the best types of subsistence job

Copyright page
First published by Silver Robot Books 2015
Unit 12, Beaconsfield Studios,
25 Ditchling Rise, Brighton BN1 4QL
Copyright © Ethan Crane 2015
Ethan Crane has asserted his rights to be identified as
the author of this book.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in
a review, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
Ethan Crane can be contacted at [email protected]
Thinking back to the kind of careers advice I received at school
and university – the kind that is still received in schools and colleges
everywhere – it seems incredible that I trusted this advice at all. I
may not have had a high opinion of the teacher offering the advice –
generally a bored individual who repeated by rote the same information
to student after student, and who appeared anything but enamoured
of their own career choice – but I certainly took on board the subtext of
what I was told: work hard to pass exams, in order to go to university,
to get a good degree that provides you with a more prestigious career. I
drank in the automatic conclusion that a more prestigious career meant
work that I enjoyed, that I loved to do – and that such work would make
me happy. Full-time paid work in my chosen profession would be the
foundation of a fulfilled life of self-esteem.
But my trust of traditional careers advice was not simple naiveté.
There was no other advice to trust. There were no alternative
suggestions, and these were unlikely, since the teachers and university
leavers offering the advice had traditional careers themselves.
Everything suggested that without full-time employment, without ‘a
career’, you had somehow failed, because paid work was of the highest
2 introduction
importance – an idea symbolised in the instinct when meeting a new
acquaintance to ask, ‘so what do you do?’, meaning, ‘what paid work
do you do?’. Even without such careers advice I would have wanted a
full-time career. This was what all adults did, or at least all the adults I
knew as a teenager.
Even when I tried to find a career in work that I loved, and fulfilment
and self-esteem were not forthcoming, still I did not consider the
careers advice faulty. In my twenties I had career jobs in television, film
and publishing, where I thought there a greater chance of enjoying the
work, as these industries sent products into the world that I admired
and personally valued. But when these careers were not fulfilling I did
not blame careers themselves – I simply thought I had not yet found the
right one.
But this was not the reason. Because although I loved to tell other
people I worked in television or film or publishing, the reality was that
it was little better than any other job. In any career, regardless of the
actual tasks involved, it is the work culture – the work environment, the
relations between staff, the organising principles, the amount of work
– that affects the possibilities of fulfilment more than anything else.
All of my careers, however prestigious, suffered the same problems:
boredom, frustration, and lack of control of my life outside work.
I was not the only one disappointed: many of my friends with
other great careers seemed even more disappointed. The doctors and
teachers with socially-rewarding work appeared to have forgotten the
promise of fulfilment just as quickly, in professions where the reward
was supposedly built in. They rarely spoke of reward – when they did
mention their work it was to bemoan the stress, organisational problems
or idiotic managers. Our careers were sometimes exciting in theory, if
we considered them at times when not actually doing the work. But
they did not make us thrilled to get up in the morning.
If my peers and I had forgotten the promise of careers advice, had
forgotten the reason we worked so hard to find this disappointing
career job in the first place, then the fact that our paid work dominated
and controlled our lives had a more serious consequence: if there was
little fulfilment and self-esteem forthcoming, there was also no time left
to search for it anywhere else. Our careers, and recovering from our
careers, took up all of our time.
It was only in my thirties that I began to understand that any career,
any job that involved full-time work for someone else could never be
fulfilling. Full-time work for someone else always came with certain
features that meant fulfilment and self-esteem were unlikely – whatever
the actual work involved. This led me to the idea that if the prestige
4 introduction
of a career made no difference to fulfilment from the work, then why
bother competing for the prestigious career in the first place? I would
be better off earning money in work that left me time for other areas of
life that did fulfil me. The ‘good’ careers are so all-encompassing they
leave little room for all the small actions that contribute to your own
well-being, and to a healthy society: keeping up with family and friends,
playing a part in your community, and most of all doing work of your
own (probably unpaid), of whatever kind, that is valuable to you.
Because work is the source of joy, of a fulfilled life – as long as this
work allows for innovation, and is work that you yourself genuinely
value. This book is for anyone who desires to do this kind of work,
who wants to spend a portion of their week engaging their brain in a
manner that does not feel wasted, for the joy of it, and not just to make
a living. It is partly a memoir of why my careers were so unfulfilling,
my experience of how work culture makes innovative work within
companies so difficult. And it is partly my solution to this problem. I
found my working life needed to consist of two different types of work:
unpaid fulfilling work devised from my own ideas and interests; and then
the less important work, for money, which I needed in order to survive.
The combination of these two types of work leads to what I think of as a
self-made career, which balances the needs of both – but always treats
the fulfilling work as the most important.
As with all advice, this is simply what worked for me. Not everyone
desires innovative work of their own to find fulfilment – some people
crave a career working for someone else for the structure it gives their
life. But it took me a long time to realise what I had given up for this
structure. And I think there are a lot of other people out there who think
like me, people with ideas and ambitions who took on full-time careers
without any real knowledge of the bargain they struck, and who wonder
what happened to their lives. A self-made career could work for many
people, people who deep down know there is other work they would
rather do. When I look at the lives of the adults I know, the ones who
appear happiest, who have the most self-esteem, it is very rarely the
people with high-pressure full-time jobs, whatever profession they work
in. It is the people with self-made careers, where at least a proportion of
their week is set aside for innovative work, which is more important than
the work they do for money, who seem happiest.
This alternative advice feels even more relevant now as more and
more school-leavers are under pressure to go to university, to mire
themselves in five-figure debt in order to secure one of these traditional
careers. University is not essential for many self-made careers. And
the important lessons learnt there – about confidence, self-reliance,
6 introduction
sociability and so on – can be found elsewhere at a fraction of the price.
Desperately applying for an elusive graduate career job straight from
university is not part of a self-made career.
The urge to write this book was the urge to go back in time
and hand it to my younger self, just graduated from university and
hopelessly oblivious to the realities of a traditional career. I hope it
goes some way to granting permission – to emphasising that you do
not need permission – to people like my younger self, to encourage
them to go ahead and focus on the work they are truly interested in.
Not for money, but because it is valuable to you in other ways. Perhaps
it applies mostly to graduates, because graduates are at the sharp
end of this argument: the most educated, and so with the greatest
expectation of fulfilment from a career. To those told at school they are
clever enough to be doctors, or lawyers or engineers or whatever, but
who have their doubts whether being this thing, a doctor or lawyer, is
really what they want for their life. But joy from work is not limited to
graduates at all. Even though it is certainly dependent upon learning,
this does not necessarily mean learning in formal education. Nor is it
dependent on academic ability, the ability to pass exams. But I hope
it is also useful to people who find themselves stuck in an unfulfilling
career, at whatever age, to emphasise that the same permission still
Traditional careers advice is right about one thing: work is the
source of fulfilment and self-esteem. But it must be innovative work,
and work that is valuable to you, from your ideas. It may (or may not) be
rewarded by money, but this is not why you started it. When you have
a proportion of each week set aside for work that you value, be it paid
or not, how you earn money to support yourself becomes much less
important. This is the life of the happiest people I know.
