood as religious in content. There is one class in particular that is uncertain in meaning: the animals and associated humans-the hunters, bowmen, and struggling figures engaged with beasts. For a student who is convinced that all in mediaevalart is symbolicor illustratesa religioustheme, it is not hard to find a text that seems to justify a moral or spiritualisticinterpretation of the hunter and the beasts.But there is also the famous letter of St. Bernard denouncing the fantastic sculptured capitals of the Cluniac cloistersas completelydevoid of religioussignificance. This powerful, vehement statement of a great churchman,who was also a poet, confirmsthe view that Romanesque art includes much that was not designed as symbol or as illustrationof a sacred text.' There are, nevertheless, examples to which Bernard's strictures might not apply and where our intuition about a possible religious content of the animal image leads us to inquire further into the criteriaof interpretation.Sometimes we observe that the images of animals and hunters, whether in the main or marginal field, resemble neighboring themes which have an undoubted religioussense. But even this resemblanceis not decisive, for the problematic theme may elaborate freely an extra-religious aspect of the religious representation as in images of violence from the Old Testament borderedby scenes of animal and human combat in the frame. Thus on one of the Meigle stones in Scotland, Daniel with the Lions is surroundedby hunters, hounds, a centaur with two axes, a man with a club, and a dragon fighting a horned beast.2 Centuries later, and no doubt independent of insular tradition, above a capital in the cloister of Moissac with the story of Daniel in the Lions' Den, is an impost carved with droll figures of little men fighting with birds, beasts, and monsters.8 i. For Bernard's text, see Migne, Patrologia latina, CLXXXII, cols. 91x4-9x6i for a translation, see G. Coulton, Life in the Middle Ages, 3rd ed., New York, 1935, Iv, pp. 174ff. I have commented at length on this text in an article: "On the Aesthetic Attitude in Romanesque Art," Art and Thought, Essays in Honour of A. K. Coomaraswamy,London, 1948, pp. i33ff. 2. See Stewart Cruden, The Early Saxon and Pictish Monuments of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1957, p. x6, and pls. 26, 2.7. 3. See M. Schapiro, "The Romanesque Sculpture of On the twelfth century bronze doors of Augsburg, a man struggling with a lion is probablySamson, since on a nearby panel the same figure wields a jawbone against a crowd of smaller figures who can only be the Philistines."But there is also a scene of a bear at a tree with birds,a lion devouring a calf, a youth and a snake, and a centaur shooting a lion.5 Are these to be taken as religious symbols too? According to the late Adolf Goldschmidt, one of the keenest and most sober students of mediaeval art, the figure of Samson is a type of Christ and an example of the triumph over sin; his presence here points then to the meaning of the less obviousscenes with animal figures.' Could one not reverse the order of interpretation and, proceeding from the manifest meaning of the unBiblicalscenes of animal force, see the two themes from the story of Samson as a Biblical equivalentof the profane subjects? For Samson is a legendary figure of human force, a hero who overcomes beastsand human enemies, as in so many literaturesof primitiveand barbaricpeoples.As such he is named together with David, Hercules, Achilles, and others in the citation of exemplary heroes by the story-tellersof the time. It may be that for the priest or monk who commissionedthe artist, the choice of Samson in this context of animal violence could be justified by the exegetical notions of the schools. But these would not explain the particular choice of the ante-type of Christ from among so many others offered by the Old Testament, nor would they illuminate the obvious unity of Samson and the surrounding scenes of animal life. There would remain, of course, for the reading of the profane imagery of force the problem of discerning the specific sense of the animals chosen-the interest in the bear, the snake, the lion, and the centaur. For these nuances of meaning we must turn to secular literature, to legends and folklore, and to the conditions of everyday life in the Germanic world of the eleventh century, just as we consult the religious beliefs and practices for the deciphermentof the sacred themes. A text of the twelfth century throws an unexpected light on the equivalencesof the sacred and the secular with respectto themes of force. In the famous Schedula Diversarum Artium, the monk-author, Theophilus Rogerus, writing about the proper decoration of repoussd gold and silver vessels, counsels the craftsmen to representon them "horsemen fighting against dragons, the image of Samson or David tearing the jaws ART BULLETIN, XIII, 1931, p. 334, fig. 79. des frilken 4. A. Goldschmidt, Die deutschen Bronzetriren Mittelalters, Marburg, x926, pls. LXIIIff. 