Pressure dependence of hydrogen-induced

Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
Pressure dependence of hydrogen-induced transformations in C15 Laves
phase DyFe2 studied by pressure differential scanning calorimetry
H.-W. Lib , K. Ishikawaa , K. Aokia,∗
a
Department of Materials Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507, Japan
b Graduate School of Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507, Japan
Received 9 June 2004; received in revised form 26 June 2004; accepted 26 June 2004
Abstract
By thermal analysis of DyFe2 : (1) hydrogen absorption; (2) hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA); (3) the precipitation of BiF3 -type
DyH3 ; and (4) the decomposition of the remaining amorphous hydride occur exothermically with increasing temperature at 1.0 MPa H2 . Tp /Tm
(the peak temperature/the melting temperature of DyFe2 ) for hydrogen absorption, HIA, the precipitation of DyH3 and the decomposition of
the amorphous hydride are 0.28, 0.36, 0.43 and 0.48, respectively, which are closely related with kinetics of the transformations. The peak
temperature Tp for HIA shows a large and negative pressure dependence, but that for the precipitation of DyH3 shows a small and positive
one. As a consequence of such pressure dependence, HIA overlaps with the precipitation of DyH3 at 0.2 MPa H2 , while the crystalline hydride
decomposes directly into ␣-Fe and DyH3 at 0.1 MPa H2 . The activation energy EA for hydrogen absorption, HIA, the precipitation of DyH3
and the decomposition of the amorphous hydride are calculated to be 56, 75, 308 and 162 kJ/mol Dy, respectively, which are closely related
with the mechanism of HIA. The mechanism of HIA is discussed on the basis of the experimental results.
© 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Hydrogen absorption; Amorphous; C15 Laves compound; Hydrogen-induced amorphization; Thermal analysis
1. Introduction
Amorphous alloys are mainly prepared by rapid quenching of molten alloys. On the other hand, it has been known that
an amorphous hydride is prepared by hydrogenation of intermetallic compounds Ax B1−x with specific crystal structures
such as C15, B82 , C23, D019 and L12 [1–11], which is called
hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA). Here, A and B are
a hydride forming and a non-hydride forming metal, respectively. Among amorphizing compounds, structural changes in
the C15 Laves compounds RFe2 (R = rare earth metals) are
particularly interesting, because a crystalline and an amorphous hydride are formed depending on the hydrogenation
temperature [7]. More recently, it has been reported that HIA
in both TbFe2 and ErFe2 occurs at a given hydrogen pressure
or higher pressures [12–15], but that HIA in CeFe2 does oc∗
Corresponding author. Tel.: + 81-157-26-9452; fax: + 81-157-26-9452.
E-mail address: aokiky@mail.kitami-it.ac.jp (K. Aoki).
0925-8388/$ – see front matter © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2004.06.072
cur for every hydrogen pressure [14]. The reason why HIA
occurs above a critical hydrogen pressure is still uncertain. It
is useful and effective to examine conditions of HIA in order
to make clear the reason why HIA occurs above a critical hydrogen pressure, which is closely related with the mechanism
of HIA. In the present work, the hydrogen pressure dependence of structural changes in the C15 Laves phase DyFe2 is
investigated using a pressure differential scanning calorimeter (PDSC). Furthermore, the enthalpy change ( H) and the
activation energy (EA ) for the thermal reactions are measured
by PDSC. The mechanism of HIA in DyFe2 is discussed on
the basis of the experimental results.
2. Experimental
DyFe2 was prepared using high purity metals, 99.9% Fe
and 99.8% Dy, by arc melting in a purified argon atmosphere.
The alloy ingot was homogenized at 1073 K for 1 week in an
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H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
evacuated quartz tube. After the homogenization, the ingot
was crushed into 100 mesh in acetone to prevent oxidation
and ignition. The powder sample was thermally analyzed using a pressure differential scanning calorimeter at the rates
of 0.08, 0.17, 0.33 and 0.67 K/s in a hydrogen atmosphere
of 0.1–5.0 MPa. To elucidate the origin of the thermal peaks,
DyFe2 was heated to typical stages in PDSC, followed by
rapid cooling to room temperature. Subsequently, it was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and conventional
DSC (Ar-DSC) heated at a rate of 0.67 K/s in a flowing argon
atmosphere. Some samples were further examined in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The thermal desorption
spectrum (TDS) of hydrogen and the amount of desorbed
hydrogen were measured by heating the sample at a rate of
2 K/s in an argon atmosphere by a hydrogen analyzer. The
enthalpy change H and the activation energy EA for thermal reactions were calculated from the area of the exothermic peaks in the PDSC curves and by the Kissinger method,
respectively.
