- C - C - The Evans Group Homepage

where A is the percent isomer to be determined, A apparent = (cpm
in peak A/cpm A cpm B ) X 100, and k is percent optical impurity
in the resolving reagent (3.75).34
Acknowledgment. This work was supported a t Brookhaven
National Laboratory by the US.Energy Research and Development Administration, and a t Columbia University by
Energy Research and Development Administration Grant
AT91 1-1)3105 and National Institutes of Health Grant H D
References and Notes
(1) (a) Brookhaven National Laboratory; (b) Columbia University.
(2) (a) D. V. Bent and E. Hayon, J. Am. Chem. SOC., 97, 2599 (1975); (b) ibid.,
97, 2606 (1975).
(3) R. Livingston, D. G. Doherty, and H. Zeldes, J. Am. Chem. SOC., 97, 3198
(4) H. Taniguchi et al., J. Phys. Chem., 72, 1926 (1968).
(5) N. N. Lichtin and A. Schafferman, Radiat. Res., 69, 432 (1974).
(6) N. N. Lichtin, J. Ogdan, and G. Stein, Radiat. Res., 55, 69 (1973).
(7) H. Jung and K. Kurzinger, Radiat. Res., 36, 369 (1968).
(8)V. Nothig-Laslo and J. N. Herak, Croat. Chem. Acta, 43, 39 (1971).
(9) W. Snipes and J. Schmidt, Radiat. Res., 29, 194 (1966).
(10) H. Jensen and T. Henriksen, Acta Chem. Scand., 22, 2263 (1968).
(11) H. Shields and W. Gordy, J. Phys. Chem., 62, 789 (1958).
(12) F. G. Liming, Jr., Radiat. Res., 39, 252 (1969).
(13) F. G. Liming and W. Gordy, Proc. Natl. Aced. Sci. U.S.A., 60, 794
(14) R. C. Drew and W. Gordy, Radiat. Res., 18, 552 (1963).
(15) G. McCormick and W. Gordy, J. Phys. Chem., 62, 783 (1958).
(16) P. Riesz and F. H. White, Adv. Chem. Ser., No. 81, 496-520 (1968).
(17) R. Holroyd, J. Glass, and P. Riesz, Radiat. Res., 44, 59 (1970).
(18) P. Neta, Chem. Rev., 72, 533 (1972); P. Neta and R. H. Schuler, Rediet.
Res., 47, 612 (1971).
(19) P. Neta, R. W. Fessenden, and R. H. Schuler, J. Phys. Chem., 75, 1654
(20) P. Neta, M. Simic, and E. Hayon, J. Phys. Chem., 74, 1214 (1970).
R. A. Witter and P. Neta, J. Org. Chem., 38, 484 (1973).
W. A. Volkert and R. R. Kuntz, J. Phys. Chem., 72, 3394 (1968).
A. P. Wolf, S. Lieberman, W. C. Hembree, and R. L. E. Ehrenkaufer,manuscript in preparation.
J. A. Kerr, Chem. Rev., 66, 465 (1966).
A. Lieberles, "Introduction to Theoretical Organic Chemistry", Macmillan,
New York, N.Y., 1968, p 220.
A. F. Trotman-Dickenson and G. S. Milne, "Tables of Bimolecular Gas
Reactions", Natl. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Natl. Bw. Stand., No. 9, 5-7, 41-49
T. J. Hardwick, J. Phys. Chem., 66, 117 (1962).
S. Nakapapksin, E. Gil-Av, and J. Oro, Anal. Biochem., 33, 374 (1970).
W. C. Hembree. R. L. E. Ehrenkaufer, and A. P. Wolf, unpublished results.
Hembree, R. E. Ehrenkaufer, S. Lieberman, and A. P. Wolf, J. Bioi.
Chem.. 248.5532 (1973).
S . Blackburn, "Amino Acid Determination. Methods and Techniques",
Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y., 1968, pp 23-24.
(a) M. Renard, Bull. SOC.Chim. Biol., 28.497 (1946);(b) S.-C. J. Fu, S.M.
Birnbaum, and J. P. Greenstein, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 76, 6058 (1954); (c)
H. C. Brown, ibid., 60, 1325 (1938); (d) W. Fickett, H. K Gardner, and H.
J. Lucas, ibid., 73, 5063 (1951).
(a) 8. Halpern and J. W. Westley, Chem. Commun., 256 (1965); (b) B.
Halpern, J. W. Westley, and B. Weinstein, Nature (London), 210, 837
R. Pettijohn, Dissertation, University of Nebraska, 1973, pp 131-158
(University Microfilms No. 74-13 01 1).
R = 2d/( W1 Wz) where d is the peak-to-peak separation of the diastereomers and W1 and Wz are extrapolated to baseline, peak widths. R =
1 corresponds to approximately 98% resolution; R = 1.5 indicates a
baseline separation with a resolution of 99.7% .36 These values represent
optimized resolutions. The actual resolution may vary slightly from one
injection to the next.
H. M. McNair and E. J. Bonelli, "Basic Gas Chromatography", 5th ed,Varian
Aerograph, Walnut Creek, Calif., 1968.
Thiosilanes, a Promising Class of Reagents for
Selective Carbonyl Protection
David A. Evans,*' Larry K. Truesdale, Kurt G . Grimm, and Stephen L. Nesbitt
Contribution No. 5488 from the Laboratories of Chemistry, California Institute of
Technology, Pasadena, California 91 125. Received December 20, 1976
Abstract: The thermal and catalyzed carbonyl addition reactions of alkyl- and arylthiosilanes, RSSiMe3, have been studied.
Contrary to earlier literature reports, it has been found that thiosilanes react with aldehydes and ketones to form either thioketals or 0-silylhemithioketals when various acid catalysts are employed. With a,P-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes anion-initiated reactions result in exclusive 1,4-addition. The synthetic procedures reported in this paper constitute an exceptionally
mild procedure for selective carbonyl protection.
In recent years organosilicon derivatives have played an
ever increasing role in synthetic organic chemistry.2 Much of
the logic behind the development of organosilane reagents has
relied upon the "proton-silicon correlation". For example,
organosilanes undergo a number of thermal rearrangements3
which phenomenologically have their direct counterparts in
analogous proton system^.^ A number of other processes such
as olefin hydr~silylation,~
carbonyl silicon pseudohalide6 addition,' and silicon transfer to Lewis basess are just a few of
the other reactions of tetravalent silicon for which the proton
analogy can be drawn. Organosulfur derivatives of silicon have
been extensively studied over the years and a multitude of
methods have been developed for their s y n t h e s i ~Based
upon the relatively weak silicon-sulfur bond (ca. 70 kcal/
mol)" these reagents should be good oxygenophiles. However,
little definitive work has been reported on the applications of
these reagents to useful synthetic transformations.I2
The aims a t the outset of this study were to develop organosilicon reagents that would selectively mask carbonyl groups
under exceptionally mild conditions (eq 1-3). In part, our in-
- R"
R' \ /OS%
R"' \SR
Evans, Truesdale, Grimm, Nesbitt
/ Thiosilanes f o r Carbonyl Protection
terest in these adducts was based upon our anticipation that
such adducts could be transformed into the useful “reversed
polarity” equivalents such as 4 and 5 upon metalation, and that
such carbonyl derivatization reactions should serve as useful
selective carbonyl protection operations in chemical synthesis.
Literature reports that ethylthiotrimethylsilane (6) reacted
slowly (80 OC, 36 h) with chloral to afford the adduct 7, and
that methylthiotrimethylsilane (8)Ioa added to hexafluoroacetone under similar conditions (70 “ C , 36 h) to give 912d
8O0Cc/38 h
+ C13CCH0
IO’C/36 h
Scheme I
R / X‘
suggest that, even with highly reactive carbonyl substrates,
uncatalyzed thiosilane carbonyl addition is not a facile process.