5. Ibid., pls. 67ff. 6. Ibid., pp. 29ff. 7. For a late example, cf. the Provengal poem, Flamenca, Moissac," lines 618ff. See The Romanceof Flamenca,A Provental Poem of the Thirteenth Century, translated by M. J. Hubert, Princeton, 1962. ART 352 BULLETIN of the lion, also single lions and griffins strangling a same conception of a bowman and a bird appears on sheep, or anything you please that will be suitable and Saxon stone sculptures at Hexham, Halton, Sheffield, appropriateto the size of the work" (Book in, ch. and elsewhere." On some of these the arrow is not What unites all these varied subjects is the con- pointed exactly at the bird, which merely surmounts 77)." tent of force embodied in nameless fighting men, the archer as on the Ruthwell Cross.' In a psalter from Corbie, ca. 8oo, strongly influenced by English Biblical heroes, and voraciousbeasts. art, an archer aiming at a bird fills the initial B of II Beatus in Psalm (Fig. 3) I .At a later time, in the twelfth century, a bowman, These reflections on the animal themes bring me to in another posture, is represented repeatedly on the a problemraisedin a recent article in THE ART BULLEbronze doors of southern Italy. He occurs twice on the TIN by ProfessorErnst Kantorowicz on the meaning of same door at Trani and in a field that elsewhere is the archer and the bird on the top of the Ruthwell reserved for images of hunters, riders, and archers, Cross. His interpretation of the figure as Ishmael, whom we cannot connect with the religious founded on the resemblanceto the drawing of Ishmael scenes beside them.'easily Such figures from secular life shooting a birdin the manuscriptof Aelfric's Paraphrase are extremely common in Romanesque art." of the Heptateuch (Figs. I, 2), seems to confirm and But already in the seventh and eighth centuries,they to draw some support from my own paper on the have a prominent place in the art of the British Isles, religious meaning of the sculpturesof the Cross." For even on monuments with religiousscenes, including the Ishmael as a figure of the desert would belong with the stone slabs and crosses." On the Bewcastle Cross a central eremiticcontent of the scenes and figures below: figure with a falcon is carved at the base. In Scotland, Christ with the beasts in the desert, John the Baptist, not far from the region where stand the Bewcastle and Paul and Anthony, and Mary Magdalen. Ruthwell Crosses, are many representationson stone It would be agreeable to accept his view, but I am of hunters and riders."'They seem to express the innot convinced by it. I shall set forth here the reasons terests and mode of life of the native rulers and for my doubt, which have a bearing on the interpreta- nobility for whom these religious monuments were tion of a large class of mediaeval images of the hunter made and perhapspreservemotifs which in pagan times and the beast. had some significance as marks of rank or as symbols In his argument Professor Kantorowicz treats the of virile qualities. bowman as if he were a uniquefigure in Hiberno-Saxon It was becauseof the frequency of the hunter in the art, whose meaning is to be grasped through the con- sculpturesof the seventh to the ninth centuries in the nection with neighboring subjects on the Cross. The islands, in varied contexts and compositions which fact is that he occurs in several other works where the seemed incompatiblewith a religious explanation, that interpretationas Ishmael would appearfarfetched. The 8. Theophilus De Diversis Artibus, translated from the Latin with Introduction and Notes by C. R. Dodwell, London x96i, p. x4x (lib. III, cap. 78). 