8 introduction
1. No Value, No Innovation
2. Creative Careers are Not Creative
3. Rewarding Careers are Not Rewarding
4. No Control
5. Subsistence Work
6. Live Cheaply
7. University is Not Essential
8. The Joy of Work
9. Success
Notes and further reading
1. No Value, No Innovation
To the young graduate who has just secured their first career job –
after months or maybe even years of trying – I must appear a deluded
idiot. There you are, with a signed contract that grants you access to a
shiny building, where you are asked to perform intellectually-challenging
tasks in collaboration with other adults. Where in return you receive
a salary each month, more money than you have been paid for any
previous job. When you begin your first career, the idea that it is a
tyranny over your life is far from your mind. On the contrary, you almost
certainly feel fabulous.
This is how I felt when, eighteen months after leaving university I
landed a job at a London television channel. It was my first job with
reasonable pay, and the work required of me was interesting, certainly
in comparison to the other temporary jobs I had done in the past. And
what of the conditions I worked in? This was not a cold warehouse or
a sweltering kitchen: this was a warm office environment, with my own
desk and computer, and endless supplies of free tea and coffee. The
people with whom I worked were on the whole very friendly, and even
though I was the most junior employee I had a fair amount of autonomy,
in that I decided how I scheduled my work, and made decisions about
how the work was done. Even if this was not yet work that I loved
and valued there seemed the possibility of advancement closer to
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work that was truly fulfilling. Maybe I would end up making television
programmes! And besides, the fact that someone trusted me to perform
my tasks was, in itself, a type of fulfilment. Compared to the exhausting
and monotonous labour of my relatively close ancestors, this was
Indeed it appeared that my first career job might actually fulfil the
promises of traditional careers advice. And no one, but no one, was
offering anything other than congratulations for my obtaining my first
proper, salaried job. In my and everyone else’s eyes, I was a success.
It was only after a few months that I stopped to consider what this
job had done for me. Firstly, I may have loved some of the programmes
made by the channel – but I was not making those programmes. I was
predicting the audience ratings for each programme, predicting how
many people, and more importantly what demographic of people, might
watch them, in order that the sales team could sell the advertising slots
in between. I had told myself, as well as my friends and family, that I
had the glamorous position of working in television – and most people
knew no more than that, had no idea what I actually did there.
In addition this career had fixed my life into a rigid structure. I was
now used to the idea that I worked five days a week and rested at
weekends. My social life had, in part, become entangled with the social
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lives of my work colleagues. But although I never consciously thought
about the promise of that traditional careers advice, that promise of
self-esteem, it was a vague, unspoken thought in my subconscious.
What exactly was this job I was doing? Providing data via a computer
that a sales team used to extract a better price from their advertisers.
Was this ‘work that I loved’? The work was in part about statistics, and
I had a degree in maths. But did this mean I loved the work? A more
generous view of my day-to-day tasks may have said that I helped
the sales team make more money for the company, which contributed
towards making more television programmes. But I did not feel like
I was making any contribution to high-quality programme making,
however many speeches from the managing director tried to make me
feel that way. Besides, I only liked some of the programmes the channel
broadcast – most I did not value at all.
Once the initial glamour of the job faded – the Friday drinks, the
occasional lunches on my boss’ company credit card, the adjustable
executive chairs – it was not at all clear of the source of this self-esteem
from work. Perhaps, I thought, I had mistakenly jumped into the first job
I found, and this was not a job that I loved after all. But I could always
find another job. What did a job that I loved really look like?
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Traditional careers advice implies that ‘work that you love’ is the
same as ‘work whose day-to-day tasks require the skills for which you
have an aptitude’. Society had a method to identify my abilities – as I
progressed through education I narrowed down the subjects I studied,
until I was left with just maths at university, my most proficient skill. All
that was left to do in order to be happy was find a job that made use of
my mathematical abilities.
I am exaggerating, of course. But although it is an exaggeration
to say that school’s only purpose is to identify our most proficient
talent, so that we can use it in a career, it is not much of one. And it
highlights the main problem of traditional careers advice, because the
interpretation of ‘work that you love’ is so much more than ‘work for
which you have an aptitude’.
This is not to say that you do not find fulfilment if you pursue work
that uses an identified talent. A computer programmer enjoys the
efficiency of their code, an English student the elegance of their prose,
a zoology student the opportunity to work with animals. But just as
important to whether you ‘love the work’, to whether it fulfils you, is the
purpose of the work, and the process by which you create it.
My identified talent was maths, and I found a job that used maths to
analyse television viewing statistics. Did this analysis make me happy?
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No. I was not using my love of maths in my work, I was crunching
statistics (I never even liked the statistical side of maths), and I was
doing so to help broadcast television programmes, most of which I
thought worthless.
It is the same for the vast majority of other professions. A computer
programmer may take pleasure in the efficiency of their code, but that
coding is to display the products for an online supermarket. An English
student may take pleasure in the succinctness of their copy in their
public relations job, but that copy is to promote the benefits of a new
anti-depressant for a pharmaceutical company. A mathematician may
take pleasure in their ingenious algorithm for buying investment futures
in the City, but they have perhaps just contributed in their own small
way to further instability in the global financial markets.
‘I saw the best minds of my generation... writing spam filters.’
writer Neil Stephenson
Traditional careers advice does not consider the purpose of your
work as important in whether or not you might love it. Or at least it fails
to acknowledge that out of all the careers you might follow, very few
involve end results that you personally value. There are some careers
that produce products and services that people personally value:
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filmmakers, book designers, website coders, and so on (more on these
in chapter 2), and there is a category of socially-rewarding careers:
doctors, teachers, charity workers, and so on (more on these in chapter
3). But of the vast majority of other careers, although labelled good
by society, it is difficult to see how you personally value the end result
of the work: lawyers, insurance brokers, accountants, salespeople,
bankers, computer programmers (this is not an exhaustive list in case
anybody thinks I am singling out these professions).
Of what exactly are you proud if you are a brand manager for
a pharmaceutical company, or if you balance the accounts for a
multinational corporation? If you devise a new mobile phone contract,
programme the software for an insurance website, or accurately predict
the ratings for a television channel? If any value is felt from this kind of
job it is not in the actual work done, but in the importance you feel by
possessing such a career – the value is about status, and is nothing at
all about the intellectual value of the work, or the value of the work to
the world at large.
I was oblivious to this fact: that genuine fulfilment from my career
was only possible if I knew the work had brought something good into
the world, if the work itself was valuable to me. When asked if I enjoyed
my job at the television channel, I rarely told the truth, that in fact I felt
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somewhat ashamed to work within the advertising sales team, that the
job brought me little self-esteem. Besides, it did bring me some selfesteem: I worked for a television channel rather than as a shelf-stacker
in a supermarket. I greatly valued my work when I told people I worked
in television – just not when I was actually at work. What I valued was
the social status of my job, rather than fulfilment from the task involved.
But status in a job with no genuine value is a sickly kind of self-esteem
– one that seeks happiness through being envied by others. And one
that can keep you in work for all your waking hours performing tasks
that mean nothing to you.
Traditional careers advice is not wrong. If you pursue work that you
love, because you think it is genuinely valuable, then fulfilment and selfesteem will follow. But I did not find genuine value in my careers: where
my employer determined my goals and tasks, and the speed at which I
fulfilled them, towards an end result that I did not personally value.
What I lacked – what I can now see that I lacked, though this
was not at all clear at the time – was the opportunity to innovate.