3. Results
3.1. Structural changes of DyFe2 heated in a hydrogen
atmosphere
Fig. 1 shows the PDSC curves of DyFe2 heated at rates
of 0.08–0.67 K/s and at a hydrogen pressure of 0.1–5.0 MPa.
Four exothermic peaks are mainly observed in these PDSC
curves, but only three or two ones are also observed depending on the hydrogen pressure and the heating rate. Typical
PDSC curves and the change of the hydrogen content (H/M)
heated at the rate of 0.17 K/s are shown in Fig. 2. The broken
line denotes the base line, while the arrow indicates the temperatures to which the samples were heated and then rapidly
cooled.
Fig. 1. PDSC curves of DyFe2 heated at the rates of 0.08–0.67 K/s and at
the hydrogen pressure of 0.1–5.0 MPa.
3.1.1. Structural changes of DyFe2 heated in 1.0 MPa H2
Four exothermic peaks are observed in the PDSC curve of
DyFe2 heated in 1.0 MPa H2 . The XRD patterns, TEM photographs and Ar-DSC curves of the DyFe2 samples heated
to above the respective exothermic peaks are shown in
Figs. 3–5, respectively. The XRD pattern of the original sample indicates that this alloy consists of the C15 Laves phase
[Fig. 3(1)]. The XRD pattern of the sample heated to above
the first exothermic peak (460 K) shows Bragg peaks indexed
Fig. 2. Typical PDSC curves of DyFe2 and the change in the hydrogen content (H/M) heated at the rate of 0.17 K/s.
H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
51
Fig. 3. XRD patterns of DyFe2 heated to above respective stages of PDSC
at the rate of 0.17 K/s in 1.0 MPa H2 . The original sample (1), the sample
heated to above the first peak (460 K) (2), the second peak (583 K) (3), the
third peak (673 K) (4), and the fourth peak (773 K) (5).
¯ [Fig. 3(2)].
on the basis of a rhombohedral structure (R3m)
Its hydrogen content is 1.48 (H/M). The crystalline image
is observed in the bright field TEM image for this sample
[Fig. 4(a)] and the corresponding selected area diffraction
pattern (SADP) shows a highly strained rhombohedral structure [Fig. 4(b)]. Furthermore, its Ar-DSC curve does not show
any exothermic peak of crystallization [Fig. 5(1)]. Consequently, the first exothermic peak of PDSC is concluded to
result from the formation of a crystalline hydride, i.e. crystalline c-DyFe2 changes to c-DyFe2 H4.4 at peak I. The Bragg
peaks disappear and are replaced by a broad maximum in the
sample heated to above the second exothermic peak (583 K)
[Fig. 3(3)]. The hydrogen content of this sample is reduced
to 1.13 (H/M). The bright field TEM image for this sample is
featureless [Fig. 4(c)] and its SADP shows a broad halo characteristic of the amorphous state [Fig. 4(d)]. Furthermore, its
Ar-DSC curve shows an exothermic peak of crystallization at
around 900 K [Fig. 5(2)]. These experimental results imply
that the sample heated to above the second exothermic peak
of PDSC is amorphous. Consequently, the second exothermic
peak of the PDSC curve results from the transformation from
c-DyFe2 H4.4 to a-DyFe2 H3.4 , i.e. hydrogen-induced amorphization. Broad and weak Bragg peaks of BiF3 -type DyH3
appear overlapped with a broad maximum in the sample
heated to above the third exothermic peak (673 K) [Fig. 3(4)].
Crystalline particles are embedded in the amorphous matrix
in the bright field image of this sample [Fig. 4(e)] and its
SADP shows Debye–Scherrer rings [Fig. 4(f)] of BiF3 -type
DyH3 overlapped with a broad halo. Furthermore, its Ar-DSC
curve shows a broad exothermic peak at around 800–900 K,
indicating survival of the amorphous hydride [Fig. 5(3)].
Fig. 4. Bright field images (a, c, e, g) and selected area diffraction patterns
(b, d, f, h) of DyFe2 heated to above respective stages of PDSC at a rate of
0.17 K/s in 1.0 MPa H2 . The sample heated to above the first peak (460 K)
(a and b), the second peak (583 K) (c and d), the third peak (673 K) (e and
f), and the fourth peak (773 K) (g and h).