9. "The Archer on the Ruthwell Cross," ART BULLETIN, XLIII, x960, pp. 57-59. Io. "The Religious Meaning of the Ruthwell Cross," ibid., XXVI, x944, pp. 232-245. ii. See A. W. Clapham, English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest, Oxford, 1930, pp. 70-72, for examples of "archers carved at the base of the shafts, shooting at the birds and beasts above"; pl. 2x shows example at Bishop Auckland (Durham)j fig. 18, at Bradbourne and Sheffield (now in the British Museum). See also W. G. Collingwood, Northumbrian Crosses of the Pre-Norman Age, London, 1927, p. 40, on this motif, and the examples at Hexham (fig. 28), Halton (fig. 92), and Sheffield (fig. 93). Other representations of the archer aiming at a bird or beast are cited by A. S. Cook, "The date of the Ruthwell and Bewcastle Crosses," Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, New Haven, Conn., XVl, 191x3, pp. 274f. These are at Bakewell and Camuston (Scotland) and in later Romanesque art in England and France. x2. I write loosely in describing the archer as aiming at the bird. It is possible, however, that there were birds on the missing (now restored) horizontal arms of the Ruthwell Cross, as on the cross-head at Cropthorne (Yorkshire), Clapham, op.cit., 1, pl. 16. 13. The example has been noted and reproduced by Clapham, op.cit., pl. 23. For the connection of the ornament of this initial with insular art, see my article: "The Decoration of the Leningrad manuscript of Bede," Scriptorium, x2, x958, pp. x192,x196. 14. See A. Boeckler,Die Bronzetiirendes Bonanusvon Pisa und des Barisanusvon Trani, Berlin, x953, figs. 97, xox, 100xoo, 126, x27, x3x, I5i, for the examples at Trani, Ravello, and and n. on the ancestorsof this motif in Monreale, p. 64 x99, the Byzantine ivory caskets and classic hunting scenes. Two bowmen aiming at a bird on a tree between them are represented on the lid of a sarcophagusof Ix 179 with relics of the soldier saints, Sergius and Bacchus, in the Museo Civico at Verona--see Hans Decker, RomanesqueArt in Italy, New York 1959, fig. 256. The theme of the archer and bird is discusseda propos of the archeraiming at a squirrelon the bronze door of Gniezno in the magnificentpublication of this important monument: Drzmi Gnienietiskie, edited by Michael Walicki, Wroclaw, 1959, 3 volumes, with French summaries,in the chaptersby Lech Kalinowski, "The ideological and esthetic content of the Door of Gniezno" (in Polish), Ii, pp. 9iff., 156, and by ZdsistawKepifiski,"The symbolismof the GnieznoDoor," II, pp. I6xiff., 29off. x5. Cf. musicians, acrobats,dancers, and horsemenon the archivoltsof doorwaysin southwestFrance. Many instancesof the archer fighting with wild beasts in English Romanesque sculpture are listed by A. S. Cook, op.cit., pp. 274f. x16.Cf. the sculpturesof Breedon(Leicestershire),attributed to the late eighth century by Clapham, op.cit., pls. z7f., and the crossesmentionedin note xi above. 17. See G. Baldwin Brown, The Arts in Early England, v, London, 192x, pl. xII, and pp. 132ff., z281ff. x8. See StewartCruden,op.cit., pls. 5, 7-10o, x3, x8-20, 27. On p. I2z the author calls the Pictish crosses "a huntsman's art." i. Ruthwell Cross, Uppermost Section (Drawing by Miss A. C. Esmeijer) 4IT 2. Ishmael with Hagar and His Egyptian Wife. Brit. Mus. Cotton MS Claudius B. Iv, fol. 36v (photo: courtesy of the British Museum) 3. Initial B. Amiens, Bibl. mun. Cod. 18, fol. 95r (photo: Foto Marburg) 4. Tympanum (detail). Andlau, Abbey Church, West Porch (photo: Foto Marburg) 5-6. Details, Reliquary of St. Stephen, Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Weltliche Schatzkammer (photo: Kunsthistorisches Museum) NOTES 353 in writing on the Ruthwell Cross I interpretedthe representations in the last works of classicart. The archerthere as a secularfigure.'" fowlerhad appearedalreadyin pagancalendarsand in ProfessorKantorowiczsupposesthat sinceI call it a verseson the monthsas typicalfor Octoberor Novem"secularfigure"I regardit as "purelydecorative."20ber.25Scenesof the hunt are renderedon pagantombs If by that he means to say that I deny to the figure where they have a possiblereligioussignificance." of its It is remarkablethat in illustratingthe story of any valueor significancebeyondthe contribution form to the rhythmof lines and of light and darkon Ishmaelin the manuscriptof Aelfric'sParaphraseof the Cross,he misunderstands me. I believethat such the Heptateuch(Fig. 2), a later Anglo-Saxonartist motifs of decoration,especiallysince they representa approachedthe patternof the archerand bird in the and Ruthwell Cross. But the Bible text about Ishmael's humanor animalfigure,havemovingconnotations even when for the of their time, they hunting-"he grew and dwelt in the wilderness,and qualities people are not symbolsof status. (I have written aboutthis becamean archer"(Genesis21:20)-written on the aspect of mediaevaldecorationin an article: "The marginof the scene,alreadyaccountsfor the presence AestheticAttitudein Romanesque Art.")21The alterna- of the archer;and the