And to innovate in work that I truly felt important, rather than tasks
handed down to me. You could say I was innovating when asked in
my television job to create something new, but this is not the kind
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of innovation that provides genuine fulfilment. For genuine fulfilment
from innovation, the original idea must both come from you, from your
desire to see this thing in the world, in order that you personally value
the effects of the work, and must be moulded by you in order that it
is completed in a manner you still value. In a traditional career your
new idea does not originate from your desires, nor is it moulded and
approved by you – it must be passed around for approval, and is almost
certainly changed by others. And because you are part of a company,
your new piece of software, your more efficient method of predicting
ratings, or your new management structure is subsumed into the overall
running of the company in a manner that is barely visible. And more
importantly, valueless to yourself. You may be congratulated by your
boss, you may be paid a bonus – but you don’t feel fulfilment from the
Throughout the history of mankind improvements in our well-being
have been made by innovators, who start their own small businesses
because they saw a niche they could fill with their own particular skill.
And this still goes on today, with innovators creating internet startups, with modern day cottage industries, turning the work they love
into a living. (Problems confront us when we turn the work we truly
love into a living, but the work itself can still be genuinely innovative
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work.) True innovation happens when there is an open canvas in the
development of a new idea, and if the idea is yours. But this does not
happen in a traditional career for a large company. The founder of the
company may have felt the pleasure of innovation when they started
the company, there may have been innovation on the part of the first
few people whom they employed. But the people employed later, once
the company becomes bigger, enter a work culture where there is little
opportunity for innovation. First of all the corporate employee is almost
certainly employed in tasks that lead to niche goals they would not
choose themselves, tasks for which they have little desire to innovate.
But more damaging to an employee’s desire to innovate than this
is that they are part of a company system, a structure that requires
management and routine in order to work.
Large companies are the graveyard of innovation for the vast
majority of people who work there. CEOs may cry out about their
need for creative, innovative individuals, but a company’s need for
process, structure and efficiency trumps innovation every time. Genuine
innovation and creativity, the kind that provides fulfilment and selfesteem, needs time, freedom, the chance to make mistakes, and most
importantly to be based upon your own values. The opportunities for
this in a traditional career are close to zero.
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‘The reality is the best people who have great ideas in science don’t want to
work for a big company – if you want to work with the best people, you’re going
to have to go outside your own company.’
Chris Viebacher, CEO of healthcare company Sanofi
To innovate, to feel the pleasure of innovation, you need to decide
the goals and process of the work yourself. If you are someone who
has this urge, this means you will have to decide upon the nature of this
innovative work for yourself, without pay (at least at the start). Innovative
work does not feel like a job, like work you do for an employer. It is work
that you would do anyway, even if you were not being paid. And not
just work traditionally thought of as art – it is work that is creative, but
not necessarily music or painting or writing or anything else commonly
labelled creative. It is simply a goal for which you originated the idea.
But if worked at with discipline and intent it is a genuine source of selfesteem and happiness.
You may read this and think, ‘I have no idea of the nature of my
innovative work’. This is not a problem – the discovery can take time.
Many people have no idea, and think they never will. I had little idea
until I was in my thirties. Later chapters detail this floundering search, in
the hope that it may reduce this floundering time for others.
There is one place where the answer will not be found: in a full-time
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career where you work for someone else, at tasks that you did not
define, towards goals that you do not personally value.
‘Draw the art you want to see, start the business you want to run, play the music
you want to hear, write the books you want to read, build the products you want
to use – do the work you want to see done.’
writer Austin Kleon
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2. Creative Careers are Not Creative
When I eventually left my job at the television company to travel and
work abroad for a couple of years – envious of friends who had done
the same, and who appeared to have much a more exciting experience
even than ‘working in television’ – I had learnt at least one thing from
my first career: that a job in the sales department of a creative industry
is not a creative job. So when I returned to London to look once again
for a full-time career I was keen to find a job that I imagined was
genuinely creative. There may not have been creative roles in sales
department of a television channel, but television had creative roles in
other departments. The description of the profession told me so: it was
one of the creative industries. This was where creative, fulfilling work
must be found, in film, music, television, publishing and so on. Or so I
This idea must have had some validity, for countless other
twentysomethings had come to a similar conclusion, and sought the
same jobs as myself. Their and my motivations appeared sound: I
wanted to work on films, and I loved films. If I could manage to find
work with a film company whose output I admired, that would be
satisfying, wouldn’t it?
But this was another mistaken interpretation, much the same
as the idea that ‘working in television’ was about making television
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programmes: just because a film company had produced films I
personally valued, there was no guarantee that my work for them would
actually feel like helping to produce a film. Or rather: to say you have
worked on a film, that you did work where the end result was a film
released in the cinema, says absolutely nothing of your experience of
the process of that work, or how much fulfilment you felt as a result.
I wrote to a number of film companies, and got a break when a
couple of weeks work experience in a film company office allowed me
to corner a producer about to start shooting, and succeed in convincing
her I could be production runner on her film. Now it looked like I was
getting somewhere – I was moving towards actual creative work, on a
film, actually on a film set!
The first few weeks were exciting – I helped set up a production
office, I drove a production car around, I ran errands for the director.
The work even felt creative in some ways, as there was much I had to
organise myself, to make up on the spot – I never just sat in an office.
But though I may have thought otherwise, I was not doing a creative job
– the work was administrative. I created nothing of value myself. I was
assigned tasks and I completed them, sometimes in a ‘creative’ manner,
but never in a manner that I found fulfilling. The only fulfilment to be had
was fulfilment of the task itself, in order to satisfy whoever had given it
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to me.
And so it is for many, many jobs in the so-called creative industries:
these are administrative positions, not creative ones. There are
production runners, rights executives, scheduling executives, all manner
of assistants, and countless other roles where you are not required to
originate ideas. Or, you may be required to originate ideas, but they
are ideas that serve somebody else’s purpose. And this is not at all the
same as creative work of your own, the kind that brings fulfilment and
Genuine creative work is, I think, what we unconsciously seek as our
ultimate goal when we think ‘I want to work in the media’. Unless we
do so only for status, to rub up against famous people, so we can say
‘I work in film’. Many of the people I met on the film had the ambition to
end up in a genuinely creative role. I may have started my television job
analysing viewer ratings, but I had the vague abstract hope that one day
this might lead to directing my own programmes. The music industry
personal assistant hopes that one day it might be her who chooses
the next hot band to sign to their record label. And I thought that my
production runner job might one day mean I directed my own films, that
originated from my own ideas. This may have been naive – but I was
surrounded by plenty of other naive people who imagined that their job
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was the route to genuinely creative work. But the mythical creative roles
were scarce, were many years down the line. There were countless
layers in between and they were, for the large part, administrative roles.
That I was not actually creating anything in my production runner job
did not bother me in the beginning. The work was exciting – I was high
on the glamour of working in the film industry. But what quickly followed
was the dark side that comes with any glamorous, highly-prized job: my
cravenness to submit to overwork and mistreatment.
I was a completely willing victim. At the beginning of the production,
before there was any real work to do, I worked an 8 hour day, 5 days
a week. By the end of the film the whole crew worked 12 hour days,
6 days a week, and by that point I did not think it strange that no one
else thought this strange. I was tired and stressed all the time, had no
life outside of work, and the fatigue made me paranoid. I formed the
idea that other members of the crew were hoarding the creative, joyful
aspects of working on a film for themselves, and were keeping me, as a
lowly production runner, away from it all. The crew were, after all, hiding
the joy of their creative careers most expertly – behind masks of stress,
anger and misery. One of the assistant directors hid his own pleasure
behind drunken admissions on location of how much he missed his
three young children. Why did we want to work in the film industry when
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we had to work seventy-hour weeks? Was it that much fun? On the
contrary, I was not having much fun at all – I was exhausted, I couldn’t
sleep properly for thinking about all the things I had to do the next day,
and in addition worried because the tiredness meant I had repeated
minor accidents in the film set car. There were occasional bouts of
excitement, such as when we travelled to film on location – but always
within the fatigue of twelve-hour days. And twelve-hour days are the
norm in the film industry, because there are people willing to work them,
people like me. If anyone is not willing or complains, there are hundreds
of others happy to take their place, to fill that glamorous position.