Our own previous studies on the carbonyl addition reactions
of trimethylsilyl cyanideI4 suggested to us that the conditions
employed by previous workers to effect thiosilane carbonyl
addition may have been deceptively harsh and that such reactions should be facilitated by anionic as well as Lewis acid
Results and Discussion
Nucleophilic Catalysis of Organosilane Carbonyl Insertion
Reactions. We have found that a variety of carbonyl addition
reactions of silicon derivatives, Me$iX, may be effectively
initiated by the addition of small amounts (ca. 0.01 equiv) of
nucleophiles X- (eq 4).Typical reactions of this type that have
+ X-
+ Me3Si-X
R” X
tally catalyzed by traces of cyanide
In an analogous
fashion the addition of trimethylsilyl azide (11) to aldehydes
may be initiated by both azide and cyanide ion (eq 6).Ik More
recently we have found that anionic catalysis is effective in
promoting the carbonyl insertion reactions of a-silyl diazoacetate 12 where other modes of catalysis have failed (eq
been investigated are the addition of trimethylsilyl cyanide (10)
to aldehydes and ketones (eq 5), a reaction which is dramatiR
carbonyl addition process. We have found that potassium cyanide-crown ether complexes, tetra-n-butylammonium cyanide, as well as tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride all appear to
be efficient initiators far organosilane carbonyl addition. For
addition reactions with many unsaturated ketones and aldehydes as well as quinones, we have also found that triphenylphosphine (0.01 equiv) is a convenient initiator. The mode
of initiation in this instance presumably involves the phosphine-initiated liberation of X- via the reaction sequence illustrated below. Evidence that phosphonium enolates such as
15 are actually formed and can be trapped by silanes has been
demonstrated by treating a benzene solution of methyl vinyl
ketone with 1 equiv of triphenylphosphine and chlorotrimethylsilane, whereupon the crystalline phosphonium chloride
16 (X = CI) has been isolated in excellent yield.15 In addition
CN or
+ Mepi-N3
to our own observations on nucleophilic catalysis of organosilane carbonyl addition reactions, several other recorded
examples have appeared.16
In agreement with earlier reports,12d,’2f
we have found that
thiosilanes react slowly with aldehydes at elevated temperatures in the absence of catalysts. For example, heating equimolar amounts of n-hexanal (17) and ethylthiosilane 6 at 100
O C for 20 h resulted in the formation of only 30% of the adduct
18. Similar results were obtained on attempted thermal addition of the phenylthiosilane 20 to isobutyraldehyde (19) to
give adduct 21. The dramatic effect of anionic initiation in this
lZO’C/ZO h
CH3(CH214CH0 + EtS-SiMe3
As illustrated in Scheme I, the presumed mode of nucleophilic catalysis in the above cases involves carbonyl addition
of X- affording equilibrium concentrations of 13, which is
converted to adduct 14 by subsequent bimolecular silicon
transfer. This catalytic model suggests that any nucleophile,
X- or Y - , which is either capable of carbonyl addition or of
effecting ligand exchange on silicon (eq 8) should initiate the
CH3 (CH2)4CH-SEt
135”C/10 h
/ - a5gc,cNGT
addition process was observed when the analogous reactions
Journal of the American Chemical Society / 99:15 / July 20,1977
501 1
Table I . Anion-Initiated Thiosilane42arbonyl Addition Reactions
(eq 1 , 3Iu
Rs -TMSb
% Yie1&
E t S -TUS
which exhibit exclusive 1 , 2 - a d d i t i 0 n . ' ~ Typical
~ , ~ ~ ~ yields and
conditions for the thermal as well as anionic initiated addition
of 20 to a,@-unsaturatedsubstrates are illustrated below. The
list of systems studied is shown in Table I. In all cases the
thiosilane addition process was carried out in excellent yield
under exceptionally mild conditions. The specific initiator
catalyst such as cyanide or fluoride ion does not exhibit any
system dependence in the cases studied.
1OO'C/48 h
PhS -TbS
y 3
This remarkably facile enone masking operation could prove
to be. useful in enone-electrophile (El+) condensation processes
of the general type illustrated below (eq 9). The recent silyl enol
9 1 (> 9 5 )
P h S - CFH3
P h S -TED
P h S -TUS
y 3
ether mediated carbonyl condensation reactions reported by
Mukaiyama might be relevant cases for examination.20
Lewis Acid Catalysis of Organosilane Carbonyl Insertion
Reactions. In contrast to an earlier literature report,'Oa we have
found methylthiotrimethylsilane (8) to be exceptionally reactive toward carbonyl substrates, the consequence of this
reaction being the dimethylthioketal (eq
This observaR
UUnless otherwise specified the catalyst employed was cyanide
ion. bTMS refers to trimethylsilyl (-SiMe,). CValues correspond to
distilled adduct. Those in parentheses refer to yields determined by
GLC. ~Triphenylphosphine
was also employed as an initiator.
were repeated in the presence of small amounts of either
tetra-n-butylammonium cyanide,' tetra-n-butylammonium
fluoride,lg or potassium cyanide-1 8-crown-6 c0mp1ex.l~The
reaction of hexanal and 6 in the presence of anionic initiators
proceeded exothermically at 25 "C to afford the mixed acetal
18 in 82% yield, while the phenylthiosilane 20 and aldehyde
19 gave the adduct 21 in 81% yield. In general, it has been
observed that phenylthiosilanes are somewhat less reactive than
alkylthiosilanes toward carbonyl addition; however, the reactivity differences are not great. Both alkyl- and arylthiosilanes show high selectivity toward addition to aldehydes;
however, we were unable to effect addition, in general, to ketonic substrates employing anionic initiators. This could be
explained either by assuming that the equilibrium constant for
adduct formation is small or that anionic catalysis generally
fails with ketone substrates, possibly due to the unfavorable
equilibrium in the formation of intermediate 13, X = SR
(Scheme I).
The reactions of a,@-unsaturatedaldehydes and ketones with
phenylthiosilane 20 and ethylthiosilane 6 proceeded very slowly
at elevated temperatures. However, in the presence of cyanide,
thiolate, or fluoride ions, the addition process occurred exothermically at 25 O C . In every case examined 1,4 addition was
the exclusive reaction pathway. These results strongly contrast
to the reactions of trimethylsilyl cyanide (10) with enones
2 MeSSiMe3
tion is in marked contrast to the low level of reactivity of both
ethylthiosilane 6 and phenylthiosilane 20 toward uncatalyzed
carbonyl insertion. As a result of the present study (vide supra)
we can now state unequivocally that the observed reactions of
aldehydes and ketones with methylthiotrimethylsilane (8)
were initiated by trace quantities of Lewis acids. 2 1
Under the influence of acid catalysts such as zinc iodide,
aluminum chloride, or anhydrous hydrogen chloride in solvents
such as ether, chloroform, and acetonitrile, thiosilanes react
rapidly (ca. 30 min) with both aldehydes and ketones at room
temperature to give the 0-trimethylsilyl hemithioacetals or
ketals 1, respectively (Scheme 11). In the presence of a second
Scheme I1
R' \
R ' Y \SR
- - -
Lewis Acid
Lewis Acid
equivalent of thiosilane under the same reaction conditions the
Evans, Truesdale, Grimm, Nesbitt / Thiosilanes for Carbonyl Protection
Table 11. Acid-Catalyzed Thiosilane Mediated Thioketalization
Table 111. Selective Tliioketalization via Thiosilanesa
(es W
Carbonyl Substrate
Y l e l d (7.>l
UAll reactions were catalyzed with ZnI,. bTMS refers to trimetliylsilyl (SiMe,). 'Values refer to isolated yields. d J. M.
Laiancette, Y . Beavegard, and J. M. Bliereur, Can. J. Cliern., 49,
2983 (1971). eSince thiosilanes are effective silylating agents, 3
equiv of thiosilane must be employed in such cases.
thioketals 2 are produced in nearly quantitative yields after ca.