artistwho had to representthis tivesare not, as is often supposed:religiousmeaningor subjectshareda traditionat least 300 yearsold in the no meaning,but religiousor secularmeanings,both renderingof an archeraiming at a bird. The same laden with affect. Like metaphorin poetry,such mar- conceptionmay be found in the already mentioned ginal decorationis also a means of dwelling in an psalterat Amiens of about 8oo, in the decorationof the initial B, which has been strongly influencedby enjoyedfeelingor desire. As I havesaidbefore,we are not alwaysableto dis- English art (Fig. 3).7" That Ishmaelwas a figure of the desertmakesit tinguishthese two fieldsof meaning,since the choice of religiousfigures is influencedby their secularin- conceivablethat he could be associatedwith Christian is improbterest,22and themeschosenat one time for theirqual- hermits.But for otherreasonsthisassociation ities of force may be interpretedlater as moral and able on the Ruthwell Cross. For althoughProfessor Kantorowiczcan cite a churchfather,John Chrysosreligioussymbols. Is it surprisingthat the barbarianChristians,for tom, on Ishmaelas a piousman living in the desert whom the chasewas a virileand noblesportand had under God's protection,by the end of the seventh also an economicvalue,shoulddelightin imagesof the century Ishmael stood for the Moslems who were falconer, the hunter, and the rider?2 These were Christendom'sgreatestenemies.While the truly ereimportantfiguresfor the imaginationof the new mas- miticfiguresof Christin the Desert,John the Baptist, ters of Western Europein the early Middle Ages."2 Paul and Anthony, etc., on the Ruthwell Cross,are All that pertainedto humanand animalforce seems oftennamedin earlyinsularwritings,I haveyet to find to have attractedthem. The frequencyof animal a mentionof Ishmaelas a modelof asceticlife in that themeson the portalsand doorsof churches,as in the literature.Bede, who was a youngercontemporary of examplesat Augsburgand Trani, may be connected the sculptorof the RuthwellCross,speaksof Ishmael with the place of this imageryon the exteriorof the in a verydifferentsense,as the ancestorof the Saracens church, which is turned to the secular community. -homeless and destructiveheathens,the "lues SarThe barbarianChristianscould also find many such racenorum."28 What Christianof the seventhcentury, view 19. See my note 57 on page 238. This was also the of G. Baldwin Brown, v, p. 125, who compares the on the Bewcastle Cross: "he is treated archer with the falconer o•.cit., in quite a secular spirit." 20o. Op.cit., p. 59, the last paragraph. 21. See note x above. 22. An example in Romanesque art is the choice of figures on the portal of Santa Maria in Carri6n de los Condes (Palencia), the seat of the counts of Carri6n, famous in the epic of the Cid. Herod is placed in the center, enthroned and frontal among the Magi, above the crown of the arch; in the spandrils below are Samson on the Lion and the equestrian Constantine (A. K. Porter, Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads, Boston 1923, fig. 773). A later example of a selection of religious themes unified by their common reference to a secular interest is Rubens' altarpiece in Mechlin. On the central panel is painted the Miraculous Draught of Fish; on the left wing, Tobias and the Angel; on the right wing, Peter Finding the Coin; on the predellas, Jonah Thrown into the Sea, and Christ Walking on the Water. One may seek a theological common denominator for all these subjects, but more obvious and plausible is the connection with those who commissioned and donated the triptych: the Fishermen's Guild. 23. On fowling in the pre-Christian North European world, see J. G. D. Clark, Prehistoric Europe. The Economic Basis, London, 1952, pp. 37ff. 24. For an example of hunters, riders, and bowmen in preChristian Germanic art, see the drawings of the lost golden horns from Gallehus (Slesvig) in H. Shetelig and Hj. Falk, ScandinavianArchaeology, Oxford, x937, p. 208, pl. 36. 25. See the admirablebook of Henri Stern,Le Calendrierde 354, Etude sur son texte et sur ses illustrations, Paris, 1952, pp. 246ff., 355, 366, 367, on the fowler as the figure for October or November in classical, Byzantine and early mediaeval Western literature and art. Note also on classical engraved gems the related figure of Hercules shooting the Stymphalian birds in S. Reinach, Pierres Gravces des Collections Marlborough et d'Orlians et des recueils d'Eckhel, Gori, Leesque . . . , Paris, 1895, pl. 19, no. 38, and the frequentisolated bowman in A. Furtwaingler,Die antiken Gemmen, Leipzig, Berlin, 190o, pl. VIII, 48; IX, 21; XV, 22, 23; LI, 6, xo, Ii, 14. 