From these experimental results, we can see that the third
exothermic peak of PDSC results from the precipitation of
BiF3 -type DyH3 in the amorphous hydride. The crystal structure identification of the Dy hydride is discussed in Sections
3.3 and 4.1.
The XRD pattern of the sample heated to above the fourth
exothermic peak (773 K) is indexed on the basis of ␣-Fe and
BiF3 -type DyH3 [Fig. 3(5)]. Dark particles can be observed
in a bright-field TEM image [Fig. 4(g)] for this sample and
its SADP shows the Debye–Scherrer rings indexed on the
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H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
Fig. 5. Ar–DSC curves, heated at the rate of 0.67 K/s in an Ar atmosphere, for
DyFe2 after heating to above respective stages of PDSC at a rate of 0.17 K/s
and in 1.0 MPa H2 . The sample heated to above the first peak (460 K) (1),
the second peak (583 K) (2), the third peak (673 K) (3), and the fourth peak
(773 K) (4).
basis of ␣-Fe and BiF3 -type DyH3 [Fig. 4(h)]. Furthermore,
its Ar-DSC curve does not show any exothermic peak of
crystallization [Fig. 5(4)]. The hydrogen content of this
sample is 1.08 (H/M), i.e. 3.24 (H/Dy). Consequently,
the fourth exothermic peak of PDSC results from the
decomposition of the remaining amorphous hydride into
␣-Fe and BiF3 -type DyH3 . The reaction sequence of DyFe2
heated in 1.0 MPa H2 is expressed as follows.
Fig. 6. XRD patterns of DyFe2 heated to above respective stages of PDSC
at the rate of 0.17 K/s in 0.2 MPa H2 (a) and 0.1 MPa H2 (b). The original
sample (1), the sample heated to above the first peak (483 K) (2), the second
peak (666 K) (3), the third peak (793 K) (4), the first peak (500 K) (5) and
the second peak (714 K) (6).
c-DyFe2 → c-DyFe2 Hx → a-DyFe2 Hx
Peak I
Peak II
→ a-Dy1−y Fe2 Hx + DyH3 → α-Fe + DyH3
Peak III
Peak IV
The reduced peak temperature (peak temperature/melting
temperature of DyFe2 ) Tp /Tm for hydrogen absorption, HIA,
the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 and the decomposition
of the amorphous hydride are 0.28, 0.36, 0.43 and 0. 48, respectively. These values are closely related with the diffusion
of the metallic atoms as discussed later.
3.1.2. Structural changes of DyFe2 heated in 0.2 MPa H2
Three exothermic peaks are observed in the PDSC curve of
DyFe2 heated in 0.2 MPa H2 . The XRD patterns and Ar-DSC
curves of the sample heated to above the exothermic peaks of
PDSC are shown in Figs. 6(a) and 7(a), respectively. Comparing Fig. 3 with Fig. 6(a) and Fig. 5 with Fig. 7(a), we
can see that the state of the samples heated to above the first,
the second and the third exothermic peaks of PDSC heated
in 0.2 MPa H2 are c-DyFe2 Hx , a-DyFe2 Hx + DyH3 and ␣Fe + DyH3 , respectively. That is, the first, the second and
the third exothermic peaks result from the formation of a
Fig. 7. Ar-DSC curves, heated at 0.67 K/s in an Ar atmosphere, for DyFe2
after heating to above respective stages of PDSC at the rate of 0.17 K/s and
in 0.2 MPa H2 (a) and 0.1 MPa H2 (b). The sample heated to above the first
peak (483 K) (1), the second peak (666 K) (2), the third peak (793 K) (3),
the first peak (500 K) (4) and the second peak (714 K) (5).
H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
53
crystalline hydride, simultaneous occurrence of HIA and the
precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 and the decomposition of
the remaining amorphous hydride into ␣-Fe and BiF3 -type
DyH3 , respectively. The hydrogen content of the crystalline
hydride is 1.36 (H/M). No single-phase amorphous hydride
is formed under the present experimental conditions. The reaction sequence of DyFe2 heated in 0.2 MPa H2 is expressed
as follows.
c-DyFe2 → c-DyFe2 Hx → a-Dy1−y Fe2 Hx + DyH3
Peak I
Peak II
→ α-Fe + DyH3
Peak III
Fig. 8. TEM bright field image: (a) and SADP; (b) of DyFe2 heated to 714 K
at the rate of 0.17 K/s in 0.1 MPa H2 .