8-24 h. We have found that the use of thiosilanes in these
thioketalization processes holds a great deal of promise as an
exceptionally mild procedure for effecting carbonyl derivatization. Although several solvents have been examined
(CH2C12, C6H6, CH3CN) we have found that conditions involving the use of diethyl ether as a solvent and zinc iodide (ca.
molar equiv) as the acid catalyst have been most convenient for effecting thioketalization under mild conditions (0-25
"C). A summary of the scope of this method for carbonyl
thioketalization is included in Table 11. These data indicate
that the structure of the thiosilane, RSSiMe3, does not play
a significant role in the thioketalization process and that monothiosilanes as well as dithiosilanes may be employed with
equal facility. When employing anhydrous zinc iodide as an
acid catalyst we have not observed the formation of vinyl sulfides, which frequently arise from subsequent acid-catalyzed
elimination of the thioketal adducts of monothiosilanes. In
addition, the mildly acidic nature of these reactions is illustrated in the conversion of diacetone alcohol to the corresponding diethylthioketal 44 without any evidence of dehydration (Table 11, entry 13). The reactions of a,p-unsaturated
aldehydes such as a-methylacrolein with monoalkylthiosilanes
(entry 14) under the influence of zinc iodide depart from the
traditional reactions that enone substrates follow with thiols.
I n such cases the Michael adduct 45 is the observed product.
This reaction path is the same as that observed under the influence of anionic catalysis (cf. Table I).
An examination of the general levels of selective monothioketalization of a variety of diketones reveals that high
levels of carbonyl differentiation can be expected (Table 111).
I n the selective monothioketalization of 4-androstene-3,17dione (50) with ethanedithiol (p-toluenesulfonic acid), a 76%
yield of the 3-ethylenethioketal51 and 10% of the bisthioketal
52 has been reported.22 I n contrast, by employing ethylJournal of the American Chemical Society / 99:15
All reactions catalyzed with ZnI,. bValues refer to isolated
yields. C K . G. Grimm, P. S. Venkatrami, and W. Reuscli, J. A m
C h e m Soc., 93, 270 (1971).
enedithiobis(trimethylsi1ane) 60 (ZnI2)a 94% yield of 51 and
only 5% of the bisthioketal52 can be realized (Table 111, entry
50 +
X = H
X = SiMe3
3). A similar comparison of the two thioketalization22procedures for progesterone (53) illustrates the same two points: the
yield of monothioketal54 is higher when the thiosilane reagent
+ 55
X = H
3 5%
X = SiMe3
is employed; and carbonyl selectivity is enhanced (cf. Table
111, entry 4).
The Synthesis of 0-Silylhemithioacetals and Ketals. Efficient methods for the synthesis of 0-silylhemithioacetals and
ketals 1 would be of general interest, since such carbonyl
protective groups could be readily removed under neutral or
basic rather than the conventional acidic conditions. During
the course of the present study we have demonstrated that
0-silylhemithioacetals 1 (R' = H ; R = alkyl, aryl) can be efR'
R"/ \SR
ficiently prepared via anion-initiated thiosilane carbonyl insertion (Table I); however, the corresponding ketone adducts
could not generally be prepared by this mode of catalysis.
Recently, Chan has reported a general synthesis of both 0silylhemithioacetals and ketals via the reaction shown below
(eq 1 l).24Mechanistically, there are two apparent schemes
/ July 20,1977
Scheme IV
Me3SiC1 +
R' ,/
that can be considered for this reaction (Scheme 111). In path
Scheme I11
Path A
amine, 25"
No Reaction
R"/ \SR
the dithioketal 56 ( 2 . 2 equiv of 8) under otherwise identical
conditions in 92% yield. The intermediacy of 57 in the formation of thioketal56 was confirmed by GLC analysis. In an
independent experiment, it was demonstrated that 57 could
be converted in quantitative yield to 56 upon treatment with
8 in the presence of zinc iodide. Although the generality of the
amine-buffered, acid-catalyzed thiosilane ketone and aldehyde
addition reactions have not been extensively investigated in the
present study, both cyclopentanone and n-hexanal afford adducts 58 and 59 in good yields under similar condition^.^^
A the thiol could be silylated, giving the thiosilane which could
undergo carbonyl insertion via a n acid-catalyzed (C3H5N.
HC1) process. An explanation as to why the O-silylhemithioketal 1 is nor transformed into the thioketal under these
conditions could be related to the strength of the acid catalyst
in the system under study. The alternate mechanism (path B),
which was proposed by char^,^^ could involve thiolate addition
to the carbonyl substrate (step 2) followed by subsequent silylation of the hemithioketal or its conjugate base (step 3). As
a result of the present investigation, we wish to suggest that the
probable course of the reaction of thiols and trimethylsilyl
chloride with aldehydes and ketones (eq 11) is not via path B
as has been suggested, but via path A. In our earlier discussion
(vide supra) we demonstrated that aldehyde U-silylhemithioacetals could be prepared by anion-initiated thiosilane
carbonyl insertion (Scheme I, X = SR). However, ketones
failed to undergo thiosilane insertion by this mode of initiation.
Since path B is analogous to this insertion mechanism, it is
difficult to explain why the reaction reported by Chan (eq 11)
is effective for both aldehydes and ketones. Alternatively, if
thiosilanes were produced in situ upon treating thiols with
trimethylsilyl chloride, and thiosilane carbonyl insertion could
be catalyzed by pyridine hydrochloride (path A), one might
anticipate that such conditions might not be sufficiently acidic
to catalyze the subsequent conversion of the O-silylhemithioacetals 1 to the corresponding thioketals. W e have verified
these projections by demonstrating that the acid-catalyzed
thiosilane carbonyl insertion process can be controlled to give
either 0-silylhemithioketals or thioketals by a simple adjustment of the reaction conditions (Scheme IV). Upon treatment
of cyclohexanone with methylthiosilane 8 and zinc iodide
buffered with an amine (i.e., imidazole or hexamethyldisilazane) the 0-silylhemithioketal57 was produced in 88% isolated
yield uncontaminated with the dimethylthioketal 56. In the
absence of the amine buffer, cyclohexanone was converted to
Recently, Glass has reported the thermal addition of alkylthiosilanes to aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes (eq 1, R" =
H) and the subsequent hydride reduction of the resultant 0silylhemithioacetals to unsymmetrical sulfides (eq 12).26 It is
R ' \ C/OSiMe3
LiAlH /AlCl
noteworthy that this study reports the effectiveness of trimethylsilylimidazole as a catalyst for carbonyl insertion with
aldehyde substrates. his observation is consistent with our own
study (vide supra). Our results also predict that, in general, the
analogous ketone carbonyl insertion will nor be effected by base
or anion initiation. This is apparently the case in this
The Reactivity of Group 4 Metal Sulfides with Organic
Substrates. The reactions of group 4 metal sulfides with a variety of organofunctional groups has been extensively s t ~ d i e d . ~ '
In particular, thiosilanes have been shown to react with acid
chloride^,^^,^^ anhydride^,^^ isocyanates,12f highly reactive
ketones and aldehydes,'oa~10d~12f
and strained lactones12C~12f
without apparent catalysts. In the presence of powerful Lewis
acid catalysts such as aluminum chloride or with zinc chloride
a t elevated temperatures cyclic ethers,12eesters,12band a&
unsaturated acetals12bcan be induced to react. In general,
however, ester interchange does not compete with aldehyde
and ketone thioketalization when zinc iodide catalysts are
employed a t 25
Finally, thiosilanes are effective silylating
agents (cf. Table 11, entry 13). It is thus anticipated that carbonyl protection can be effected in polyfunctional molecules
with high selectivity.
Evans, Truesdale, Grimm, Nesbitt / Thiosilanes for Carbonyl Protection
In contrast to earlier reports, thiosilanes are not intrinsically
unreactive reagents toward carbonyl substrates as this study
has demonstrated. On the contrary, when the appropriate
initiator catalyst is employed, these reactions occur under
exceedingly mild conditions. Prior misconceptions on the low
reactivity of the silicon-sulfur bond have been associated with
a general lack of understanding of the modes of catalysis that
are possible to effect reactions. Depending upon the acid lability of the carbonyl substrate, thiosilanes may be employed
either as preformed reagents, as in the present study, or as in
situ intermediates24 in carbonyl protection. Furthermore, an
exercised control of the reaction acidity can be instrumental
in controlling the nature of carbonyl protection.