26. See Franz Cumont, Le symbolisme fundraire des Romains, Paris, 1942, pp. 439ff. See also E. LeBlant, Les Sarcophages Chritiens de la Gaule, Paris, i886, p. 68, pl. 19, 38, 39, and J. Baum, La Sculpture jigurale en Europe a Plpoque mirovingienne, Paris, 1937, pl. 63, for scenes of the hunt on Christian sarcophagi in Spain and Italy from the 6th to the 8th century. 27. See note 13 above. 28. Historia Ecclesiastica, v, 23 (ed. Plummer, I, p. 349; II, pp. 338, 339)-"Quo tempore gravissima Sarracenorum 354 ART BULLETIN reading Genesis, could forget the angel's prophecy to symbolize a religious concept. In the Canterbury Hagar: "He shall be a wild man; his hand will be Psalter (Paris, Bibl. nat. Ms lat. 8846), Psalm 89 against all men, and all men's hands against him" (9o), which speaks of the shortness and miseries of man's life, is illustratedby a series of figures represent(i6: 13)?"29 III ing the seven stages of life.82A child plays with a top, a youth aims his arrow at a bird on a tree, a more As an early example of the use of the extremitiesof mature figure with a falcon rides a horse, etc. Here the sacred objects as marginal fields for an imagery of connection with the text and the adjoining themes us the archer of the Cross Ruthwell reminds force, how many features common in Romanesque art arose makes the meaning explicit. "We spend our years as a in insular sculpturesand manuscriptdecoration of the tale that is told; the days of our years are three-score and ten; and if by reasonof strength they be four-score seventh to the ninth century. There is an interesting parallel to this problem in years, yet is their strength labor and sorrow; for it is the interpretationof two figures on the Romanesque soon cut off, and we fly away" (lines 9, I o). It is that the naturally pagan world of tympanum of the abbey church at Andlau in Alsace.so interesting, too, and childhood youth are symbolized by games and the Flanking a central Christ who gives the keys to Peter and the later years by an elderly man reading hunt, and the book to Paul, one figure aims an arrow at a a and an book ancient sitting and praying. bird on a tree (Fig. 4); his counterparton the other side of Christ wields a sling directed at a bird above IV him. Several scholarshave interpretedthe trees as those In proposingto interpret the archer of the Ruthwell of Paradise, the birds as human souls, and the hunters Cross as an image of force, with a poetic and emotional as symbols of evil. I incline instead to view them as a I have ignored one familiar sense of such significance, heraldic of force drawn from the profane world, like the archer and bird are at the top of Since figures. other figures on the same portal. Most of the sculpthe Cross, they may be seen as apotropaic,like the lion tures of Andlau are of beasts: there are lions, dragons, and other emblems of force on the cornices or heads a centaur shooting with a bow, an elephant, a griffin, of buildings."sThere the repetition of an fighting horsemen, a banquet scene, a butcher, the pediments while contributing to the rhythmical order combats of David and Goliath, and of Samson and the element, of the does not exclude a symbolic meaning whole, lion."1No doubt, a cleric of the time invited to comment on these figures would have found in them an and may even reinforce it. For the archer and the bird occasion to speak of good and evil, the soul and Satan. there is a mediaeval parallel in a context with an inBut it seems to me unlikely that such was the thought scription that speaks directly of protection from evil of the artist (or even his directing patron) in selecting powers. On the famous gold bursa with the relic of St. Stephen in the treasure of the Holy Roman Emthese particularfigures. All this should not be taken to mean that the bow- pire in Vienna, a North French work of the ninth cenman and the bird are always a purely secular theme. tury closely related to the art of Reims, the two narI may cite here an example from a mediaevalpsalter in row sides are stamped twice with a tiny medallion which a picture of the shooting of a bird serves to image of a bowman aiming at a bird (Fig. 5).lues miseracaedevastabat."See also Bede'scommenton Genesis 16:13 (the prophecy about Ishmael's descendants) in his Hexaemeron,lib. Iv, (Pat. lat. 91, col. 159): [it] "signifies that his seed will dwell in the desert, that is, the homeless Saracen nomads who raid all the peoples bordering on the desertand are