APUSH Natives Review

Ancient and Colonial Period
Native Development
Bering Land Bridge (25,000 BCE)
1. Leads to massive migration from Asia to Americas
nomadic lifestyle
1. followed or exploited available resources
agricultural lifestyle
1. based on maize cultivation
native society and culture
1. virtually equal division of labor between men and women
i. men hunted
ii. women tended to children, crops, legal matters
2. some tribes based on matrilineal system
3. nature-based belief systems
Eastern Woodlands
1. Iroquois League
i. Five/six nation confederacy
2. Cherokee and Creek in southeast
1. moundbuilders
Great Plains
1. based on bison hunting
1. Anasazi/Pueblo
European Colonization
a. European Conquest
i. Technically advanced weapons and horses
ii. European diseases, such as smallpox, decimated native populations
1. decimated 95% of native populations
b. European enslavement of Natives
i. Used natives for brutal farming conditions and mining
1. unsuitable for type of labor and escaped conditions
ii. Encomienda system
1. Spanish crown provided land and natives to work it
c. Christianize the natives
i. Spaniards determined to expand Catholicism
ii. English attempted to Christianize natives
iii. Most natives dismissed Christianity and persevered nature-based beliefs
d. French and Natives in Quebec/Canada
i. Less invasive than Spanish in conversion to Catholicism
ii. Entered in alliance Huron and Algonquians for mutual benefit
iii. French eventually conquered fur trade from natives
Early English Colonies
a. First colonies depended on relief and assistance from natives in initial development
b. Jamestown
i. Engaged in conflicts with Powhatan Confederacy
ii. Marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas relieved some tensions
c. Pilgrims and Puritans in Massachusetts
i. Relied initially on assistance from natives, including the Pokanokets with Squanto
ii. Engaged in trade and conflict with the Wampanoag
Colonial Encounters and Relationships
a. Pequot War in Massachusetts (1634-1638)
i. Puritans nearly wiped out Pequot tribe in drive for expansion
ii. Massacre at Mystic (1637)
1. annihilated over 400 Pequot men, women, children
b. Quakers in Pennsylvania
i. Believed in equal and fair treatment for natives
ii. Mixed results with natives, including treaty violations in acquisition of Delaware land
c. Virginia
i. Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
western farmers and fur traders attack natives leading to conflict between
western colonists and colonial easterners and governor
King Philip’s War in Massachusetts (1675-1676)
i. Metacomet/King Philip launched attacks in retaliation for English incursions
ii. After Metacomet’s death, colonists devastate native alliance
Pueblo Revolt (1680)
i. Spanish colonial governor persecuted Pueblo natives for their religious practices
ii. Pueblo natives launched an attack and drove Spanish out of New Mexico for 50 years
Revolutionary and Constitutional Period (1750-1800)
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
a. Albany Plan of Union (1754)
i. Benjamin Franklin’s plan to unite colonists for mutual defense against French and natives
ii. Attempted to form alliance with Iroquois
iii. Never was approved by reluctant colonial governments
b. native alliances
i. mostly sided with the French
1. developed friendly and mutual relationships economically in fur trade business
2. preferred French treatment over English and colonists
ii. changing sides
1. as war favored English, natives started switching sides in hopes of preventing
English retaliation
c. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)
i. After English victory, the English raised prices on goods for natives and refused to pay
rents in frontier
ii. Pontiac of the Ottawa launched a rebellion in Ohio Valley
1. attacked from Michigan to Virginia
2. suppressed by British troops
iii. led to Proclamation of 1763
1. prohibited colonial development west of the Appalachian Mountains to prevent
further native incursions
American Revolution
a. Natives tended to side with British in fear of American aggression and expansion if colonists
b. Some natives helped colonists in guerilla warfare tactics
c. Treaty of Paris (1783)
i. Land claims made between U.S. and Britain but no representation by natives in peace
Early Republic
a. Northwest Ordinance claimed land between Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
i. Led to wars with Miami Confederacy until 1795
1. Treaty of Greenville after Battle of Fallen Timbers proclaimed most of
Northwest Territory as American
ii. Led to increased native relations and alliances with the Spanish across the Mississippi
b. U.S. Constitution
i. Mentioned no guarantee of rights, privileges, and citizenship for natives
c. Washington’s view on natives
i. Believed natives to be individual equal, but society lagged behind
ii. Preferred natives adopt American culture and practices
1. endorsed assimilation programs along with Secretary of War Henry Knox
iii. Strongly enforced and supported treaties with natives
1. Pinckney’s Treaty/Treay of San Lorenzo (1796)
a. Treaty with Spanish to prevent conflicts with natives on the
Mississippi frontier
iv. Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts (1790s)
1. enforcement of treaties and trade relations
2. establishment of civilization programs
3. Benjamin Hawkins was an appointed federal officer to initiate and promote
civilization programs
Antebellum Period and Manifest Destiny (1800-1900)
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
i. Granted U.S. lands from Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains
ii. Jefferson believed in assimilation into American culture as natives should leave nomadic
lifestyle for agricultural lifestyle
1. Civilization Fund Act (1819)
a. Federal subsidies for reform groups designed to “civilize” native
iii. Will lead to future encounters and conflicts with Plains natives
War of 1812
a. Tecumseh’s War (1810-1813)
i. Alliance with Britain to prevent further American expansion
ii. Tecumseh unified many tribes and significantly defeated Americans in numerous battles
iii. Prophet, Tecumseh’s brother, led native religious and cultural revival to lend more
iv. Battle of Tippecanoe led to William Henry Harrison’s fame
v. Native alliance fell apart after Tecumseh’s death
b. Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814)
