Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dead –in

The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2013), 28:
With 5 tables in the text.
Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dead –in -Shell Chick Embryo in Khartoum State
Osman,T .M. ¹ and Almahdi S.M. El Sanousi ²
(1)Department of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine and Health Science University of Al imam
(2) Department of Microbiology and Parasitology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum
‫ملخص البحث‬
‫ة‬/‫زل مجموع‬/‫ وتم ع‬، ‫ وجمعت من أربعة فقاسات لمزارع كبيرة في والية الخرطوم‬،‫ بيضة مخصبة محتوية على أجنة نافقة‬540 ‫فحصت‬
‫صبغة‬/‫ة ل‬/‫ا الموجب‬/‫اس البكتري‬/‫ أجن‬.‫رام‬/‫صبغة ج‬/‫البة ل‬/‫ا س‬/‫( بكتري‬%73,11)155‫رام و‬/‫( بكتريا موجبة لصبغة ق‬%26,89) 57 ‫ بكتريا تتكون من‬212
‫اس‬//‫ أجن‬.(%1,88) ‫ة‬//‫ورات العقدي‬//‫( والمك‬%2,83)‫صيات‬//‫ الع‬،(%3,3) ‫ديات‬//‫ الوت‬،(%18,86) ‫ة‬//‫ورات العنقودي‬//‫ المك‬: ‫ملت‬//‫ا ش‬//‫م عزلھ‬//‫ي ت‬//‫رام الت‬/‫ج‬
‫ة‬//////‫ الزائف‬،(%8,01) ‫سيال‬//////‫الكلب‬،(%10,84) ‫ريكية‬/////‫األش‬،(%11,79) ‫ة‬//////‫ المتقلب‬:‫ملت‬/////‫ا ش‬//////‫م عزلھ‬//////‫ي ت‬/////‫رام الت‬//////‫صبغة ج‬/////‫سالبة ل‬//////‫ا ال‬/////‫البكتري‬
‫اليجينيس‬///‫الك‬،(%2,35) ‫سالمونيال‬///‫ال‬، (%3,3) ‫اس‬///‫االيرومون‬،(%3,77) ‫ينيا‬///‫اليرس‬،(%6,6) ‫ستروباكتريم‬///‫ ال‬،(%6,6) ‫اكتريم‬///‫الجانثينوب‬،(%6,6)
‫سيوموناس‬//‫البل‬،(%0,94) ‫ا‬/‫ أيروني‬،(%1,41) ‫ة‬/‫ا المعوي‬/‫البكتري‬،(%1,88) ‫سراتيا‬/‫ ال‬،(%2,35) ‫اكتريم‬/‫الفالفوب‬،(%2,35) ‫انيال‬/‫ المورج‬،(%2,35)
،‫سالمونيال‬//‫ ال‬،‫ة‬//‫ورات العنقودي‬//‫ي المك‬//‫زارع ھ‬//‫ل الم‬/ ‫ن ك‬//‫ة م‬//‫ا المعزول‬//‫ت البكتري‬//‫ كان‬.(%0,47) ‫وردتيال‬//‫( والب‬%0,94) ‫شيا‬//‫ البروفيدني‬،(%0,94)
Five hundred and fourty dead-in-shell chick embryos were obtained from four hatcheries of
big poultry farms in Khartoum state. From these 212 isolates were recovered consisted of 57
(26.89%) Gram-positive organisms and 155 (73.11%) Gram-negative organisms. Gram-positive
bacteria genera isolated were Staphylococcus (18.86%), Corynebacterium (3.3%), Bacillus
(2.83%), and Streptococcus (1.88%). The Gram-negative bacteria genera isolated were Proteus
(11.79%), Escherichia (10.84%), Klebsiella (8.01%), Pseudomonas (6.60%), Janthinobacterium
(6.60%), Citrobacter (6.13%), Yersinia (3.77%), Aeromonas (3.30%), Salmonella (2.35%),
Alcaligenes (2.35%), Morganella (2.35%), Flavobacterium (2.35%), Serratia (1.88%),
Enterobacter (1.41%), Erwinia (0.94%), Plesiomonas (0.94%), Providencia (0.94%), and
Bordetella (0.47%). The organisms which were isolated from all farms were Staphylococci,
Salmonellas, Escherichias, Klebsiellas, Proteuses, and Yersinias.
Sudan is one of those developing countries where the poultry production industry has
undergone progressive development in the recent years in attempts to satisfy the increasing
demands for egg and poultry meat.