But it was not just the long hours and having no time to see my
friends that I was happy to put up with: I was also happy to be bullied
and shouted at by more senior crew members, who had no doubt
suffered their share of bullying and shouting in their more junior years.
I was regularly screamed at by a stressed assistant director. Myself
and a production assistant silently took the blame for a taxi being late
to pick up an actor. Crew drinks in our location hotel included a game
called, ‘which crew member do you find most annoying?’. And all
these, by-themselves-insignificant moments were instances in a general
atmosphere of rigid hierarchy characterised by barking orders at people
and blaming them when they didn’t do the work quick enough. One day
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I joked to the production manager that working on a film was a bit like
being in the army – to which she replied, without a hint of humour, that it
was exactly like being in the army.
I say this less to complain – although I do like to complain about
such work culture – than to highlight the reality of working in an industry
like film, or any glamorous, creative career: that the more glamorous
the job, the closer you work with the famous or those who are actually
doing creative work, the more willing you are to put up with overwork
and abuse, in order to keep your glamorous job. The more people like
myself are willing to put up with this behaviour, the worse it becomes.
And we were willing, because we imagined we had found a career that
we loved.
I only have my own experience to go on, of course. Perhaps the
stress and prima donna behaviour and bullying were unusual on this
one film. But it did not seem much of a stretch to imagine that these
overworked senior crew members, in a profession that was ‘like
the army’, with little social life outside of the film industry, routinely
prevented from attending events such as weddings and funerals during
shoots (one cameraman got quietly married on our one day off a week,
presumably because he could not promise his wife-to-be that he would
be able to attend his own wedding), who were constantly stressed by
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demands from even more senior crew members, and so had developed
a attitude of guarded suspicion that everyone was constantly plotting to
make their life harder, were only going to behave like this on every film
on which they worked.
Despite all this, anyone I have spoken to who has worked on a film
said that the experience was ‘great’. Sometimes, ‘hard work, but great’,
but still great. I am as guilty of this as anyone. I love to tell people I once
worked on a film – my status rises considerably. ‘You’re the type of guy
who has the nous to get them themselves a job on a film’, I hope to
see them thinking. Why would I want to dampen this opinion with the
follow-up line that the job was a bit, no, hang on, very rubbish?
What lesson did I learn from the fact that my quest for a fulfilling
career – a successful quest in as much as I had found my dream job
– had turned out to be nothing of the sort? I learnt nothing at all. For
the miserable time I had working on the film, and for my inability to
take pleasure and self-esteem from the work, I blamed the hierarchical
structure of the film industry, the pandering to the demands of directors
and actors, the sour character of some of the crew members. I did not
blame careers, and the desire for them, in general. I still wanted a career
somewhere else, and imagined that out there was some fulfilling job for
which I could be paid a salary.
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Whilst unemployed after the film, without a career and wondering
what to do with myself, I tentatively began writing – to do work of my
own. I say began when what I mean is I started again, because I’d
enjoyed writing since I was young. But I failed to see this current writing
as a continuation, because when young I had written for fun, and
now I was writing in order to be published. Or so I hoped. Childhood
writing was for the pleasure of writing, adult writing was for publication,
prestige, with the ultimate goal to earn a living, to avoid working in a job
I did not like.
Of course the writing did not go well. I wrote stuff, a few stories,
tried to write a film script, but who was going to publish it or make it
into a film? What I had written was not even finished properly. And
even if I did finish it properly who the hell was going to pay me for it?
Writing felt too much like hard work. Wasn’t creative work supposed to
be pleasurable? I discounted the few times when I did find pleasure –
in the moments where it looked like an idea might make a good story,
when elements were in place that meant I wrote a whole page without
really thinking. But as soon as I looked back at these scraps that did
not resemble anything publishable, the moments of pleasure were
It was something of a relief when a lack of money meant I needed a
30 c h ap t er 2 | C reat i v e C areers are n o t C reat i v e
job again. Now I would no longer have time to fail to find pleasure from
my own creative work. I found a temp job in the scanning department of
a London book publishers, where I scanned photographs and artwork
for the book cover designers. This was far from the frantic army-style
film industry. The scanning work was boring, but the designers were
friendly, and I was working at a book publishers. A company that
publishes books! And I love books! Here, surely, were people who
worked in a creative job where they genuinely valued the end result.
Here cover designers spent their days dreaming up ideas for how best
to illustrate the ideas contained in these books. Judging by the number
of applicants for any vacant positions, the role of book cover designer
was one the most coveted creative jobs going. Had I inadvertently
stumbled upon people with genuinely fulfilling careers?
Yet the designers did not seem rapturous about their jobs. They
did not bounce in early each morning before they were meant to start,
eager to get to work – they slumped in early to ensure all their designs
were finished on time. Their work was certainly creative – they created
a design that previously did not exist – but any fulfilment from that work
was suffocated by the pressure of deadlines, jarred by the constant
interruption of emails, phone calls and meetings, and diminished by
the criticism and tinkering of editors. Their creative work was not their
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own – it was controlled by other people, and this made a big difference
to the fulfilment they took from the work. What also differentiated such
design work from genuine creative work was that for the majority of
the time the designers created covers for books they did not value
themselves. They may be happy with the cover they designed – but the
existence of that book in the world, the content and ideas of the book,
were rarely important to them.
What of the art directors, who were able to choose which covers
they designed, and so whom you think might genuinely value their
work? The hope of the junior worker in a creative career is that if they
work hard, if they are given more responsibility, they will then have the
chance to use their own creative ideas, to do innovative work that they
truly value. But the art directors were actually in a worse position, since
their working time was even more constrained. They did not spend their
days ‘dreaming up ideas’. Much of their time appeared to be spent in
meetings, making snap decisions through economic considerations,
decisions made according to the values of the company, which were to
sell as many of their products as possible. Seniority did not allow them
to feel more of the pleasure of creative work. Any value was much more
due to glamour, to the status of their position as art director.
The problem appeared to be tied up in this word ‘creative’. The
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categorisation of the profession of designer or art director implies
creativity, implies that the job consists of innovative work. But although
something new is created, the culture that I observed, within which this
creation took place, did not allow for fulfilment. The work culture sucked
it away. Innovative work that does provide fulfilment requires time for
thinking, time for making mistakes, time to forget the time. None of this
is possible in a creative career working for someone else. Not unless
you take the work home and innovate in your own time, for no extra
Perhaps you think my expectations are too high. That I am naive
to expect a book publisher to allow its designers free rein over covers,
that I should acknowledge that many people would be delighted to
earn a living designing books. But this is not really my point – what
is important is that the art students and design graduates who found
these prestigious jobs rarely seemed delighted with their work. One
graphic design graduate told me of the enormous difference there
was between the encouragement he received from college tutors, to
originate and think creatively, and the derivative, run-of-the-mill work
demanded of him in his creative career, obliged as it was to follow
fashion and marketing needs. After a few months, when the glamour of
working on books subsides, a new designer appears to forget that they
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once used to enjoy the creation of something from nothing, appears not
to notice that the freedom to innovate that they had in college is almost
entirely absent in their creative career. They settle into drawing a salary
like any other careerist. And because they now have a demanding
career, they have no spare time for genuinely creative work of their own,
for using the innovative impulse that they cultivated at college. There is
no spare time, or what there is does not leave enough mental energy for
their own work.