i. Andrew Jackson and U.S. army against Creek tribe led to Americans establishing control
in Alabama and Georgia
Early Expansion under Manifest Destiny
a. First Seminole War (1814-1819)
i. Led to Andrew Jackson’s invasion of Spanish Florida
1. Spain ceded Florida in 1819 under Adams-Onis Treaty
b. “Five Civilized Tribes” in the South
i. Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, Chicasaw
ii. Cherokee Nation
1. established sovereign government within Georgia, developed written language,
converted to Christianity, developed agricultural lifestyle including slave
c. Native Policy and Removal
i. Office of Indian Affairs/Bureau of Indian Affairs (1824)
1. established to enforce treaties and civilization programs under the Department
of War, later Department of Interior
ii. Indian Removal Act (1830)
1. Remove natives and resettle into Indian Territory/Oklahoma
2. Enforced to remove tribes from land lush with resources, including gold
iii. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
1. ruled Cherokee Nation a dependent nation but not subject to original
jurisdiction as an independent nation
iv. Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
1. established tribal sovereignty within the state of Georgia and subject to federal
v. Trail of Tears (1835-1838)
1. thousands of natives from the Five Civilized Tribes virtually forced to walk and
travel from Georgia to Oklahoma under supervision of U.S. Army
2. many died along the way due to sickness and conditions
vi. Second Seminole War (1835-1842)
1. in retaliation for native removal, Seminoles attacked Americans and forts
across Florida
2. reservation established for Seminoles in southwest Florida
vii. Third Seminole War (1855-1858)
1. further American encroachment agitated Seminoles who launched attacks
2. led to further removal of Seminoles with very little remaining in Florida
viii. Roger Taney and Supreme Court
1. ruled natives possess right to become naturalized citizens of the United States
2. had ruled blacks/slaves could not become citizens in Dred Scott decision
Late Expansion and Indian Wars
a. Civil War (1861-1865)
i. Most natives sided with Union with belief they would be given sympathy and
opportunities by the federal government after the war
ii. General Ely Parker of the Seneca tribe drafted articles of surrender between General
Robert E. Lee and General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox
Expansion on the Frontier
i. Homestead Act of 1862, Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862, and Transcontinental Railroad
Act led to massive expansion and settlement in Louisiana Territory land, Mexican
Cession land, and Pacific Northwest land
1. led to numerous encounters and conflicts with various native tribes
ii. Oklahoma Land Runs (1889-1893)
1. closing of frontier led to federal government opening up Indian Territory lands
to settler claims
iii. Indian Appropriations Act of 1871
1. ended additional official recognition of tribal sovereignty and nationality and
iv. Native tribal characteristics
1. most based on nomadic lifestyle
2. assimilated horses to develop transportation and hunting
3. Plains natives dependent on buffalo/bison herds for meat and fur
v. Native pride and revivalism
1. Sitting Bull of Sioux protested and conflicted with American expansionism and
2. Wovoka’s Ghost Dance Movement
a. Developed chants and dances to gather spiritual support to drive out
b. Viewed as a serious threat to U.S. Army and American interests
Indian Wars
i. Conflicts with Comanche and Kiowa in Texas
ii. Conflicts with Apache and Najavo in the Southwest
1. Geronimo surrenders in 1886
iii. Conflicts with the Nez Perce, Spokane, Yakama, Nisqually, Cayuse in Pacific Northwest
iv. Sioux Wars in Great Plains
1. Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
a. Volunteers attacked and murdered over 200 Cheyenne and Arapaho
2. Battle of Little Bighorn (1876), part of Great Sioux Wars
a. General George Custer ambushed and annihilated by Crazy Horse
and Sioux
3. Wounded Knee Massacre (1890)
a. U.S. army opened fire on 300 Sioux, including elderly, women, and
Americanization of Natives
i. Senator Henry Dawes
1. Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
a. Authorized President to survey native land to break up tribal lands for
individual land grants
2. Dawes Commission
a. Negotiated with natives as a whole rather than individual tribes
b. Negotiated with natives to relinquish tribal collective lands into
individual parcels
i. Natives suffered from adapting to agricultural lifestyle
c. Established assimilation programs and “white” educational programs
ii. native boarding schools
1. Carlisle Indian Industrial School (1879)
a. Assimilation through total immersion
i. Learn reading, writing, arithmetic, Christianity in English
b. Given American style clothing, grooming and haircuts, taught
i. Forbade native language and cultures
20TH Century Native Relations and Progress
I. Society of American Indians (1911)
A. Advanced native political and economical opportunities through education and beyond tribal traditions
B. Established by students of Indian boarding schools
II. Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
A. Officially granted citizenship to natives
III. Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
A. Reversal of land privatization under Dawes Act and return to tribal land claims
B. Preservation of native cultures and end assimilation programs
IV. Natives in World War II
A. Native citizens drafted into the war
B. Navajo Code used for communication against Japanese who never deciphered it
C. Economic expansion during the war enticed young natives off tribes into cities and factories leaving
behind traditions and customs
V. National Congress of American Indians (1944)
A. Organization based on establishing a Pan-Native alliance to go beyond tribal differences for national
concerns and causes
VI. Federal government attempted to reestablish assimilation programs in the 1950s in lieu of Second Red Scare, Cold
War, and conformity
A. Led termination policy of treaties and tribal claims
VII. American Indian Movement (AIM) in 1973
A. Inspired by Civil Rights Movement to promote native unity and end to discrimination, prejudice, and
VIII. Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (1975)
A. Increased sovereignty over tribal lands
B. Ended termination policies