fought by all of them. .... Today, indeed, his hand is against everyone and everyone'shand is against him, as they oppressall Africa with their sway and hold the greater part of Asia and much of Europe, hostile and hateful to all. .. ." Again, in his Commentary on the Pentateuch (Pat. lat. 91, cols. 241-243), interpreting Paul's contrast of Ishmael and Isaac in Galatians4 as symbolizingthe Old and the New Law, Bede observes that Hagar with Ishmael in the desert signifies the Synagogue and its people expelled from its land, without a priesthoodand ignoring the path of Christ. Moreover, that Ishmael is called a bowman is not inappropriateto the Jewish people; it refers to the killing of sacrificialvictims under the Old Law. Already before Islam the Bedouins were describedby St. Jerome as Saracensand Ishmaeliteswho attack a caravan of Christiansand enslave them. See his Vita Malchi Monachi Captivi (Pat.lat. 23, col. 57). The story is retold by an Anglo-Saxon contemporary of the Ruthwell sculptor, the poet Aldhelm, in his De Laudibus Virginitatis (Pat.lat. 89, col. I29--"a Saracenispraedonibuset Ismaelitisgrassatoribus obvia quaeque atrociter vastantibus"). 29. Dr. Kantorowicz,on pp. 58f. of his article, with reference to Galatians 4:22-31 and the patristic interpretationsof theselines of St. Paul, also entertainsthe possibilitythat the archeraiming at the bird is Ishmael,the son of Abraham secundum carnem,persecuting Isaac,thesonsecundum spiritum or the sursumJerusalem. 3o. See RobertWill, Repertoirede la SculptureRomans de l'Alsace,Strasbourg,1955, pp. 8f., and pl. vin; Julius Baum,"The Porchof AndlauAbbey,"ARTBULLETIN, XVII, 1935,PP. 492-505, fig. 8. 31. Will, op.cit.,pp. 5-9. In explainingthe bowmanand the birdas "symbolicof the devil'sattemptto gain possession of the soul, whichremainsunharmed becauseit is underthe protectionof Christ,"Baum(p. 498) ignoresthe otherfigures of combatand animalforce. 32. It is reproduced by H. Omont,Psautierdu Xllle si.cle, Bibliothquenationale,Paris, n.d., fig. 98. The manuscript was writtenat the end of the twelfthcentury,but certainof the miniatures, includingthe illustrationof Psalm 89 (9o), werepaintedin the fourteenth as Millard centuryin Catalonia, Meisshasshown("ItalianStylein Catalonia," Journalof the Walters Art Gallery, Iv, 1941, pp. 73-76). 33. On the same themes in Greek buildings, see the important article by Emanuel Liwy, "Urspriingeder bildenden Kunst," Vienna, I930 (from the Almanach, Akademie der Wissenschaftenin Wien, Jhrg. So). 34. It was a reliquaryof the blood of St. Stephenand was said to have belonged to Charlemagne,though the decoration is surely later than his time. For the fullest account of this NOTES 355 Beside this figure appear the images of a fisherman That the archeron the Ruthwell Crossis an apofour times and of a horseman six times (Fig. 6). The tropaicfigureis hardlycertain.A moreextensivestudy meaning of these medallions is intimated by a fourth of the examplesand the texts would be needed for But I believethat the view subject: an angel with the inscription "MALIs testingthis interpretation. VINDICTA" (Figs. 5, 6). This medallion occurs eight advancedearlier-that the archerbelongsto the class times and may be the key to the whole. It is not clear of secularfigures of force congenialto a barbarian why the angel who protects against evil should be and emerging feudal society-is the most consistent accompaniedby the rider, the bowman and the fisher- with the varietyof contextsin which the hunterapman. Are they, in some vague sense, emblems of virile pears in mediaevalart, althoughit may acquirein occupations,suited to a noble? One can cite texts from particularworks an apotropaicand even a moralthe Bible, and especially the psalter, that speak of the religioussense. bowman as a figure of evil and also of the fowler with his snares, and others in which the bird is the soul."5 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY But for comprehending these ornaments as a whole, the most relevant texts, I believe, are those of mediaeval A NOTE ON PIERRE DE MONTREUIL magic prayer. In a manuscript of the ninth century, AND SAINT-DENIS Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Ms lat. 1979, I find on the last page (fol. 25ov) an inscription: "Nec malus omo, nec mala linga, nec mala fantasma, non ROBERT BRANNER in campo, nec ad arma, neque a bastone, non insidiat me." An incantation against the three-fold ubiquitous When Henri Stein, in 1902, published a charter evil one occurs in a different form in a later manu- containing the phrase, "Magistro Petro de Mosterolio, script from Grasse (Paris, Bibl. nat. lat. 5231, fol. cementario de Sancto Dyonisio," he thought he had I29V), also at the end of the book: "Non in silva, discoveredthat Pierre de Montreuil was the thirteenth non in agro, non in domo, etc." It follows a series century architect of St.