The day-to-day reality of work in creative careers is hidden – in
particular from those who have never previously had a career. A career
in the media, in the creative industries is little different to any other,
because the work cultures of all careers share similar characteristics:
overwork, constant interruptions and little room for innovation. When
the highly successful computer games company LucasArts closed
in 2013 after 30 years, the former employees wrote eulogies to the
company. Amongst the most enlightening were those that described
how marriages failed, pregnancies were delayed and funerals missed
because of the dedication to their work. These people missed their
friends’ weddings, changed their plans to have children, because
of their dedication to their paid work? This is the nature of a ‘great’
creative career? How can this be a great career, with such a work
34 c h ap t er 2 | C reat i v e C areers are n o t C reat i v e
culture. More importantly, why go to such effort to land a highly-prized
career when it is possible to find work fulfilment for yourself?
There was a more insidious consequence of my desire for a creative
career, my desire to do work that aligned with my personal values. I
thought that because I valued books and music and films these values,
my tastes, could play a part in the work of this career. But they did not.
They had no bearing on my work at all. I had not considered that I was
extremely unlikely to ever work on books or films that I genuinely liked,
that there was little chance for me to pick and choose the books or
films on which I worked. My personal values were of no use in these
creative industries, and no one was interested in my taste or values.
In fact in these industries you are required to suppress your personal
values. I had to be enthusiastic about the making of a film which I
thought was rubbish. The marketing executive in book publishing learns
to declare all books they help publish as ‘fantastic’, regardless of their
personal opinion. The publicity executive forces himself to ‘like’ the
music of the boyband he must promote. To work for companies in this
way, your values must become the company’s values. You must forget
your own opinions of the company’s products, and later, if you stay for
the length of a career, you must forget that you have forgotten, or else
go mad.
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The people who do genuinely creative work – the writers, directors,
producers, actors, musicians who make the films or music that I value
– none of them achieved their success by just taking a graduate job
straight from university and working their way up. A director may end up
working for a film company which assists them in their vision for their
creative work. `But the actual creativity itself, the thinking, the sifting of
ideas, the work of structuring these ideas into something that can be
publicly presented – this process is not learnt and developed within a
nine-to-five career. This creative process started in the creator’s own
time, as an essential part of their life, unconnected to the need for
money, and will continue that way, even when they do earn money.
A job in a creative industry can still be a way to earn money – just do
not expect the work to provide your life with fulfilment and self-esteem.
And understand that the commitment that such jobs demand from your
life, in ways that mean time for your own work is limited. Treat your own
work as more important, and let other work, for money, take second place.
‘Art suffers the moment other people start paying for it. The more
you need the money, the more people will tell you what to do.
The less control you will have. The more bullshit you will have to
swallow. The less joy it will bring.’ illustrator Hugh MacLeod
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3. Rewarding Careers are Not Rewarding
My first career in the film industry was also my last. To my surprise
I was offered a job on the producer’s next film, despite my frequent
fatigued-induced accidents in the production car. And despite my
miserable experience on the film, the fact I had little time to see friends,
and that I had not slept properly for the duration of the job and had
forced myself to work when I was ill, still I found it a wrench to say no.
I needed to earn money. And hadn’t I loved to tell people that I was
working on a film? Even a dreadful film that I would never watch again?
But I said no, and instead looked around at my other options, looked
to the working lives of my friends for ideas, particularly those who had
trained as teachers, and doctors, or who worked for charities, or any
other career where they genuinely valued the end result of their work.
I wondered if their idea of ‘work that you love’, of work that provided
genuine fulfilment, was a better one. Because the end result of their
work – educating a child, curing the sick, alleviating poverty – had
results that appeared to match my friends’ personal values, to match
my friends’ reasons for working in these professions. Their reasons had
the same goals as the organisations for which they worked. Did these
socially-rewarding professions not have their fulfilment built-in?
If my teacher and doctor friends were fulfilled by their careers they
hid it well. There must have been some fulfilling moments of their
c h ap t er 3 | R ewarding C areers are not R ewarding
jobs – a doctor’s satisfaction at preventing further sickness or death,
a teacher’s enjoyment when they saw a child grasp a new concept –
but if these moments existed, they never discussed them. If teachers
talked about their work at all it was to curse a new head teacher for
creating more work through changes to the school’s structure, or to
lambast the government for new education policies that extended their
responsibilities or restricted their teaching. Or they apologised that they
could not socialise much in the week because they had marking to do.
Often the doctors said nothing at all – because they were no longer able
to socialise with the rest of us, due to the antisocial hours of their shifts.
But that was if friends in rewarding careers talked about their career
at all. More likely was they tried to forget about their work, just as the
rest of us did. Because although there was a worthwhile goal in their
work, the moments when the work was truly rewarding were just that –
moments. The rest of the time the rewards were swamped by the same
problems of work culture: the pressure of deadlines, emails and phone
calls, the lack of control of your time, the work politics, the impact of
organisational restructuring. Not to the point where the doctors and
teachers wished they worked in banking or butchery, because they still
took some satisfaction from the status and respect that they deserved
for the benefits they brought to society. But to me, as an outsider, the
40 c h ap t er 3 | R ewarding C areers are not R ewarding
stresses of their jobs always appeared to overshadow the fulfilment and
self-esteem, that holy grail promised by traditional careers advice.
My conclusion was that if you want to be an inspiring teacher, or
a cause-championing journalist, or work for a worthwhile charity, the
worst way to go about this, the way that will best kill the love of this
kind of work, is to apply for a job straight from university and pursue
these ambitions as a full-time career. Because again the work culture
of the full-time rewarding career allows little room for the development
of innovative work, of the kind that benefits the world in the manner
of your own choosing. The lessons a new teacher wants to teach are
suffocated by the demands of keeping thirty-plus children in line and
adhering to teaching guidelines. The well-intentioned rookie journalist is
perhaps never sent to cover stories they think truly important. Vets do
not spend all day petting animals.
I say the above as though I had this all mapped out at the time, as
though these were my clearly-defined reasons for not re-training in
one of these rewarding professions (I went as far as phoning up for the
application pack for teacher training.) These were not the reasons – my
decision-making process at the time involved little in the way of reason.
My motives for not applying were in part due to not knowing how I
might financially support myself, and even more due to not knowing
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how I might fit teacher-training around the fun of being twentysomething
in 90’s London. Nowadays I count myself lucky to have escaped,
when I can see what these rewarding careers have done to the lives of
my friends. The psychological commitment demanded by a sociallyworthwhile job makes the burden of this type of career in some ways
worse than a non-rewarding profession. Those in rewarding professions
take it upon themselves to put in more effort, more unpaid overtime,
more mental energy – perhaps with the subconscious calculation that
increased effort and commitment will mean an increased sense of
reward and fulfilment. Or they do not have the luxury to take this upon
themselves, these are just the realities of the job – a job that someone
else is happy to take, rewarding as it is labelled, if you are not willing to
put up with these conditions. So doctors sign a contract that commits
them to work twelve-hour shifts at unsocial hours and, during training,
to uproot their home life every few months to work at a different
hospital. Teachers, despite a short school day, still work at least a
forty-hour week, with most of these hours under stressful classroom
conditions, after which they mark work and attend parents’ evenings
outside of their contracted hours. (I don’t subscribe to the idea that the
long holidays in teaching make it worth the heavy work commitment. If
you’re only in the job for the holidays, what happened to doing the job
42 c h ap t er 3 | R ewarding C areers are not R ewarding
for the sense of reward?).