The hatcheries of different companies in Khartoum State showed frequent reduction in
hatching percentages of eggs during the year (Report of Arab- Sudanese Company, Acolid
Company, 1994 – 1995). The major causes of reduction in hatchability were generally,
adhesion, temperature variation, incubator faults (Das et al., 1994), incubation humidity on
the shell (Peebles, 1985), Mycoplasmal and viral infections (Stipkovits et al., 1985), and
bacterial infections (Ahmed et al., 1981).
Bacteria represent primary or secondary agent of dead-in-shell embryos. The chick
embryos themselves are one of the means of disease transmission, since some pathogens are
known to be transmitted transovarianly (Jordan, 1979).Very little work has so far been done
to study the aerobic bacteria in dead-in-shell chick embryo, despite their important role in
causing death to chick embryos.
Osman and El
Sanousi .
This study was carried out to investigate and find out the most important bacteria that
cause problem to the embryonated egg in local hatcheries in the Sudan, since little
information are available on the subject.
Materials and Methods
Samples were collected during September 1994 to September 1995 from hatcheries of four
big poultry farms in Khartoum State. Samples were fertile eggs that were incubated for 21
days and discarded due to their failure to hatch and were considered to be dead-in-shell chick
The shell was removed at the air-sack after being cleaned with alcohol. Sterile forceps and
scissors were used for this purpose. A sterile loop was introduced into the egg filled with of
the allantoic fluid and transferred, under the umbrella of flame, to be plased out an to Blood
Isolation attempts of bacteria were made on all samples on the same day of collection.
Samples were inoculated on 10% deibrinated ovine blood agar and incubated
microaerophically at 37oC for 24 hours and further incubation continued for 48 hours, if no
growth was evident before they were discarded as negative. All isolates of bacteria isolated
were purified by frequent subculturing, pure cultures were plated out onto a separate Blood
Agar Plales and identified according to the procedures described by Barrows and Feltham
The total number of samples collected and investigated was 540 samples. The total number
of the isolated bacteria was 212 37.96( Table 1). Isolated organisms consisted of 57 (26.89%)
Gram-positive and 155 (73.11) Gram-negative bacteria (Tables (2; 3; 4; 5).
Table 1: The number of bacterial isolates obtained from different farms :
Number Number Number
Number % +ve
Arab Company for Livestock
African Company
Coral Company
Sudanese-Arabian Company
Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dead –in -Shell Chick Embryo
Table 2: The Bacteria Isolated Form Dead-In-Shell Chick Embryo From The Hatchery of The
Poultry Unit of Arab Company for Agriculture Production and Processing (Sudan ). From
September 1994 - November 1994.
No Tested
No Negative
No Positive
% Positive
5 Staphylococcus epidermidis
1 Salmonella typhimurium
1 Staphylococcus aureus
5 Pseudomonas aeruginosa
1 Staphylococcus gallinarum
5 Pseudomonas maltophilia
2 Staphylococcus faecalis
2 Pseudomonas stutzeri
1 Staphylococcus avium
3 Escherichia coli
2 Corynebacterium pseudodiph
3 Aeromonas hydrophila
11 Chromobacterium violaceum
2 Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
2 Janthinobacterium lividium
1 Bacillus brevis
2 Proteus vulgaris
1 Proteus mirabilis
3 Klebsiella oxytoca Klesiella
pneumcauie subp. aerogenes
1 Klebsiella aerogenes Klesiella
pneumcauie subp. ogaenae
2 Klebsiella ozaenae
1 Yersinia enterocolitica
1 Serratia marcescens
2 Citrobacter freundii
1 Enterobacter cloaca
2 Plesiomonas shigelloides
1 Providencia sp.
Total Number of both isolates
Osman and El
Sanousi .
Table 3 : The Bacteria Isolated Form Dead-In-Shell Chick Embryo From The Hatchery
of Arab Company for Live Stock Development “Acolid” From December 1994 February 1995.
No Tested
No negative
No positive
% + ve
Gram – positive
Gram – negative
4 Staphylococcus epidermidis
1 Salmonella typhimurium
1 Staphylococcus aureus
1 Salmonella gallinarum
3 Corynebacterium hofmannii
2 Escherichia coli
1 Streptococcus avium
2 Alcaligenes faecalis
2 Proteus mirabilis
2 Yersinia enterocolitica
3 Flavobacterium meningosepticum
1 Citrobacter freundii
1 Klebsiella oxytoca
Total Number of both isolates
Table 4: Showing The Bacteria Isolated Form Dead-In-Shell Chick Embryo From The
Hatchery of African Poultry from “Apco” From March 1995 - May 1995
No Tested
No negative
No positive
% + ve
Gram –positive
Gram – negative
1 Staphylococcus epidermidis
1 Salmonella typhimurium
Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dead –in -Shell Chick Embryo
1 Staphylococcus aureus
10 Escherichia coli
1 Staphylococcus gallinarum
2 Klebsiella oxytoca
1 Streptococcus intermedius
7 Klebsiella oxytoca
2 Staphylococcus delphini
6 Proteus mirabilis
6 Proteus penneri
2 Enterobacter aerogenes
2 Erwinia herbicola
2 Yersinia enterocolitica
1Alcaligenes faecalis
3 Morganella morganii
1 Flavobacterium meningosepticum
1 Aeromonas salmonicida
1 Providencia sp
Total Number of both isolates
Table 5: The Bacteria Isolated Form Dead-In-Shell Chick Embryo from the Hatchery of
Coral farms for chicks and feed production from June 1995 - August 1995.