RSH + Me3SiCl
Experimental Section
All melting points were taken on a Kofler hot stage or Biichi
SMP-20 melting point apparatus and are uncorrected. Boiling points
are uncorrected. Infrared spectra were taken on a Perkin-Elmer
spectrometer, Model 700. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were
taken on either a Varian Associates Model T-60 or A-60 spectrometer
using 1% tetramethylsilane as an internal standard for non-siliconcontaining compounds and either chloroform (437 Hz) or methylene
chloride (317 Hz) for silicon-containing derivatives. I n N M R descriptions, s = singlet, d = doublet, t = triplet, q = quartet, m =
multiplet. Analytical gas chromatographic analyses were carried out
on a Varian Model 1400 gas chromatograph using 6-ft columns of 5%
SE-30 or 20% Carbowax 20-M on a 60-80 mesh DMCS Chromosorb-W support. Anhydrous sodium sufate was used to dry the organic
diethyl ether layer. "Anhydrous" ether is reagent ether distilled from
lithium aluminum hydride prior to use. All liquid ketones are aldehydes were freshly distilled prior to use. Solid ketones were sublimed
prior to use. Methylthiotrimethylsilane (8) was purchased from Petrarch Systems and redistilled prior to use. The commercial material
contains ca. 1% hexamethyldi~ilazane.~~
(20) was prepared according to the procedure reported by
Ethylthiotrimethylsilane (6). The title compound was prepared in
analogy to the general procedure reported by Langer32 in 68% yield,
bp 127-1 3 I OC, and was found to be identical with a sample prepared
by the method of Abe1.33
1,2-Ethanedithiobis(trimethylsilane)(60). Procedure A. The title
compound has been prepared by the procedure of Glass via the silylation of ethanedithiol with hexamethyldisilazane employing imidazole
as a catalyst.Iod To obtain amine-free thiosilane by this procedure
redistillation of the product through a 10-cm Vigreux column, bp 80
"C (0.3 mmHg), was necessary to remove minor amine contaminants.25
Procedure B. To a nitrogen-purged, lOO-mL, round-bottom flask
equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a reflux condenser, and an addition
funnel was added 250 mL of anhydrous ether and 8.4 mL (0.42 g, 0. I O
mol) of 1,2-ethanedithiol. While the reaction flask was cooled in an
ice bath, 124 mL (0.20 mol) of n-butyllithium (1.61 M in hexane) was
added dropwise over 0.5 h. The reaction mixture was stirred efficiently
during this addition. After the mixture was allowed to stand at room
temperature for 3 h, 26.0 mL (21.8 g, 0.20 mol) of chlorotrimethylsilane was added and the mixture was heated a t reflux for I 2 h. A
filtration under nitrogen and a distillation [80 OC (0.3 mm), lit.10dbp
145-150 "C (40 mm)], gave 14.2 g (60%) of the desired thiosilane 60.
N M R (CCI4) 2.60 (s, 4, SCHz), 0.35 (s, 18, SiCH3).
1,3-Propanedithiobis(trimethyIsilane)(61). Procedure A. To a nitrogen-purged, 250-mL, three-necked, round-bottom flask, equipped
with a reflux condenser, a mechanical stirrer, and an addition funnel
was added 100 mL of anhydrous ether and 5.00 mL (5.40 g, 0.050
mol) of propanedithiol. While the reaction flask was cooled in an ice
bath, 50.0 mL of n-butyllithium (2.0 M in hexane) was added dropwise over a 0.5-h period. After allowing the reaction mixture to warm
to room temperature, 13.0 mL (10.9 g, 0.10 mol) of chlorotrimethylsilane was added over a period of 0.5 h with efficient stirring. After
a 24-h reflux period, a filtration under nitrogen followed by a distillation (bp 75 OC (0.02 mm)) afforded 5.0 g (40%) of the desired
thiosilane 61: N M R (CC14) 6 2.60 (t, 4, J = 6.0 Hz, SCH2), 2.92 (m,
2, CH2), 0.38 (s, 9, SiCH3).
Anal. Calcd for C9H24S~Si2:252.086. Found (MS, 75 eV):
Procedure B. The title compound was also prepared via the general
procedure of Glass.Iod To a dry 250-mL flask equipped with a condenser and a static nitrogen atmosphere was added 0.30 g of imidazole,
79.0 mL (61.1 g, 0.38 mol) of hexamethyldisilazane, and 10.0 mL
(10.8 g, 0.10 mol) of 1,3-propanedithiol. The reaction mixture was
heated at reflux for 24 h and distilled carefully through a IO-cm Vigreux (bp 75 "C (0.02 mm)) to give 21.6 g (85%) of the desired
thiosilane 61.
Preparation of KCN-18-Crown-6 Complex. The potassium cyanide-18-crown-6 complex was prepared by the dissolution of 1 equiv
of potassium cyanide in anhydrous methanol followed by the addition
of 1 equiv of 18-cr0wn-6.~~
Removal of the solvent under aspirator
pressure at 65 OC followed by subsequent drying under high vacuum
at room temperature for 5-10 min afforded an active catalyst. The
use of other solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or benzene failed
due to the apparent insolubility of potassium cyanide. Other soluble
salts such as tetra-n-butylammonium cyanide" are equally effective
as anionic initiators.
General Procedure for Cyanide Ion-Initiated Thiosilylation of
Saturated and a,&Unsaturated Ketones and Aldehydes. A dry, nitrogen-purged, round-bottom flask is charged with l equiv of ketone
or aldehyde and 1.05-1.1 equiv of alkyl or arylthiotrimethylsilane.
Upon addition of ca. 5 X
equiv of the solid potassium cyanide18-crown-6 complex (ca. I O mg of complex/60 mmol of ketone) the
reaction may be initiated. The reactions involving alkylthiosilanes and
carbonyl substrates are generally mildly exothermic and some external
cooling may be necessary. Upon completion of the reaction the adducts
were isolated by direct distillation of the product from the reaction
vessel at reduced pressure.
Ethylthiosilylation of n-Hexanal. Following the prescribed general
procedure, upon admixture of 3.34 mL (38 mmol) of n-hexanal, 7.0
mL (43 mmol) of thiosilane 6, and ca. 4 mg of the cyanide-crown
catalyst a mildly exothermic reaction ensued. Upon cooling to room
temperature, the solution was distilled, affording 7.40 g (82%) of the
0-silylhemithioacetal 18: bp 75 "C (0.5 mm): IR (neat) 1245, 835,
750cm-' (SiCH3); N M R (CC14) 6 4.72 (t, 1, J = 5.5 Hz, CHOSi),
2.45 (q, 2, J = 7 Hz, SCHz), 0.07 (s, 9, SiCH3).
Anal. (C11H260SSi):C, 56.53; H, 11.25.
Phenylthiosilylation of Isobutyraldehyde. Following the prescribed
general procedure, upon admixture of 5.0 mL (55.1 mmol) of isobutyraldehyde, 10.4 g (57 mmol) of phenylthiosilane 20, and I O mg of
the cyanide-crown catalyst a slow reaction ensued. After 20 h at 25
"C N M R analysis showed the reaction to be 90% complete. Distillation afforded 11.3 g (81%) of the 0-silylhemithioacetal21; bp 71 "C
(0.05 mm); N M R (CC14) 6 7.45 (m, 5 , aromatic H), 4.95 (d, 1, J =
5 Hz, CHOSi), 1.98 (m, 1, CH(CH3)2),1. I 2 (d, 6, J = 7 Hz, CH3),
0.1 (s, 9, SiCH3); exact mass (70 eV) m/e calcd for C1221OSSi,
254.1 161, obsd 254.1 157.