None of this extra commitment would be a problem if the joys of
rewarding work were forthcoming. But do any teachers and doctors
that you know appear more enchanted by their careers than anyone
else? On the contrary they endure this extra work because they feel
a commendable commitment to schoolchildren or hospital patients,
beyond the obligations of their work contract. But employers in
rewarding professions take advantage of this additional commitment,
and turn this willingness to care, this desire outside the bounds of an
employment contract, into a source of free extra labour, into a purely
business transaction. Not consciously – I am sure most managers
wanted to work in health or education for the same reasons, with
the same expectations of reward. The exploitation happens in two
directions: market forces allow employers to do so, since there is a large
pool of workers eager for a socially-rewarding career. And the careerist
allows themselves to be exploited, because at some level there is a
reckoning that their job ought to be hard, because they are allowed to
care, as part of their work. Are being paid to care. They rightly view their
profession as more than a contractual obligation, not just for earning a
salary, but also for improving society. But the employer sees their side
of the bargain as nothing more than a contractual obligation.
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None of this is apparent to the young graduate as they search for
their first job. The work culture of careers is unfathomable from the
outside. Traditional careers advice only advises on how to find your way
into a career – it says nothing about the work culture, the details of what
happens once you get there.
One of the great difficulties of earning money to live (perhaps of
living in general) is our human inability to recognise when we have made
a bad choice. Whenever I found myself in a job or situation that was
detrimental to me, was less than I hoped, was very far from work that
I loved, I was generally the last to know. All through my job on the film
set I found it easier to explain away my choice of career, to construct
reasons why this was, in fact, what I wanted to do. I explained away
my misery by telling myself that a film must be organised this way, that
the film’s importance as part of culture meant it was permissible, it was
necessary, that people behaved in an abusive and stressful manner.
That I was lucky to have such a great job. And the fail-safe excuse, kept
in reserve, was: well, I have to earn money somehow, don’t I?
Because when the conditions are stressful and unexpected,
we often stay in these careers, these careers we blindly chose as
naive young adults. Some of the teachers I knew left the profession,
demoralised with the reality, but many stayed. Part of the reason is the
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same as why anyone stays in a career: we need the money, and our
current job is the most sure-fire way of earning it. If you have invested
thousands of pounds of student loans and years of your life to train as
a doctor or teacher, the best opportunity for paying back these debts
is a career in that profession, irrespective of the working conditions.
It is hard to throw it all away and start again at the bottom in another
profession on no doubt lower wages. And then, even if you stayed in
this now-disliked profession only so long as it took to pay back the
debt, will you, after five or perhaps ten years, chuck it all in and start at
the bottom again somewhere else? It is unlikely.
‘We can so easily slip back from what we have struggled to attain, abruptly, into a
life we never wanted.’
Rainer Maria Rilke
For people in rewarding careers there is another reason to continue:
embarrassment. For some time before you start and all the time during
training, you are proud to tell others of your chosen career. Teacher or
doctor sounds much more impressive and interesting than insurance
salesman. The one occasion when I see people feel genuine selfesteem from their rewarding job is when asked, ‘what do you do?’. At
that moment they are sincerely proud of their career choice. But, as for
c h ap t er 3 | R ewarding C areers are not R ewarding
myself in my film job, not when they are actually doing the work.
Because how does it feel to tell those same people that you gave
up that career, when earlier you were so proud of the profession you
chose? It was this pride that had me almost agree to work on another
film. One doctor I know stayed in his career for nine years before he
quit: he said he had never enjoyed a single day of his working life, but
kept thinking, all through the years of 36-hour shifts on call and a ruined
social life, at some point his working life would improve. It never did, but
this took nine years for him to realise. An art teacher told me that in her
twelve years of teaching, before she quit, she could count perhaps five
students for whom she felt she had made a difference, with whom she
genuinely felt the pleasure of teaching. Is this enough to justify all your
hopes for fulfilment from such a career?
This is not how it is for everyone. But in my experience people
who derive genuine fulfilment and reward from their rewarding career,
for whom it is worth handing over their life and mental energy to their
paid work, are the exception, not the norm. Frustration, stress and
fatigue are the norm – a reality, as with creative careers, that is invisible
to graduates entering these professions. We make great efforts to
convince ourselves that our life choices have been good, and in the
case of careers extracting ourselves is made more difficult through
46 c h ap t er 3 | R ewarding C areers are not R ewarding
pride and financial constraints.
This pride has a hold over us for one main reason – we are
conditioned to think that paid work is life’s main source of pride, of selfesteem. We equate the social status of a career with the value of the
work itself, when these are two different values that work against each
other. Change this conditioning and we can easily quit.
I have to remind myself of the reason why I am so critical of socially-
rewarding careers – of why I appear to harangue those who choose to
become doctors or teachers or charity workers. Let me apologise for
anything I say that looks like criticism of the choice to follow a sociallybeneficial career, because these are admirable jobs to do, and vital to
society. And I know that some people do feel fulfilment and self-esteem
from full-time careers in these professions. But this book is not directed
at them. It is directed at all those whose expectations of fulfilment have
been failed in this type of job, to act as a warning to graduates who
consider such a career. Because, like me, you might follow the advice
to ‘find a job that you love’ and end up miserable and entrenched in a
profession that you once admired at a distance.
If you want to be a doctor or a teacher or to do any sociallyworthwhile job, do so – just do not expect it to be your life’s fulfilment.
Fulfilment is much more likely found outside of a career, in work you
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have originated yourself. This work of your own can itself be useful to
society, and useful in exactly the way you want it to, not bound by an
employer’s demands and all the compromises that entails. Your own
work may even be in the same field as your paid work – but if it is not
(at least in the beginning) part of a contract for money, if it is truly yours,
from your ideas, this is the work that will bring you self-esteem.
My desire for a career – any career – was, at root, about control. I
thought challenging work and a full-time salary were the means to take
control of my life. But I was wrong – I did not control my life. My career
controlled my life.
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4. No Control
During my early attempts to have a traditional career there was,
of course, one urgent motivation that trumped any vague ideas about
fulfilment or self-esteem. A career paid a salary, and a salary granted
me control of my life and the independence I craved. A salary allowed
me to live where and with whom I wanted, and the power to purchase
many things I desired – and at this time purchasing power was what I
needed to feel self-esteem and dignity. With the backing of a full-time
salary I could be myself, and pursue whatever ambitions I chose. So
long as I spent thirty-seven or more of my daylight hours each week
performing the tasks that earned me this salary.
I had a good social life – my salary gave me control in that regard.
But this was the only aspect of my life I controlled: the ability to
entertain myself, the ability to treat myself for the pain of working in a
full-time career. This was a pain I imagined might someday fall away, if
I found promotion in my career, and so moved on to more interesting,
more fulfilling work. Or this is what I might have imagined, had I thought
about it at all. But along with my peers I was too busy spending my
salary on entertaining myself. A correlation developed between the
demands of my career and how much I entertained myself, how much I
spent on entertaining myself: the more my career asked of me, the more
I wanted to demonstrate my financial ability to determine how I lived.