3.1.3. Structural changes of DyFe2 heated in 0.1 MPa H2
Two exothermic peaks are observed in the PDSC curve of
DyFe2 heated in 0.1 MPa H2 . The XRD patterns and Ar-DSC
curves of the sample heated to above the exothermic peaks
of PDSC are shown in Figs. 6(b) and 7(b), respectively. The
first exothermic peak is due to the formation of a crystalline
hydride in the same way as the other cases. The hydrogen
content of the crystalline hydride is 1.36 (H/M), which is
same as that of the sample heated in 0.2 MPa H2 . The XRD
pattern of the sample heated to above the second exothermic
peak (714 K) is indexed on the basis of ␣-Fe and BiF3 -type
DyH3 .
Fig. 8 shows the lattice image in the bright field TEM
image for the sample heated to above the second exothermic peak and its SADP shows Debye–Scherrer rings indexed
on the basis of ␣-Fe and BiF3 -type DyH3 . Furthermore, its
Ar-DSC curve does not show any exothermic peak of crystallization. Consequently, the second exothermic peak is due to
the direct decomposition of c-DyFe2 H4.1 into ␣-Fe + DyH3 .
No amorphous hydride is detected under the present experimental conditions. The reaction sequence of DyFe2 heated
in 0.1 MPa is expressed as follows.
c-DyFe2 → c-DyFe2 Hx → α-Fe + DyH3
Peak I
Peak II
Thus, all of the first exothermic peaks are due to hydrogen absorption in the crystalline state. On the other hand, the
second exothermic peaks result from HIA, HIA+ the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 and the direct decomposition of
the crystalline hydride into ␣-Fe + DyH3 with decreasing hydrogen pressure. It is worth noticing that HIA occurs only at
0.2 MPa H2 or even higher pressures.
3.2. The relation between the hydrogen pressure and the
peak temperature Tp for thermal reactions
Fig. 9 shows the relation between the hydrogen pressure
and the peak temperatures Tp for the thermal reactions for
two heating rates of 0.17 K/s (the solid symbol and the solid
line) and 0.33 K/s (the open symbol and the broken line).
Fig. 9. The relation between the hydrogen pressure and the peak temperatures Tp of the thermal reactions for two heating rates of 0.17 K/s (the solid symbol
and the solid line) and 0.33 K/s (the open symbol and the broken line). The solid hexagon denotes that HIA and the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 occur
simultaneously. The pentagrams indicate the direct decomposition of crystalline hydride.
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H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
Fig. 10. The relation between the hydrogen pressure and Tp /Tm for the thermal reactions of DyFe2 heated at the rate of 0.17 K/s. Here, Tm is the melting
point of DyFe2 (K).
The solid hexagon denotes that HIA and the precipitation of
BiF3 -type DyH3 occur simultaneously and the pentagrams
indicate the direct decomposition of the crystalline hydride
into ␣-Fe + DyH3 . As the heating rate increases, Tp shifts to
the high temperature side, suggesting the thermally activated
process. We focus on the hydrogen pressure dependence of
Tp heated at the rate of 0.17 K/s. As the hydrogen pressure
increases, Tp for hydrogen absorption, HIA and the decomposition of the remaining amorphous hydride shift to the lower
temperature side, but Tp for the precipitation of BiF3 -type
DyH3 shifts to the high temperature side. As a consequence
of such pressure dependence, the extrapolated line connecting Tp for HIA intersects the extrapolated line connecting Tp
for the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 at about 640 K and
0.12 MPa H2 . It is expected that HIA and the precipitation of
BiF3 -type DyH3 occur simultaneously at this point. In fact,
they occur at a slightly higher pressure, i.e. 0.2 MPa, and a
slightly lower temperature, i.e. at 629 K. At the hydrogen
pressure below the intersecting point, Tp for HIA is higher
than that for the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 , which implies that the amorphous hydride is unstable. Then, the crystalline hydride decomposes directly into ␣-Fe and BiF3 -type
DyH3 at 0.1 MPa H2 without the formation of an amorphous
hydride.
Fig. 10 shows the relation between the hydrogen pressure and Tp /Tm for the thermal reactions of DyFe2 . Here, Tm
(K) is the melting point of DyFe2 . Tp /Tm for hydrogen absorption is about 0.3 at 0.2 MPa H2 and is slightly reduced
with increasing pressure. Tp /Tm for HIA is 0.38 at 0.5 MPa
H2 and is rapidly reduced to 0.33 at 5.0 MPa H2 . Tp /Tm for
the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 in the amorphous hydride is 0.42 at 0.2 MPa H2 and is slightly increased to 0.43
at 5.0 MPa H2 . On the other hand, Tp /Tm for the decomposition of the remaining amorphous hydride into ␣-Fe +
DyH3 is about 0.5 and is slightly reduced with increasing
pressure. The pressure dependence of Tp /Tm for the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 is very strange, because an increasing hydrogen pressure usually enhances the diffusion of H
and Dy.