Ethylthiosilylation of Benzaldehyde. Following the prescribed
general procedure, upon admixture of 5.0 mL (49 mmol) of benzaldehyde, 8.4 mL (52 mmol) of ethylthiotrimethylsilane (6), and I O mg
of potassium cyanide- 18-crown-6 complex an exothermic reaction
ensued. Upon cooling the product was distilled, affording 1 1.2 g (95%)
of the 0-silylhemithioacetal22: bp 73-74 OC (0.02 mm); IR (neat)
1245, 747 cm-I (SiCH3); N M R (CCI4) 6 7.38 (m, 5 , aryl H ) , 6.02
(s, I , OCH), 2.45 (m, 2, SCH2), 1.20 (t, 3, J = 7 Hz, CH2CH3), 0.20
(s, 9, SiCH3).
Anal. (Cl2H3oOSSi): C, 59.68; H , 8.27.
Phenylthiosilylation of Acrolein. Following the prescribed proce-
Journal of the American Chemical Society / 99:15 / July 20, 1977
dure, to a stirred solution of 14.5 g (79.6 mmol) of phenylthiosilane
20 and 5.0 mL (77 mmol) of acrolein (freshly distilled) was added I O
mg of cyanide-crown catalyst with external cooling. After 5 min the
reaction was heated at reflux for 15 min. Distillation afforded 5.7 g
of starting sulfide and 9.8 g (86%) of a 3.1 mixture of E/Z 1,4-adducts
23: bp 87-89 "C (0.02 mm); IR (neat) 1653, 1248, 842, 737 cm-l
(SiCH3); N M R (CC14) E isomer 6 7.28 (m, 5, aryl H ) , 6.20 (t of d,
1, J = 12 and 1 Hz, C=CHOSi), 3.42 (d of d, 2, J = 8 and 1 Hz,
SCH2), 0.13 (s, 9, SiCH3); NMR Z isomer 6 7.28 (m, 5, aryl H ) , 6.21
(t of d, 1, J = 6 and 1 Hz, C=CHOSi), 3.62 (d of d, 2, J = 8 and 1
Hz, SCHI), 0.22 (s, 9, SiCH3).
Anal. (CIIH180SSi): C, 60.36; H, 7.56.
Phenylthiosilylation of Crotonaldehyde. According to the general
procedure I O mg of cyanide-crown catalyst was added to a mixture
of 11.5 g (63 mmol) of phenylthiosilane 20 and 5.0 mL (61 mmol) of
crotonaldehyde. Upon dissolution an exothermic reaction ensued.
Distillation afforded 13.9 (90%) of a 3:l mixture of E/Z 1,4-adducts
2 4 bp 90-92 OC (0.02 mm); IR (neat) 1655, 1248,744 cm-'; NMR
(CC14) E isomer 6 7.31 (m, 5, aryl H ) , 6.02 (d, 1, J = 12 Hz, C=
CHOSI), 4.88 (d of d, I , J = 12 and 8 Hz, =CH), 1.38 (d, 3, J = 7
Hz, CCH3), 0.07 (s, 9, SiCH3).
Anal. (C13H20OSSi): C, 61.78; H, 8.06.
Ethylthiosilylation of Crotonaldehyde. The procedure followed in
the present case was identical with that described for the preparation
of adduct 24. From 3.0 mL (36.7 mmol) of crotonaldehyde and 7.0
mL (43 mmol) of ethylthiosilane 6 there was obtained 6.75 g (90%)
of a 2: 1 mixture of Z and E 1,4-adducts 2 5 bp 86-94 OC (9 mm); IR
(neat) 1645, 1249,840,750 cm-I; N M R (CCI4) Z isomer 6 6.10 (d,
1, J = 5.5 Hz, OCH), 4.30 (d of d, I , J = 9 and 5.5 Hz, HC=CHO S ) , 1.21 (d, 3, J = 7 Hz, CCCH3), 0.12 (s, 9, SiCH3); N M R E
isomer 6 6.14 (d, I , J = 12 Hz, C=CHOSi), 4.75 (dof d, J = 12 and
9 Hz, HC=CHOSi), 1.15 (d, 3, J = 6.5 Hz, CCCH3), 0.12 (s, 9,
Anal. (C9H2oOSSi): C, 52.87; H, 9.96.
Phenylthiosilylation of Methacrolein. According to the general
procedure I O mg of cyanide-crown catalyst was added to 3.5 g (50
mmol) of methacrolein and 10.0 g (55 mmol) of phenylthiosilane 20.
Upon catalyst dissolution an exothermic reaction ensued. After stirring
at room temperature for 1.5 h, the product was isolated by short-path
distillation to give 1 1.9 g (9 1%) of a 3.5:1 mixture of E and Z isomers
2 6 bp 99-100 OC (0.05 mm); N M R (CDC13) E isomer 6 7.35 (m, 5,
aryl H ) , 6.12 (m, I , C=CHOSi), 3.50 (s, 2, CHlS), 1.78 (d, 3, J =
2 Hz, CH3), 0.15 (s, 9, CH3Si); NMR Z isomer b 7.35 (m, 5, aryl H ) ,
6.12 (m, 1, C=CHSi), 3.60 (s, 2, CHzS), 1.72 (d, 3, J = 2 Hz, CH3),
0.23 (s, 9, CH3Si); exact mass (70 eV) m/e calcd for C12H2oOSiS
252.1004, obsd 252.1001.
Phenylthiosilylation of Tigaldehyde. According to the general
procedure 9.9 g (54 mmol) of phenylthiosilane 20,5.0 mL (52 mmol)
of tigaldehyde, and 0.1 g of triphenylphosphine, upon admixture,
resulted in an exothermic reaction. After 30 min the adduct was distilled at reduced pressure to afford 11.9 g (86%) of a mixture of Z and
E isomers of 27 in a 2:7 ratio, respectively: bp 83-84 OC (0.02 mm);
IR (neat) 1658, 1249,845,745 cm-'; N M R (CC14) major isomer 6
7.28 (m, 5, aryl H ) , 5.90 (m, 1, C=CH), 2.67 (q, l , J = 7 Hz, SCH),
1.63 (d, 3, J = 1 Hz, C=CH2), 1.40 (d, 3, J = 7 Hz, SCCH3). 0.05
(5, 9, SiCH3); N M R minor isomer 6 7.28 (m, 5, aryl H ) , 5.98 (m,I ,
C=CH), 4.70 (q, I , J = 7 Hz, SCH), 1.57 (d, I , J = I Hz,
C=CCH3), 1.35 (d, I , J = 7 Hz, SSCH3), 0.15 (s, 9, SiCH3).
Anal. (C12H220SSi):C, 63.08; H , 8.38.
Ethylthiosilylation of Tigaldehyde. The procedure followed in the
present case was identical with that described for the preparation of
adduct 27 except that the crown-cyanide initiator ( I O mg) was employed. From 8.5 mL (53 mmol) of ethylthiosilane 6 and 5.0 mL (52
mmol) of tigaldehyde there was obtained 10.4 g (92%) of a 3: I mixture
of E and 2 isomers of 28: bp 62-64 OC (7 mm); IR (neat) 1655,1248,
750 cm-I (SiCH3); N M R (CC14) E isomer 6 6.10 (m, 1, C=CH),
3.27 (q, I , J = 7 Hz, SCH), 1.53 (d, 3, J = 1 Hz, C=CH3), 1.22 (d,
3, J = 7 Hz, SCHCH3), 0.13 (s, 9, SiCH3); N M R Z isomer 6 6.08
(m, 1, C=CH), 4.22 (q, 1, J = 7 Hz, SCH), 1.48 (d, 1 , J = 1 Hz,
C=CCH,), 1.1 5 (d, 3, J = 7 Hz, SCHCH3), 0.1 3 (s, 9, SiCH3).
Anal. (CloH220SSi): C, 54.93; H, 10.05.
Phenylthiosilylation of Methyl Vinyl Ketones. Following the prescribed general procedure, t o a cooled (0 "C) mixtureof 10.01 g (55
mmol) of phenylthiosilane 20 and 3.5 g (50 mmol) of freshly distilled
methyl vinyl ketone was added 20 mg of the crown-cyanide catalyst.