-Denis.' Cementarius, according of prayers for protection against evil and includes ex- to Stein, identifiedthe man as a mason, and magister as amples from the Old Testament of divine aid in master, and the combination meant that he was the extremis, as in the prayersfor the dying. These incanta- architect-in-chief, the designer of the work. Later, in tions suggest that the repeated images on the bursa in another context, Stein tried to buttress this conclusion Vienna, with their order of frequency-two, four, by proving that cementarius alone was sufficient to indicate a chief architect.2And in 1912, he publisheda six, culminating in the eight medallions of the angelrepresent the three elements or fields in which evil is charter of 1265 in which Pierre de Montreuil is called to be averted: air, water and earth, symbolized by the "Magister Petrus de Monsterolio, cementarius, magisarcher, the fisherman and the rider."6This interpreta- ter operum b. Marie Parisiensis," or Master of the tion is, of course, a conjecture and it may be, as Marc Works of Notre-Dame.s Stein's argument on the meaning of cementarius Rosenberg has said, that of all the medallions only those with the angels have a religious sense."7 does not seem to requiremuch refutation,since it is work, see Marc Rosenberg, "Das Stephansreliquiar im Lichte des Utrechtpsalters," Jahrbuch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen, XLIII, 1922, pp. 169-i84. 35. Cf. Psalm 9x :3-5: Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler .... He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust5 his truth shall be thy shield and buckler. Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night5 nor for the arrow that flieth by day. . . ." On the symbolism of the fowler in mediaeval literature and its Biblical sources, see B. G. Koonce, "Satan the Fowler," Mediaeval Studies, Toronto, xxI, 1959, pp. 176-184. 36. For related magic prayers, exorcisms, and incantations with elements grouped in threes, see Eugene de Roziere, Recueil giniral des formules usities dans l'em-pire des Francs du Ve au Xe sidcle, Paris, 1859, II, and particularly p. 885, no. 626: "non per aurum, non per argentum, neque per lapidibus praeciosis [sic]"; "nec dormientem, nec sedentem, nec ambulantem"5 "coelum et terram, mare et omnia quae in eis sunt." Cf. also the formula in the fictitious letter of Christ to Abgar, that was used as an apotropaic incantation: "sive in mare, sive in terra, sive in die, sive in nocte, sive in locis obscuris, si quis hanc epistolam habuerit securus ambulet in pace"--cited by E. von Dobschiitz, "Charms and Amulets (Christian)," in J. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, New York, 1911, III, p. 425. My friend, the late Ralph Marcus, professor at the Oriental Institute in Chicago, called to my attention many years ago the spell published by A. Dieterich (Abraxas, 1891, p. 139) from the Greek magical papyrus, Paris 3009, adjuring the demons of the air, the earth and under the earth, which recalls Paul, Philippians 2:ro--"at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth." 37. OP.cit., p. x8x. i. H. Stein, "Pierre de Montereau,architectede l'eglise de Saint-Denis," Mimoires, Sociiti nationale des antiquairesds France, LXI,1902, pp. 79-104. Most recently,see M. Aubert, "Pierre de Montreuil," FestschriftKarl M. Swooboda,Vienna, 1959, pp. 19-21, with bibliography. 2. H. Stein, "Un architecte de la cathidrale du Mans au XIIIe siecle, Thomas Toustain," Mim., Soc. Ant. Fr., Lxx, cf. idem, "A proposde Thomas Tou'911, PP. 115-134,)18; stain:commenton d6signaitles architectesau moyenage," ibid., LXXV,1915-1918, pp. 81-89. While it is difficultto agree with the suggestion made by Stein's principal contemporaryopponent, the abb6Ledru, to wit, that cementariusmeantmasonand lathomus master mason, Ledru's chief criticism of Stein's interpretation of the Le Mans text is precisely the same one that is raised here. In view of the rapid evolution of architectural practice,it would, I think, be incorrectto adducetwelfth and even very early thirteenthcenturyexamplesin the present context. 3. Idem, "Pierre de Montereauet la cath6dralede Paris," ibid., LXXI,1912, pp. 14-28.
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