Fig. 11. TDS, heated at the rate of 2 K/s using a hydrogen analyzer in an
argon atmosphere, for the samples: (1) c-DyFe2 H4.4 ; (2) a-DyFe2 H3.4 ; (3)
a-Dy1– y Fe2 Hx + DyH3 ; (4) ␣-Fe + DyH3 ; and (5) for Dy hydride prepared
by hydrogenation of pure Dy at room temperature in 5 MPa H2 for 86 K/s.
3.3. Thermal desorption spectrum (TDS) of hydrogen
and the crystal structure of Dy hydride precipitated in
the amorphous hydride
Fig. 11 shows TDS, heated at a rate of 2 K/s using a hydrogen analyzer in an argon atmosphere, for the samples: (1)
c-DyFe2 H4.4 ; (2) a-DyFe2 H3.4 ; (3) a-Dy1−y Fe2 Hx + DyH3 ;
(4) ␣-Fe + DyH3 , which were prepared by thermal analysis
of DyFe2 in 1.0 MPa H2 . TDS for (5) the Dy hydride prepared by hydrogenation of pure Dy at room temperature in
5 MPa H2 for 86 k/s is also shown in this figure. The broken line denotes the base line of TDS. TDS for c-DyFe2 H4.4
shows sharp and overlapping peaks at around 500–650 K,
which indicates that all of the hydrogen is desorbed from
the crystalline hydride and no DyH3 is formed. On the other
hand, TDS for a-DyFe2 H3.4 shows a small and sharp peak, at
around 500 K, which is gradually weakened with increasing
temperature. The small and sharp peak, which is in nearly the
same position as the peak of the crystalline hydride, indicates
that some of hydrogen in the amorphous hydride is trapped
in sites similar to those of the crystalline hydride. The spectra
between about 600 and about 800 K (the shadowed part) implies that some of hydrogen atoms are trapped more tightly
than those in the crystalline hydride, which is closely related
with the driving force of HIA. TDS for this sample shows a
broad peak at about 1100–1300 K, which are due to hydrogen
desorption from CaF2 -type DyH2 as discussed later. TDS for
a-Dy1−y Fe2 Hx + DyH3 is similar to that for a-DyFe2 H3.3
because of the similarity of chemical compositions of both
phases.
H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
55
Fig. 13. An example of the Kissinger plot for thermal reactions of DyFe2
heated in 1.0 MPa H2 .
Fig. 12. XRD patterns of (a) Dy hydride prepared by hydrogenation (1) and
subsequently heated to 973 K (2), and 1773 K (3) in the hydrogen analyzer
and of (b) a mixture of ␣-Fe + DyH3 (4) prepared by hydrogenation of the
amorphous alloy and subsequently heated to 773 K (5) and to 1373 K (6).
Next, we compare TDS for a mixture of ␣-Fe + Dy hydride prepared by the decomposition of the amorphous hydride with that for the Dy hydride prepared by hydrogenation at room temperature in 5 MPa H2 for 86 k/s. TDS for the
former sample shows broad peaks at around 500–700 and
1000–1300 K, while the later one shows a sharp and large
peak at around 600–750 K and a broad and large peak at
around 1100–1400 K.
Fig. 12 shows the XRD patterns of (a) the Dy hydride prepared by hydrogenation of pure Dy and subsequent heating
to above the peaks of TDS and of (b) a mixture of ␣-Fe +
Dy hydride prepared by thermal analysis of DyFe2 and subsequent heating to above the peaks of TDS. The hydrogen
content (H/Dy) for these samples is also shown in this figure.
The XRD pattern of the Dy hydride prepared by hydrogenation of pure Dy is indexed on the basis of HoH3 -type DyH3 .
The XRD patterns of this sample after heating to above the
first peak (973 K) and to above the second peak (1773 K) of
TDS are indexed on the basis of CaF2 -type DyH2 and pure
Dy, respectively. Consequently, the first and the second peak
of TDS is due to the transformation from HoH3 -type DyH3
to CaF2 -type DyH2 and from CaF2 -type DyH2 to pure Dy,
respectively.