Upon dissolution of the complex an exothermic reaction ensued. After
stirring at 25 OC for 1 h the adduct 29, 10.95 g (86%), was isolated
as an isomeric mixture: bp 85-86 "C (0.02 mm); IR (neat) 1660 cm-I;
N M R (CC14) b 7.32 (m, 5, aryl H ) , 4.70 (t, I , J = 7.5 Hz, HC=COSi), 3.62 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, CH2S, minor isomer), I .88 (d, J = I Hz,
C=CCH3, major isomer), 1.76 (s, C=CCHj, minor isomer), 0.3 (s,
SiCH2, major isomer), 0.27 (s, SiCH3, minor isomer); exact mass (70
eV) m/e calcd for Cl2H200SSi 252.1004, obsd 252.1003.
Phenylthiosilylation of 2-Cyclohexenone. Following the prescribed
general procedure, to a mixture of 2.0 mL (10 mmol) of phenylthiosilane 20 and 1.0 mL ( I O mmol) of 2-cyclohexenone was added
1 mg of crown-cyanide complex. Upon catalyst dissolution a mild
exothermic reaction ensued. After 2 h the reaction had proceeded to
completion (<99%) as judged by N M R analysis. With this particular
enone triphenylphosphine was not an effective initiator at room
temperature. Molecular distillation (I50 'C (0.04 mm)) afforded the
1,4-adduct 30 (2.63 g, 95%), contaminated with ca. 5% of 20: IR
(neat) 2940, 1650, 1250, 1200,895,845 cm-l; N M R (CC14) 6 0.30
(s, 9, siCH3), 2.00 (m, 6, CH2), 3.95 (m, I , CH), 4.95 (d, I , J = 4 Hz,
=CH), 7.35 (m, 5, aryl H ) . Since adduct 30 appears to be thermally
labile, it is advised that the crude reaction mixture be employed in
subsequent chemical transformations.
Phenylthiosilylationof 2-Cyclopentenone. Following the prescribed
general procedure, to a mixture of 1.03 mL (5 mmol) of phenylthiosilane 20 and 0.4 mL (5 mmol) of 2-cyclopentenone was added
1 mg of crown-cyanide complex. After the exothermic reaction subsided the reaction was allowed to stir for 2 h. N M R analysis indicated
that the reaction had proceeded clearly to the desired 1,4-adduct 31.
Molecular distillation (I50 OC (0.03 mm)) afforded I .23 g (87%) of
31 contaminated with ca. 3.5% of 20, which was formed by thermal
reversion: IR (neat) 2955, 1650, 1342, 1263, 1250, 860, 845 cm-I;
NMR (CC14) 6 0.32 (s, 9, SiCH3), 2.29 (m, 4, CHl), 4.33 (m, I , CH),
4.73 (d, 1, J = 2 Hz, =CH), 7.35 (m, 5, aryl H ) .
General Procedure for Zinc Iodide Catalyzed Carbonyl Thioketalization. To a dry, nitrogen-purged, 25-mL flask is added ca. I O mg
(0.03 mmol) of anhydrous zinc iodide and I O mmol of ketone or aldehyde in 5 mL of anhydrous ether. To this solution is added 22 mmol
of the appropriate monothiosilane, RSSiMe3 (6,8, or 20), or 1 I mmol
of the appropriate dithiosilane, R(SSiMe3)l (60 or 61) via syringe over
a I-2-min period. After a reaction time of 12-24 h the reaction is
quenched with water and the product isolated by ether extraction. The
products may be purified either by distillation or by chromatography
on alumina (activity 111, hexane elution). Other solvents such as
chloroform and acetonitrile are equally effective in this reaction and
their use is cited in specific experiments.
n-Heptanal Dimethylthioacetal (32). From 2.28 g (20 mmol) of
n-heptanal and 5.29 g (44 mmol) of methylthiosilane 8 there was
obtained 3.38 g (88%) of 32 as a colorless oil: bp 48 OC (0.06 mm);
IR (neat) 2975-2850, 1475-1420, 970, 760 cm-I; N M R (CDC13)
6 3.60 (t, 3, J = 6.5 Hz, CH), 2.05 (s, 6, CH3S), 1.85-0.67 (m,
Anal. (CgHzoS2): C, 56.1 I ; H, 10.58.
n-Heptanal Diethylthioacetal (33). From 1.40 mL ( I O mmol) of
n-heptanal and 3.60 mL (22 mmol) of ethylthiosilane 6 there was
obtained 2.03 g (92%) of the thioacetal 33 as a colorless oil after
chromatography and molecular distillation (90 OC (0.02 mm)): IR
(neat) 2960-2860, 1450, 1260cm-I; NMR (CCI4) 6 3.75 (t, I , J =
7.0 Hz, CH), 2.68 (q, 4 , J = 7.0 Hz, SCHl), 1.40 (m, 13, CH2), 1.30
(t, 6, J = 7.0 Hz, CH3).
Anal. (CllH24S2): C, 59.78; H, 10.85.
2-Heptyl-1,Sdithiane (34). From 1.40 mL ( I O mmol) of n-heptanal
and 3.01 mL ( I 1 mmol) of bisthiosilane 61 there was obtained 1.53
g (75%) of 34 as a colorless oil after chromatography: IR (neat)
2960-2862, 1462,1418, 1274,907 cm-l; NMR (CC14) 6 4.00 (t. 1,
CH), 2.82 (m, 4, SCHl), 2.00 (m, 2, SCH2CH3), 1.50 (m, 10, CH2).
0.95 (t, 3, CH3).
Anal. ( C I O H ~ O SC,~ 58.85;
H, 9.79.
(35). From 0.9 1 mL ( I O mmol)
of isobutyraldehyde and 3.2 mL (22 mol) of methylthiosilane 8 there
was obtained after chromatography and molecular distillation (80
OC (0.04)) 1.28 g (85%) of thioacetal 35: IR (neat) 2960-2870, 1460,
1435,767 cm-l; N M R (CC14) 6 3.42 (d, I , J = 6.0 Hz, SCH), 2.1 1
(s, 6, SCH3), 1.97 (m, I , CH), 1.15 (d, 6, J = 6.0 Hz, CH3).
Anal. ( C ~ H I ~ Sc ~, 47.88;
H, 9.42.
l,l-Diethylthio-2-methylpropane(36). From 0.9 1 mL ( I O mmol)
of isobutyraldehyde and 3.6 mL (22 mmol) of ethylthiosilane 6 there
was obtained after chromatography 1.65 g (92%) of thioacetal 36 as
Evans, Truesdale, Grimm, Nesbitt
Thiosilanes f o r Carbonyl Protection
a colorless oil: IR (neat) 2962-2930, 1450, 1260 cm-l; N M R (CCI4)
6 3.62 (d, 1, J = 5.0 Hz, CH), 2.64 (q, 4, J = 8.0 Hz, SCHz), 2.05 (m,
1, CH), 1.28 (t, 6, J = 8.0 Hz, SCH2CH,), 1.10 (d, 6, J = 5.0 Hz,
Anal. (cgH18S2): C, 53.69; H, 9.87.
2-Isopropyl-1,3-dithiane(37). From 0.91 mL (10 mmol) of isobutyraldehyde and 3.01 mL (1 1 mmol) of bisthiosilane 61 there was
obtained after chromatography 0.11 g (70%) of thioacetal 37 as a
colorless oil: IR (neat) 2960-2820, 1452, 1415, 1272,905,765 cm-I;
NMR (CC14) 6 3.60 (d, 1, SCH), 2.80 (t, 4, SCH*), 2.05 (m, 1, CH),
2.05 (p, 2, S C H ~ C H Z )1.15
, (d, 6, CH3); exact mass (5 eV) m/e calcd
for C7Hl4S2 162.054, obsd 162.055.