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I was a spectator who was easily bored, rather than a participant
who knew how to delight myself. I thought I was in control of my life,
but I was anything but: my career controlled my time, my dignity, my
ambitions, and my morals, and I was oblivious to it all.
My careers controlled my time even more than when I was at school.
I gave them eight or more hours of each day when actually at work, and
then I gave more: the time spent travelling to and from the workplace,
plus deductions from my social life in the evenings when I was too tired
to do anything but go home. When I went out in the week with friends I
chose socialising or entertainment because other options were closed
off through mental fatigue: the option to do innovative work of my
own, for example. I had mental energy for little other than drinking, or
television, or other spectator activities – freedom was the freedom to
relax, to recover from work.
Nor did I have control of my time in work. Even if I had valued the
work I did, taking fulfilment from it was difficult because there were
always deadlines to be met. Whilst I worked on one piece of work other
pieces piled up somewhere else, niggled at my attention and prevented
the possibility of enjoying the task in hand. Aspects of all my jobs could
have been interesting, had there been spare hours to analyse the tasks,
or to create my own, better working methods. But there was no time for
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this, no spare time. Spare time is never available in a traditional career.
To admit you have spare time is a sin, to sit and just think about your
work an act of indolence. Yes, I was granted the freedom and autonomy
to decide how I organised my work day, this was no factory production
line – but I had no control over how much work I needed to squeeze
into that day, no time to take fulfilment in any one task.
Truly fulfilling work, I discovered later, requires an unspecified length
of time, time to make mistakes, to learn from these mistakes, to go
back and do it better the next time. My employers wanted good work
from me, but the culture of work did not allow me the time to make sure
it was good. Or rather, my employers were happy for me to spend extra
time on a particular task to make it better, but not at the expense of
other work – this had to be completed as well.
In addition, the promise of self-esteem in traditional careers advice
had somehow been inverted. My careers made me feel the opposite
of self-esteem, of dignity – instead I felt undignified. It was not that I
was treated badly, far from it – I was never whiplashed by a maniacal
boss into working hard (apart from at times on the film set: the special
case of highly-prized careers). I brought these time pressures upon
myself, and everyone else did the same. At no point did I say to my
boss, ‘Actually, I’m already doing as much work as I can – I don’t think I
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can fit that in.’ Instead I said, ‘When do you need it by?’. I started each
career with an understanding of a certain number of hours a week, a
certain workload. But when the workload increased I had no leverage
with which to object. I just did the work, and stayed late to complete it
if I could not rush through it during the day. My only bargaining tool was
the threat to leave. But I did not want to leave – I had a highly-prized job
at a television company, or on a film!
My underlying fear, unspoken or even thought to myself at the time,
was that any complaints about my workload might upset my boss,
and so endanger my career. Or at least my career prospects. It is not
clear to me now of what exactly I was afraid – what was my boss going
to do, when it was true I had too much work? She could not sack
me. Some bosses might even have commended me for good time
management. But I did not complain, or rather I did complain, but only
to my equivalent-level or more junior work colleagues, never to anyone
who might have reduced my workload. No one complains, because
to do so might damage the chances of promotion from this current
position where they have too much work (to a new position where they
have the same, or perhaps increased amounts of work). In feudal times,
the principle was, ‘Pay the poor just enough that they can buy the
food they need in order to work, and they will continue working.’ In the
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modern career the principle is, ‘Increase the employee’s workload up
to the point where they are off sick with stress, and they will continue
working.’ Not a deliberate principle, enacted by evil bosses. But one
of unconscious collusion between the overworked boss and the
overworked employee.
My dependence upon my career damaged my dignity even outside
of the workplace. If I was delayed on my way to work, due to a
cancelled train or other situation outside of my control, I worried that
this was one more black mark of unreliability against me. Black marks
which could mount up to – again, I had no idea what they mounted up
to, or why I would be held responsible for London’s traffic problems.
Once mobile phones were commonplace, myself and other commuters
around me were able to call to pacify bosses. My apologetic and
exasperated tone served as a plea to my boss, to accept that this was a
situation beyond my control, that I could not have foreseen. Which was
of course the truth, but I needed to know, was desperate to know that
my boss believed me. That I would not be marked down for this. (Ideally
I wanted them to check a website for transport updates for confirmation
of my excuse).
If I was ill, instead of resting at home to recover from the illness,
I worried about the work I could not do, that it was piling up in
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my absence. I worried that I was viewed as idle, simply because I
happened to be ill. This reached a ridiculous height when, in the first
few weeks of my job on the film set, I caught tonsillitis and continued to
work for the next two days, before an inability to speak meant I had now
reached the point where I was physically unable to do the job.
My pandering to (my expectations of) a boss’ expectations was not
unusual – the majority of my work colleagues acted just the same. The
ones who regularly turned up late for work or called in sick were rare.
The rest of us resented their easy-going attitude, their casual approach
to their job. Much more common was the worry I overheard: when a
career parent had a sick child, their first thought not for the child, but for
whether their boss thought them less committed because they needed
to be absent from work.
Why was I not prepared to give genuine reasons for the need to
miss work, to speak to my boss adult-to-adult? Because, I think, even
if your boss tells you to take all the time you need to get well, even if
your boss is one of the nicest people you could meet, subconsciously
you know you still cannot trust them, not in the way you trust a friend.
With the nicest of bosses there is still a gulf of mistrust on both sides: I
worried my boss might think me idle, my boss worried that she did not
have staff whom respected her enough to be on time. Or maybe she
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worried that her boss thought she lacked control over her department.
Or maybe she did not worry at all. It made no difference to me – I was
never going to know my boss’ feelings on the subject of my lateness,
and so I lost dignity in my craven need to be a good employee.
But I was right in one respect: a boss is not to be trusted. They
might be entirely trustworthy in their everyday personal life, but
however well-meaning they are in person, a boss’ actions are always
compromised by the need to keep their own job. If their job requires
they make your working life harder, they will not agonise over your
difficulties. They make light of your difficulties, helped by the fact
that you take on the work without question. This is the role of a boss
– if they agonise about the mental health of their employees all the
time they will not be able to do their job. If they are forced to make
redundancies they will not put your interests first. More likely, if they do
make you redundant, they will avoid and never speak to you again out
of embarrassment. I have seen this happen with the nicest of bosses.
We are shocked when this happens. When a boss behaves badly
towards us, when we are made redundant or are expected to work
harder, we are incredulous that they act in this way. But a boss has
to, because they work for a company, because their behaviour is
determined by the same motivation that makes us worry about the
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impression we make at work: they want to hold onto their job.
This is part of the wider misconception we have about companies
and institutions whom employ us: we expect them to look after us, we
trust them to treat us well. But they can never be trusted. Not because
the senior management are nasty or immoral, but because the simple,
base-level, understandable motivations of senior management are that
they want to keep their jobs, and that their jobs are not made harder
by the demands of employees below them. Companies love to say
that they look after their staff. But they cannot fulfil that promise, they
are not structured in a way that allows them to fulfil such a promise. A
company may look after you with parties and bonuses, but they cannot
make promises where it really matters: the promise to make your career
a fulfilling one, and the promise not to take away that career if they need
to do so.