The XRD pattern of a mixture of ␣-Fe + the Dy hydride
prepared by thermal analysis does not substantially change
by heating to above the first peak of TDS (973 K), although
the Bragg peaks of the Dy hydride for the former sample are
slightly broadened. However, the hydrogen content decreases
from 3.21 to 2.25 (H/Dy). Consequently, the Dy hydride for
the former and the latter sample are concluded to be BiF3 -type
DyH3 and CaF2 -type DyH2 , respectively. The XRD pattern of
the sample heated to above the second peak of TDS is indexed
on the basis of C15 Laves phase DyFe2 . Consequently, the
first and the second peak in TDS of a mixture sample of ␣-Fe
and the Dy hydride are due to the transformation from BiF3 type DyH3 to CaF2 -type DyH2 and the transformation from
CaF2 -type DyH2 to pure Dy, respectively. The Dy atoms react
with ␣-Fe by the solid state reaction, which gives rise to the
formation of the C15 Laves DyFe2 .
3.4. The enthalpy change H and the activation energy
EA for the thermal reactions related with hydrogen
The activation energy EA for the thermal reactions of
DyFe2 heated in a hydrogen atmosphere of 1.0 MPa is evaluated by the Kissinger’s peak shift method. The method includes the application of the next equation.
ln (C/Tp2 ) = −(EA /RTp ) + A
(1)
where C is the heating rate, Tp the peak temperature, EA the
activation energy, R the gas constant, and A is a constant.
Fig. 13 shows an example of a Kissinger plot for the thermal
reactions of DyFe2 heated in 1.0 MPa H2 . From the slope of
this straight line, the activation energy EA is calculated and
shown together with the other data in Table 1. On the other
hand, the value of the enthalpy change H for the thermal
reactions of DyFe2 heated in 1.0 MPa H2 is calculated from
the area of exothermic peaks of PDSC and shown in Table 1.
Fig. 14 shows a schematic illustration of H and EA for
the thermal reactions, heated in: (a) 1.0; and (b) 0.1 MPa H2
in reaction sequence, in addition to H for the formation
of DyFe2 . Here, H for hydrogen desorption is plotted to
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H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
Table 1
The activation energy EA and the enthalpy change H of hydrogen absorption, HIA, the precipitation of DyH3 and the decomposition of the amorphous hydride
for DyFe2 heated in 1.0 and 0.1 MPa H2
Absorption of H2
Desorption of H2
HIA
Precipitation of DyH3
Decomposition
DyFe2 in 1.0 MPa
Enthalpy change (kJ/mol Dy)
Activation energy (kJ/mol Dy)
−53
56
+6
−27
75
−7
308
−9
162
DyFe2 in 0.1 MPa
Enthalpy change (kJ/mol Dy)
Activation energy (kJ/mol Dy)
−37
62
+27
the upper direction, because hydrogen desorption occurs endothermically. We can see that EA for all reactions takes a
larger absolute value than that of H when DyFe2 is heated
in 1.0 MPa H2 . The activation energy EA for hydrogen absorption, HIA, the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 and the
decomposition of the amorphous hydride are calculated to
−73
80
be 56, 75, 308 and 162 kJ/mol Dy, respectively, which are
closely related with the mechanism of HIA.
According to Hess’s Law, H for a reaction is independent of the reaction route. The final products of DyFe2 heated
in 1.0 and 0.1 MPa H2 are ␣-Fe + DyH3 . Therefore, the total value of H should be equal to that for the formation
of DyH3 . A physical mixture of Dy, 2Fe, 3H2 /2 is the starting point of each reaction and ∆H is 0 here. The formation
enthalpy Hf of DyFe2 is calculated to be −9 kJ/mol Dy
by the Miedema model [16]. Similarly, the formation enthalpy Hf of DyH2 and DyH3 are calculated to be −220
and −138 kJ/mol Dy, respectively. The sums of H for the
thermal reactions of DyFe2 heated in 1.0 and 0.1 MPa H2
are −99 and −92 kJ/mol Dy, respectively. Thus, the sum of
H for all thermal reactions in the Dy–Fe–H2 system is in
good agreement with Hf (−138 kJ/mol Dy) of DyH3 . The
enthalpy consideration supports the formation of BiF3 -type
DyH3 instead of the formation of CaF2 -type DyH2 .
4. Discussion
4.1. The crystal structure of Dy hydride precipitated in
the amorphous phase
Fig. 14. The value of H and EA for thermal reactions in the reaction sequence of DyFe2 heated in 1.0 (a) and 0.1 MPa H2 (b).