Benzaldehyde Dimethylthioacetal (38). From 2.1 2 g (20 mmol) of
benzaldehyde and 5.29 g (44 mmol) of methylthiosilane 8 there was
obtained after molecular distillation (35 "C (0.03 mm)) 3.29 g (90%)
of 38 as a pale yellow oil: IR (neat) 3075,3040,3000,2925,1500,975,
950,700 cm-l; N M R (CDC13) 6 7.47-710 (m,5, aryl H ) , 4.74 (s, 1,
HC(S)2), 2.02 (s, 6, SCH-).
Anal. ( C ~ H I ~ SC,~ 58.83;
H , 6.64.
Acetophenone Diethylthioketal(39). From 1.16 mL (10 mmol) of
acetophenone and 3.60 mL (22 mol) of ethylthiosilane 6 there was
obtained after chromatography 2.1 1 g (93%) of ketal 39 as an oil: IR
(neat) 3055,2965-2930, 1582, 1440,695 cm-'; N M R (CCI4) 6 7.60
(m, 5, aryl H ) , 2.62 (q, 4, J = 7.5 Hz, S C H 3 , 2.10 (s, 3, CH3), 1.30
(t, 6, J = 7.5 Hz, CH3).
Anal. ( C I ~ H ~ ~ C,
S Z63.41;
) : H, 7'80.
3,3-Diethylthiopentane (40). From 1.05 mL (10 mmol) of 3-pentanone and 3.60 mL (22 mmol) of ethylthiosilane 6 there was obtained
after chromatography 1.74 g (91%) of 40 as a colorless oil: 1R (neat)
2965-2870, 1450, 1370,812 cm-I; NMR (CC14) 6 2.60 (q, 4, J = 7.5
Hz, SCHz), 1.65 (q, 4, J = 8.0 Hz, C H z ) , 1.25 (t, 6, J = 7.5 Hz,
CH3), 1.00 (t, 6, J = 8.0 Hz, CH3).
Anal. (C9H20S2): C, 56.41; H, 10.28.
2,2-Diethyl-1,3-dithiane (41). From 1.05 mL (10 mmol) of 3-pentanone and 3.01 mL ( I I mmol) of bisthiosilane 61 there was obtained
after chromatography 1.67 g (95%) of thiane 41 as a colorless liquid:
IR (neat) 2970-2825,1450,1418,903,877 cm-l; NMR (CCI4) 6 2.75
(m, 4, SCHz), 1.95 (m, 2, CH2), 1.90 (q, 4, CHz), 0.95 (t, 6, CH,);
exact mass (75 e v ) m/e calcd for CgH1& 176.069, obsd 176.069.
1,l-Dimethylthiocyclopentane(42). From 0.89 mL (10 mmol) of
cyclopentanone and 3.2 mL (22 mmol) of methylthiosilane 8 there
was obtained after filtration through alumina and molecular distillation (39 OC (2.0 mm)) l .52 g (93%) of ketal 42 as a colorless oil: IR
(neat) 2960-2870, 1435, 1418 cm-'; N M R (CC11) 6 2.05 (s, 6,
SCHj), 1.90 (m,8, CH2).
Anal. (C7H14S2):C, 52.03; H , 8.68.
1,l-Diethylthiocyclohexane(43). From 1.04 mL (10 mmol) of cyclohexanone and 3.60 mL (22 mmol) of ethylthiosilane 6 there was
obtained after chromatography 2.00 g (98%) of the ketal 43; bp 35
"C (2.0 mm); IR (neat) 2970-2860, 1442, 1260, 1257, 1005 cm-l;
NMR (CC14) 6 2.60 (q, 4, J = 7.5 Hz, SCHl), 1.75 (m, 10, CHz),
1.27 (t, 6, J = 7.5 Hz, CH3).
Anal. (CloHzoS2):C, 58.42; H , 9.57.
2,2-DiethyIthio-4-methyl-4-trimethylsilyloxypentane(44). From
1.16 g (10 mmol) of diacetone alcohol and 5.4 mL (33 mmol) of ethylthiosilane 6 there was obtained after chromatography 2.72 g (92%)
of 0-silylated diethylthioketal44 as a colorless liquid: IR (neat) 2980,
2930, 2870, 1445, 1250, 1170, 1035, 858, 840, 750 cm-I; N M R
(CC14) 6 2.65 (q, 4, J = 7.5 Hz, SCHz), 2.05 (s, 2, CH3), 1.70 (s, 3,
CH2), 1.45 (s, 6, CH3), 1.30 (t, 6, J = 7.5 Hz, SCH2CH3), 0.20 (s,
9, SiCH,); exact mass (75 eV) calcd for C9H18S2 (P+- C3HloOSi)
204.101, obsd 204.101.
(45). From
2.1 g (30 mmol) of a-methacrolein, 3.97 g (33 mmol) of methylthiosilane 8, and 10 mg of anhydrous zinc iodide in ether at 0 OC there
was isolated after short-path distillation 4.07 g (82%) of the 1,4-adduct
45 as a colorless oil: bp 82-83 OC (3 mm); IR (neat) 2960,2930, 1675,
1440, 1260, 1195, 1150, 880, 850, 765 cm-l; the N M R revealed a
34:66 mixture of E and 2 isomers; NMR (CDC13) 6 6.1 (m,1, =CH),
3.15 and 2.93 (s, 2, SCH*), 1.92 and 1.85 (s, 3, SCH3), 1.57 (m,3,
Anal. (C8Hl&SSi): C, 50.44; H, 9.63.
5or-Androstane-3,17-dione 3-Dimethylthioketal(47).From 697 mg
(2.58 mmol) of dione 46 and 649 mg (5.42 mmol) of methylthiosilane
8 there was obtained a crystalline monothioketal which was purified
by chromatography on silica gel (10% ethyl acetate-benzene). The
Journal of the American Chemical Society
resultant ketal 47, mp 156-158 OC, 0.870 g (92%), appeared to be
homogeneous on TLC. A small sample was recrystallized from ethyl
acetate-hexane to give clear platelets: mp 157-159 OC; IR (KBr)
2980-2840, 1735, 1475-1380,1062, 1020,785 cm-I; NMR (CDCI,)
6 2.05 (s, 3), 1.93 (s), 2.42-0.53 (m, 22), 0.83 (s), 0.80 (s).
Anal. ( C Z I H ~ ~ O C,
S ~68.82;
) : H, 9.22.
lOt-Methyl-(5rC')-spiro[4.5]decane-1,7-dione 7-Dimethylthioketal
(49). From 1.03 g (5.73 mmol) of dione 48 and 1.57 m L ( 1 2 mmol)
of methylthiosilane 8 in acetonitrile solvent and zinc iodide as an
initiator there was obtained a yellow oil which was chromatographed
on silica gel (10% ethyl acetate-pentane elution). The desired crystalline monothioketal49 which was obtained as a crystalline solid was
sublimed (40 OC (0.5 mm)) to give 1.38 g (93%) of fine colorless
needles: mp70-71 "C; IR (CCI4) 3000-2850,1735,1480-1415, 1160,
800, 765 cm-l; N M R (CC14) 6 2.42-1.17 (m, 13 H), 2.00 (s), 1.95
(s), 0.68 (d, 3, J = 6.0 Hz).
Anal. (C13H220S2): C, 60.38; H, 3.54.
Reaction of 4-Androstene-3,17-dione (50) with Ethanebisthiosilane
60. From 274 mg (0.96 mmol) of dione 50 and 0.28 mL ( 1 . 1 mmol)
of ethanedithiosilane 60 in chloroform (ZnI2 catalysis) there was
obtained a mixture of crystalline adducts. Chromatography on silica
gel (1:2 petroleum ether-benzene) afforded 25 mg (5%) of the crystalline bisthioketal 52, mp 170-174 OC (lit. 174-176 0C):22 IR
(CHC13) 2962-2850, 1635, 1433, 1130, 1105 cm-I. Further elution
with benzene-ethyl acetate (19:l) afforded 328 mg (94%) of the 3monothioketal51, mp 170.5-171.5 OC (lit. mp 173-174.5 OC)? IR
(CHC13) 3000-3850,1735 (s) ( C N ) , 1635 (w) (C=C), 1433, 1370,
1130, 1105 cm-l; N M R (CDC13) 6 5.55 (s, 1, =CH), 3.35 (m. 4,
SCH2), 2.50-1.20 (m,19), 1.08 (s, 3, CH3), 0.90 (s, 3, CH3).
