46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2015)
CARTOGRAPHY. Kenneth L. Edmundson1, J.C. Backer1, J.M. Barrett2, K.J. Becker1, T.L. Becker1, D.A. Cook2,
S. Lambright3, J.R. Laura1, E.M. Lee2, K.A. Oyama4, S.C. Sides1, T.L. Sucharski2, L.A. Weller1, 1Astrogeology Science Center, United States Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ, USA, 86001, ([email protected]), 2USGS Retired, 3Synopsys, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA, 98104, 4Naval Surface Warfare Center, Port Hueneme, CA, USA, 93043
Introduction: ISIS (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) is developed and maintained
by the U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Science
Center (ASC) for the cartographic and scientific analysis of planetary image data [1]. The rigorous photogrammetric and radargrammetric control of planetary
images is a fundamental capability of ISIS. The control
process and its underlying algorithms are inherently
complicated and require a reasonable amount of user
understanding. In ISIS, particularly for the non-expert
user, the complexity is exacerbated because more than
twenty standalone applications are required for the
creation, editing, adjustment, analysis, and visualization of a control network (Figure 1). The control network is the ISIS data structure that stores image measurements, corresponding ground point coordinates, and
additional associated metadata.
Figure 1: ISIS workflows to create image-to-image (left) and
image-to-ground (right) control networks. Each colored box
represents a standalone ISIS application.
demonstrates that rigorous, yet user-friendly digital
photogrammetric processes can be incorporated into a
computational scheme capable of generating quality
products while at the same time supporting wider application by non-specialist users [3,4]. This can be accomplished in the processing of planetary images as
The ASC is developing in ISIS a fully interactive
user interface integrating all aspects of the control process within a single environment. This facilitates a
seamless, efficient, more intuitive, and more automated
approach to photogrammetric and radargrammetric
control. By simplifying data management; implementing rigorous algorithms; providing statistical and
graphical data analysis tools; and automating processes
and analysis when possible, we reduce effort spent
troubleshooting. This makes the process more costeffective and improves the quality of mapping products. We have creatively named this interface the Integrated Photogrammetric Control Environment (IPCE).
Photogrammetric and Radargrammetric Control: The quality of mapping products such as digital
image mosaics (DIMs) and digital elevation models
(DEMs) -and the geologic maps that use such products
as basemaps- depends greatly upon the accurate determination of image position and pointing parameters.
Initial estimates for these parameters typically come
from spacecraft tracking and attitude data. Some level
of uncertainty in these data is unavoidable and will
propagate to errors in the final product (Figure 2).
To minimize errors, images are controlled photogrammetrically. Overlapping images are registered to
one another through the measurement of common features known as tie points. Images may also be linked to
In 1991 the ISPRS (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing) Intercommission
Working Group Design and Algorithmic Aspects of
Digital Photogrammetric Systems concluded [2]...
“There is a growing need for end-to-end systems. System
integration rather than the development of special solutions will become very important in the future.”
“There is a need from the image understanding community for easy-to-use photogrammetric ‘black boxes’.
Along these lines, computer vision and photogrammetry
are increasingly working together.”
The notable progress achieved toward these goals in
the field of close-range, industrial photogrammetry
Figure 2: Uncontrolled (left) and controlled (right) mosaics
of LRO Mini-RF radar images of the 20 km crater Hermite A
(87.94°N, 308.98°E), showing the improvement in registration from >3 km to <30 m pixel scale (adapted from [5]).
46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2015)
the ground by identifying corresponding features between them and existing base maps and/or DEMs; human artifacts with otherwise known coordinates such
as landers, rovers, or retroreflectors; or locations determined from laser or radar altimetry. These features
are called control points. Image measurements then
serve as input to the least-squares bundle adjustment
[6] which generates improved image position and
pointing parameters and the triangulated ground coordinates of tie and control points. The ISIS bundle adjustment module is called jigsaw [7].
A Single Control Environment: Slightly more
than one year into our 4-year project, we are showing
significant progress in the design and implementation
of IPCE (Figure 3). As much work remains however, it
is not yet available in the public version of ISIS.
Data management is simplified via a project-based
approach with the ability to save and restore data and
settings. Ongoing efforts are focused on incorporating
existing ISIS tools and displays, emphasizing the intercommunication between them. To give but one example, the seemingly mundane (but currently timeconsuming) tasks of manually creating, deleting, or
editing tie or control points have been greatly streamlined. Changes to a point are immediately reflected in
any display showing the point.
A more flexible and intuitive bundle adjustment in-
terface is now in IPCE. Any number of adjustments
may be performed with all results saved and available
for analysis and comparison (including a graphical
representation of the parameter correlation matrix).
Images from multiple sensors may now be rigorously
adjusted together.
Future work includes improved automated image
measurement and matching (e.g. [8]); additional analysis and visualization tools; bundle adjustment improvements such as threading and solving for target
body parameters (e.g. pole position, spin offset/rate,
and mean radius); and the ability to write updated
NAIF (Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility
[9]) format image position and pointing kernels.
Acknowledgements: This work is funded by the
NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program.
References: [1] Keszthelyi, L., et al. (2014) LPS
XLV, Abstract #1686. [2] Ebner, H., et al. (1992)
IAPRS XVII, 29(B2), 380-383. [3] Ganci, G. and Handley, H. (1998) IAPRS XXXII (B5), 53-58. [4] Fraser,
C.S. and Edmundson, K.L. (2000) IJPRS 55(2), 94104. [5] Kirk, R.L., et al. (2013) LPS XLIV, Abstract
#2920. [6] Brown, D.C. (1958) RCA Data Reduction
Technical Report No. 43. [7] Edmundson, K.L. et al.,
(2012) ISPRS Annals, I-4, 203-208. [8] Garcia, P.A., et
al. (2015) LPS XLVI, this archive. [9] Acton, C.H., et
al. (1996) Planet. Space Sci., 44(1), 65-70.
Figure 3: IPCE interface screen capture showing (from left to right) (a) project tree, (b) images, (c) footprints (with ground points
overlaid), and (d) control point editor views. We emphasize that this single interface encompasses functionality of the many
standalone applications currently required for photogrammetric and radargrammetric control in ISIS shown in Figure 1.