The crystal structure of the Dy hydride precipitated in aDyFe2 Hx and of that formed by the direct decomposition of
c-DyFe2 Hx seems at the first glance to be CaF2 -type DyH2
as shown in Figs. 3 and 6(a and b). However, the hydrogen
content of them is 3.2 (H/Dy), so that this hydride should
be DyH3 . We discuss the crystal structure of the Dy hydride
precipitated in the amorphous hydride. As it is well known,
CaF2 -type RH2 is formed by hydrogenation of rare earth metals R [17]. On the other hand, BiF3 -type RH3 and HoH3 -type
RH3 are formed by hydrogenation of the light rare earth metals R (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and of the heavy rare earth metals
R (Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho and so on) [18], respectively. It is impossible to distinguish between CaF2 -type hydride RH2 and
BiF3 -type hydride RH3 by XRD experiments, because the R
atoms occupy the same sites in the fcc-type lattice. In CaF2 type RH2 , the R atoms occupy both face centered and cube
corner sites, and the H atoms occupy tetrahedral sites. If the
H atoms occupy octahedral sites in addition to the tetrahedral
ones, then this is BiF3 -type RH3 . The occupation number of
R in the unit cell of the fcc-type lattice is 4, while that of the
H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
tetrahedral and the octahedral sites are 8 and 4, respectively,
so that the formula of BiF3 -type hydride is expressed as RH3 .
Next, we discuss why HoH3 -type DyH3 is not formed,
but BiF3 -type DyH3 is formed by the precipitation and by
the decomposition of the amorphous hydride. When CaF2 type DyH2 transforms into HoH3 -type DyH3 , large structural
changes of the host metal Dy must occur. On the contrary,
CaF2 -type DyH2 transforms into BiF3 -type DyH3 without a
change in the crystal structure of the host metal Dy. CaF2 type DyH2 precipitated in a-DyFe2 Hx is surrounded by the
amorphous phase, so that its transformation into HoH3 -type
DyH3 is hindered by the amorphous hydride. Consequently,
BiF3 -type DyH3 is formed by the precipitation in the amorphous hydride and by the decomposition of the remaining
amorphous hydride.
4.2. The mechanism of hydrogen-induced amorphization
The PDSC curve of DyFe2 heated in 1.0 MPa H2 shows
four exothermic peaks due to: (1) the formation of the crystalline hydride; (2) hydrogen-induced amorphization; (3) the
precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 ; and (4) the decomposition
of the remaining amorphous hydride. On the other hand,
the curve of the sample heated in 0.2 MPa H2 shows three
exothermic peaks due to: (1) the formation of the crystalline
hydride; (2) the simultaneous occurrence of HIA and the precipitation; and (3) the decomposition of the amorphous hydride. Furthermore, the curve of the sample heated in 0.1 MPa
H2 shows only two exothermic peaks due to (1) the formation of the crystalline hydride and the direct decomposition
of it into ␣-Fe + DyH3 . Thus, the thermal reactions of DyFe2
heated in H2 depend on the hydrogen pressure. We discuss the
mechanism of HIA in the C15 Laves phase DyFe2 from the
standpoint of the pressure dependence of structural changes.
Thermal reactions related with hydrogen are controlled by the
kinetic and thermodynamic factors. At about 0.3 Tm , where
the diffusion of the metallic atoms does not substantially occur, hydrogen is absorbed forming the crystalline hydride cDyFe2 Hx without a change in the crystal structure, although
a distortion of the crystal lattice occurs. When c-DyFe2 Hx is
heated to above the second exothermic peak (583 K), i.e. to
about 0.36 Tm, where both Dy and Fe atoms can move over a
short-range distance, the transformation from the crystalline
to the amorphous hydride, i.e. HIA occurs so as to reduce
the enthalpy. The driving force for HIA is considered to be
the enthalpy difference resulting from the different hydrogen occupation sites. Hydrogen atoms in c-DyFe2 Hx occupy
tetrahedral sites surrounded by 2Dy + 2Fe and Dy + 3Fe by
the geometric constraint [19]. The overlapped peak of TDS
for c-DyFe2 Hx may correspond to hydrogen desorption from
these 2Dy + 2Fe and Dy + 3Fe tetrahedral sites. On the other
hand, hydrogen atoms in the amorphous hydride can occupy
tetrahedral sites surrounded 4Dy and 3Dy + 1Fe in addition to
2Dy + 2Fe and Dy + 3Fe [20], because there is no geometric
constraint for the structure. Since the formation enthalpy of
the Dy hydride is more negative than that of the Fe hydride,
57
hydrogen atoms can stay more stable in the amorphous hydride. The small and sharp peak of TDS at around 500 K
for a-DyFe2 Hx may correspond to hydrogen desorption from