Reaction of Progesterone (53)with Ethanebisthiosilane 60. From
3 15 mg (1 .O mmol) of dione 53 and 0.28 mL (1.1 mmol) of ethanebisthiosilane 60 in chloroform (ZnIz catalysis) there was obtained a
mixture of monoketal54 and bisketal55. Chromatography on silica
gel (1:2 petroleum ether-benzene) afforded the crystalline bisthioketal
55 in 4% yield: mp 175-179 OC (lit. 179-181.5 0C):22IR (CHCI3)
2970-2860, 1635 (w), 1130, 1105 cm-l. Further elution with benzene-ethyl acetate (19:l) afforded 366 mg (94%) of the crystalline
monoketal 54: mp 177-181 OC (lit. 184-186 oC);zz IR (CHCI3)
3000-2850, 1690 (s), 1130, 1105 cm-'; N M R (CDC13) 6 5.50 (s, I ,
=CH), 3.28 (m, 4, SCHz), 2.10 (s, 3, COCH3), 2.50-1 .OO (m,20),
1.00 (s, 3, CH3), 0.60 (s, 3, CH3).
General Procedure for the Synthesis of 0-Trimethylsilyl Hemimethylthioketals. To a dry 25-mL flask is added ca. 10 mg (0.03
mmol) of anhydrous zinc iodide, 10 mg (0.15 mmol) of imidazole, and
10 mmol of ketone or aldehyde in 5 mL of anhydrous ether. To this
stirred solution is added 22 mmol of the appropriate thiosilane.
General reaction time of 1 h at 25 OC are observed. The products may
be isolated by dilution of the reaction mixture with ether followed by
a water extraction and distillation of the resultant O-silylhemithioketal. Variations in the amine buffer (cf. hexamethyldisilazane) and
reaction solvent (cf. chloroform) may be made.
(57). Following the
general procedure outlined for the synthesis of 0-silylhemithioketals.
from 1.96 g (20 mmol) of cyclohexanone and 2.7 g (22 mmol) of
methylthiosilane 8 there was obtained the adduct 57. Filtration of 57
through alumina (activity 111) with hexane and molecular distillation
(45 OC (0.01 mm)) afforded 3.84 g (88%) of 57 as a colorless liquid
which was homogeneous by GLC: 1R (neat) 2950-2855, 1441, 125 1,
1244, 1089, 1050,835,750 cm-l; N M R (CCI4) 6 2.10 (s, 3, SCH3),
1.70 (m, IO, CH2), 0.25 (s, 9, SiCH3); exact mass (75 eV) m/e calcd
for C9H19SiSO 203.092, obsd 203.092.
Acknowledgment. Support from the National Science
Foundation and National Institutes of Health is gratefully
References and Notes
(1) Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar recipient (1971-1976).
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1 July 20, 1977
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(4) This statement does not imply that there is necessarily any mechanistic
(5) (a) J. Tsuji, M. Hara, and K. Ohno, Tetrahedron, 30, 2143 (1974); I. Ojima
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S. S. Washburne and W. R. Peterson, Synth. Commun., 2, 227 (1972); (1)
L. Birkofer, F. Mulier, and W. Kaiser, Tetrahedron Lett., 2781 (1967).
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H. Sakurai, A. Okadu, M. Kira. and K. Yonezwawa, ibid., 1511 (1971); (b)
P. F. Hudriik and R. Feasiey, ibid., 1781 (1972); (c) Yu. K. Yur'evand 2.V.
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Dickopp, Chem. Ber., 102, 14 (1969); (e) L. Blrkofer, A. Ritter, and H. Uhienbrauch, ibid., 06,3280 (1963); (f) L. Birkofer, A. Ritter, and H. Wieden,
ibid., 05, 971 (1962).
(9) For a comprehensive review of the synthesis and properties of organo sulfur
derivatives of the group 4 atoms see: E. W. Abei and D. A. Armitage, Adv.
Organomet. Chem., 5, 2 (1967).
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I. Oiima. M. Nihonyangi, and T. Nagai ibid., 50, C26 (1973); (d) R. S. Glass,
ibid., 61, 83 (1973).
(1 1) There is a disappointing lack of accurate bond energy data available for
silicon derivatives: cf. E. A. V. Ebsworth in "Organometallic Compounds
of the Group IV Elements", Vol. 1, Part 1, A. G. MacDiarmid, Ed., Marcel
Dekker, New York, N.Y., 1968. Chapter 1. Equilibration studies have
suggested that the Si-S and C-S bond energies are comparable; M.
Schmeisser and H. Muller, Angew. Chem., 60, 781 (1957).
(12) (a) i. Ojima and Y. Nagai, J. Organomef. Chem., 57, C42 (1973); (b) T.
Mukaiyama, T. Takeda, and K. Atsumi, Chem. Len., 1013 (1974); (c) T.
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Abel and D. J. Walker, ibid., 2338 (1968); (f) K. itoh, K. Matsuzaki, and Y.
Ishii, J. Chem. SOC.,C, 2709 (1968).
(13) For a brief description of related reversed polarity equivalents see: D. A.
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synthetic utility of phosphonium salts wiii be published in due course.
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and H. Dickopp, bid., 101, 3579 (1968).
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SOC., 62, 1140 (1940).
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C. L. Liotta, H. P. Harris, and F. L. Cook, J. Org. Chem., 30, 2445
(20) T. Mukaiyama, K. Banno, and K. Narasaka, J. Am. Chem. SOC.,06,7503
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(25) As a cautionary note, in those thiosilane syntheses which involve aminecatalyzed thiol siiylation (cf. ref lOd), trace amine contamination in the
2 RSH + (Me3NZNH
2 RSSUle3
product can lead to spurious resuits wherein O-silylhemithioketais are
produced under attempted acid-catalyzed thioketalization.
(26) R . S. Glass, Synth. Commun., 6,47 (1976). Professor Glass has kindly informed us that these thermal and imidazole-catalyzed thiosilane carbonyl
insertion reactions do not appear to be general for ketonic substrates.
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iodide (EtpO, 25 OC) after 24 h.
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Reactions of Fluoroethylenes with
Strong Bases in the Gas Phase
S. A. Sullivan and J. L. Beauchamp*'
Contribution No. 5468 from the Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics,
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91 125.
Received December 27, 1976
Abstract: Ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy (ICR) has been used to examine reactions of fluoroethylenes with strong bases
in the gas phase. Observed reaction types include proton transfer, elimination, and nucleophilic attack leading to substitution
and elimination. The latter yields enolate anions as ionic products. Product distributions are determined for reactions of fluoroethylenes with CD3O-, CH3CH20-, (CH&CHO-, (CH3)3CO-, and F-. Acidities of fluoroolefins relative to alcohols and
fluoroethanes are reported. Rates for the nucleophilic addition reaction of CFzCF2 with alkoxide ions have been measured. In
addition, reactions of a series of perhalogenated chlorofluoro- and bromofluoroolefins with CD3O- have been studied. Probable mechanisms of the elimination and nucleophilic addition reactions are discussed in terms of observed reactivity.
There is evidence for the intermediacy of charged
in many chemical transformations.2 Accordingly, reactivity
is often explained in terms of the thermodynamic stabilities
and charge distributions of such intermediates. In solution, the
medium of most ionic reactions, these properties are strongly
moderated by solvation. Studies of gas phase ionic reactions
allow a correlation between intrinsic molecular properties and
reactivity. Ion cyclotron resonance spectroscop; (ICR) is well
suited for such investigations.
Recently we examined gas phase reactions of fluoroethanes
with strong bases such as NHz-, OH-, F-, and RO- (R =
Sullivan, Beauchamp
/ Reactions of Fluoroethylenes with Strong Bases