No Tested
No negative
No positive
% + ve
3 Staphylococcus epidermidis
1 Salmonella typhimurium
12 Staphylococcus aureus
8 Escherichia coli
5 Staphylococcus delphini
2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2 Staphylococcus intermedius
1 Klebsiella oxytoca
3 Bacillus brevis
2 Proteus vulgaris
2 Bacillus cereus
4 Proteus mirabilis
Osman and El
Sanousi .
2 Proteus penneri
2 Alcaligenes bronchisepticus
1 Flavobacterium odoratum
2 Morganella morganii
1 Chromobeiterium violaceum
1 Aeromonas hydrophila
2 Aeromonas salmonicida
1 Bordetella bronchiseptica
3 Yersinia enterocolitica
3 Serratia marcescens
10 Citrobacter freundii
Total Number of both isolates
This work was the first detailed study of aerobic bacteria on dead-in-shell chick embryos
conducted on four big poultry farms in the Sudan.
Previously, an attempt was made in Sudan to isolate bacteria and Mycoplasma from deadin-shell chick embryos (Ahmed et al., 1981). The present study was directed to words the
isolation of aerobic bacteria only. The Gram-positive organisms isolated during the present
work (26.89%) were less than Gram-negative bacteria (73.11%) and belonged to the 5 genera;
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Arcanobacterium and Bacillus. These
findings were in agreement with those of Ahmed et al. (1981).The genus Staphylococcus
represented 18.86% of total isolates and this in agreement with Ahmed et al. (1981), Orajaka
and Mohan (1985), Wang (1992) and Alaboudi et al. (1992). The present work shows
isolation of three species, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus delphini,
Staphylococcus intermedius, which were not reported to be isolated from dead-in-shell chick
embryo before. Two Streptococcus species isolated in this study accords the result obtained
by Ahmed et al. (1981), Sezen (1985) and Alaboudi et al. (1992). In the present study the
isolation of Arcanobacterium Corynebacterium (hofmanii) agrees with Ahmed et al. (1981)
but isolation the present study, Corynebacterium haemolyticum, was not reported before.
Present study isolated Bacillus cereus, and isolation of other Bacillus species confirm the
results of Ahmed et al. (1981) and Lalithakunjamma and Sudharma. (1991).
Most of the bacteria isolated in this study were Gram-negative bacteria which were
consisted of 18 genera (73.11%). Salmonellas were isolated from all hatcheries investigated
and this study agrees with Ahmed et al. (1981), Mazurkiewicz et al. (1988), Alaboudi et al.
(1992) and Das et al. (1994). Escherichia coli represented 10.8% of the isolates, and were
isolated from all farms investigated. This result agreed with Ahmed et al. (1981), Stipkovits et
al. (1985), Orajaka and Mohan (1985) and Alaboudi et al. (1992). Two species of
Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Dead –in -Shell Chick Embryo
Pseudomonas not reported before as isolates from dead-in-shell chick embryo were reported
in this study as new findings concerning dead- in- shell chick embryo; these were
Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas stutzeri. Isolates of the genus Proteus accord with
results of Ahmed et al. (1981), Orajaka (1985), Alaboudi et al. (1992), and Shawabkeh and
Tarazi (1993), but in the present study Proteus penneri was reported in dead-in-shell embryo
for the first time. Other Gram-negative isolates in this study including, Citrobacter freundii,
Enterobacter, Alcaligenes, Erwinia herbicola, Chromobacterium violaceum, Plesiomonas
shigelloides, and Yersinia enterocolitica, are in agreement with those reported by Schmid et
al. (1954) and Ahmed et al. (1981).
In the present study, six Gram-negative genera isolated from dead-in-shell chick embryos
were not reported before in the Sudan. These genera are Aeromonas, Morganella, Serratia,
Flavobacterium, Bordetella and Providencia.
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