2Dy + 2Fe and Dy + 3Fe tetrahedral sites. The tailed peak at
the higher temperature side of TDS for a-DyFe2 Hx (a shaded
part) may correspond to hydrogen desorption from 4Dy and
3Dy + 1Fe tetrahedral sites. As the hydrogen pressure increases, the peak temperature Tp for HIA shifts to the lower
temperature side, indicating that H2 enhances the short-range
diffusion of Dy and Fe atoms. BiF3 -type DyH3 precipitates
in the amorphous hydride at about 0.42 Tm . As the hydrogen
pressure increases, Tp for the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3
becomes high and shows positive (reverse) pressure dependence. As the hydrogen pressure increases, the diffusion of
Dy and hydrogen is generally enhanced which gives rise to a
reduction of Tp . Consequently, the precipitation of BiF3 -type
DyH3 may be not controlled by the diffusions of Dy and H2 ,
but by Fe atoms which do not interact with hydrogen. The
decomposition of the remaining amorphous hydride into ␣Fe + DyH3 is controlled by the long-range diffusion of both
Fe and Dy atoms, because it occurs at about 0.5 Tm where the
long-range diffusion of them become generally more active.
The present work demonstrates that HIA in DyFe2 occurs
above a critical hydrogen pressure and below a critical heating
rate as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. We discuss the reason why HIA
does not occur at low hydrogen pressure. The hydrogen content in the crystalline hydride is 1.48, 1.36 and 1.36 (H/M) for
hydrogen pressures of 1.0, 0.2 and 0.1 MPa H2 , respectively.
Since there is a little difference in the hydrogen content, it
is considered that the occurrence of HIA is not determined
by the value of the hydrogen content, but by the hydrogen
pressure. As shown in Fig. 9, Tp for HIA shows a strong
and negative hydrogen pressure dependence, while that for
the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 shows a weak and positive one. As a consequence of such pressure dependence,
HIA overlaps with the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 in
intermediate hydrogen pressure region, while the crystalline
hydride decomposes directly into ␣-Fe and BiF3 -type DyH3
in low hydrogen pressure. Thus, the pressure dependence of
HIA and the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 play an important role in determining whether HIA occurs or does not occur
in DyFe2 . The pressure dependence of Tp for HIA may be
controlled by short-range diffusion of the Dy and Fe atoms.
On the other hand, it is a future subject to determine which
atoms control the precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 .
5. Summary and conclusion
The pressure dependence of structural changes in the C15
Laves phase DyFe2 heated in a hydrogen atmosphere was
investigated by PDSC, XRD, Ar-DSC, TEM and hydrogen
analyzer. Four exothermic reactions, i.e. hydrogen absorption
in the crystalline state, HIA, the precipitation of BiF3 -type
DyH3 and the decomposition of the remaining amorphous
hydride occurred sequentially when DyFe2 was heated at
58
H.-W. Li et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 388 (2005) 49–58
0.5 MPa H2 and higher pressures. The second exothermic
peak occurs as a result of HIA, the simultaneous occurrence
of HIA and the precipitation of DyH3 , and the direct decomposition of amorphous hydride into DyH3 + ␣-Fe with
decreasing hydrogen pressure. It is the first time that BiF3 type DyH3 has been found to precipitate in an amorphous
hydride, because the transformation from CaF2 -type DyH2
into HoH3 -type is restrained by the surrounding amorphous
hydride. As the hydrogen pressure increases, the peak temperature of hydrogen absorption, HIA and the decomposition of
the remaining amorphous hydride shift to the lower temperature side, but that of precipitation of BiF3 -type DyH3 shifts
slightly to higher temperature side. It is worth noticing that no
amorphous hydride is formed at a low hydrogen pressure and
at a high heating rate. Furthermore, there is no clear difference in the hydrogen content for the crystalline hydride, when
the samples were heated to above the first exothermic peak
in 0.1, 0.2 and 1.0 MPa H2 . From these experiment results,
we conclude that the controlling factor for HIA in DyFe2 is
not the hydrogen content, but the hydrogen pressure which
has a close relation with the diffusion of metal atoms.
Acknowledgement
This work was supported in part by a “Grant-in-Aid” for
Scientific Research on Priority Area A of “New Protium
Function” from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports,
Science and Technology.
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