‘We knew we could never trust a company that hires us, no matter how good,
how proud it is at this moment, to stay loyal to us. To protect us. We will never
put our faith in a corporation, even a good one. We can’t. Because everything we
know tells us that we will be disappointed.’
famed CBS journalist Robert Krulwich
These undignified pressures, to not be late, or ill, to complete
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too much work to a deadline, these I brought upon myself. But there
were more subtle ways in which my employers further dented my
dignity. Another demoralising strand to my lack of control was the
companies’ attempts to control my satisfaction from work – to insist
that I was in fact feeling the fulfilment from work that was lacking.
When the company was successful – that is, when the company
made more profits than in some previous time period – I was meant
to feel successful at the same time, was meant to feel proud of this
achievement. The company reminded me to feel this way by holding
celebratory drinks. But I had nothing to celebrate. In fact these
celebrations made me feel a fool, because I had nothing to show for
all the hard work that had caused this extra money to be made for the
company and their shareholders.
This is not lamenting my lack of share in the profits – it is not saying
that my fulfilment would have been satisfied by a bonus scheme. It
is to say that the goal that I unconsciously sought, the fulfilment and
self-esteem from work that are the subject of this book, are not at all
bound up in the financial success of your company (or indeed in your
own financial success). Increased profits say nothing about the work
culture, or your experiences that brought about this company success.
‘Come on,’ companies chide, ‘you must feel good about your work.
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Look at how well we’re doing!’ But why would I feel good? What part
of an increase in company profits means anything for an employee as
regards fulfilment from work? This aspect of all my traditional careers,
rather than filling me with self-esteem, instead filled me with something
like shame. Perhaps not exactly shame, but irritation for allowing my
fulfilment to be co-opted in this way. Because I did not feel fulfilled by
the achievement of the companies’ goals. When the television channel
laid on employee drinks to celebrate increased quarterly sales figures I
did not feel celebratory. At the wrap party for the film, I cared nothing for
the quality of the final film (poor, as it turned out), only that the stressful
work was now over. Instead I felt a certain stupidity for working hard at
tasks which I did not really value. And ashamed that I allowed myself to
join in celebrations for something I did not value.
There were other similar attempts at enforced satisfaction. The
company hailed team-building days, recreational activities away from
the workplace, as a way to make you feel part of the company ‘family’,
to build stronger personal relationships with work colleagues. Which
often succeeded, because it is pleasant to feel more connected to work
colleagues, who may be friends outside of work as well. But again I
felt manipulated, because a company’s motive for team-building is
not friendship – but to form stronger emotional bonds so that you feel
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celebrated by your colleagues if you achieve, and that you have let
them down if you do not: a slave driver’s whip of emotional guilt. A
company’s desire for team-building is only to make you work harder.
And the misuse of my friendships in this way was another boot in the
face of dignity.
The lack of dignity in all my careers can be summed up in the idea
that I was not able to be myself. I had to be a shadow self, acting the
part of an employee who cared about their work for a greater reason
than a paycheck at the end of the month. I wondered if the work
personalities of my colleagues were also shadow selves – though of
course I had no way of knowing, because I did not see their out-of
work personalities. I did not know this at the time, but only later, when I
worked for myself in a shared studio, alongside people whom were not
work colleagues and so did not have to wear a shadow self, and only
then did I realise how depressing this had been. To always be on guard,
to suppress parts of your personality that did not fit the person the
company wanted you to be.
At the time my twentysomething peers and I were, in the main,
unbothered by any lack of dignity at work. We had not really listened to
or taken in ideas about fulfilment in traditional careers advice, because
we had no intention to stay in our early career jobs forever. After a bad
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day at work we talked about what else we might do with our lives. We
had ambitions, ambitions beyond our current career, sometimes in work
of our own, in a self-made career. ‘I’m going to to save up money and
travel the world’, we said. ‘I’m going to do this for a few years, save
some money and then become a PE teacher’, said a university friend as
he went off to work in the City. ‘I’m going to do this for a few years and
set up an adventure camp for teenagers in France’, said another friend,
as he started work as an energy trader.
Our ignorance of the realities of a career extended to what these
careers did psychologically without us noticing. Our mindset slowly
adjusted to that of the company, the corporation. We slipped easily into
a lifestyle funded by the entirety of our salaries. We socialised with work
colleagues in expensive bars and restaurants, because we were keen to
be part of the team – was this not what we needed to do, if we were to
keep our jobs which we needed in order to save that money?
But as the first months of our new careers turned into years, we
did not notice that we had turned into different people. We wanted to
be more adult, more worldly, but we became people who, as the years
passed, thought less-and-less often about our long-term plans for travel
or adventure camps. Or rather when we did think about these plans,
they seemed less-and-less realistic as part of the life we now led. We
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were not the same people as when we left university, and we used
our changed situation as an excuse: ‘I can’t do X now because I have
responsibilities.’ A partner, later possibly children, were a reason to give
up our ambitions. Our careers themselves became a reason.
The plans we had, the work we might have done for ourselves, this
could have been a self-made career. The desire to be a PE teacher or
run an adventure camp (both these friends still work in the City) is a
desire to do work that helps others, and this is the nature of many of our
youthful ambitions – to do something useful. Not always – but youthful
ambitions often have a moral element, a desire to do something of
value to society, a value sorely missing from the career we do instead.
Because this is the worst aspect of a great many, perhaps the majority
of careers: the control of your morals.
I do not mean that most careers involve work as morally corrupt as
people trafficking or arms dealing. Instead that many careers require us
to do work that not only is of no value to us, but is actually work that, at
its heart, goes against our personal values. That in effect we are, in the
words of Alain de Botton, misemployed: in work ‘that fails to tackle with
any real sincerity the true needs of other people, merely exciting them
to unsatisfactory desires and pleasures instead’.
When I was honest about my job for the television channel,
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predicting programme ratings for the advertising sales team, the primary
effect of my work had little to do with the making of programmes: my
work helped the sales team sell advertising space more efficiently. My
career helped advertisers sell more of their products to the public, with
only a secondary effect of helping make more television programmes
(most of which I also did not value). The glamorous public face of my
career was that I worked for television channel X – the underlying,
unspoken reality was that I helped advertisers sell more stuff, that I
helped advertisers exploit gullible people.
However much we want to believe otherwise, the ultimate aim of a
great many careers is the same: to exploit gullible people. In sales, or
marketing, or public relations, your exploitation of the gullible is more
apparent: it is your job to make people buy your product or service
when they would not otherwise do so, to persuade people to spend
their money on your product regardless of whether it is suitable for their
needs, or if their need even exists.
But even if your work does not exploit in such a direct manner, the
main purpose of a great many careers is to support this exploitation in
the background. A web designer who creates animations for a children’s
games website, is part of a process designed to coerce parents to pay
for premium features. A copyright lawyer who protects the brand name
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of a supermarket’s washing powder is part of a process that coerces
the public to buy more of their product than a competitor’s, regardless
of whether or not it is a better product. The aim of the work of a book
cover designer is to create a cover that appeals to the greatest number
of book buyers, regardless of the value of the book to you. If your job in
any way supports, at the end of the process, a product that is sold – for
mobile phones, or insurance, for anything – the goal of your work is to
perform your particular task in order to help make more sales. Not to
care about what pleasure of use your customer takes from the product
or service, of whether the product adds value to the world.
Perhaps you think this is an exaggeration of the nature of work,
a left-wing, rose-tinted view of how the world should operate. That
exploitation of the gullible is ‘only business’, that this is the way that
trade takes place, that it is the compromise that we make in order to
earn a living, that it does not really matter. The ethics of trade are not
the subject of this book. What matters to me here is that when my work
had the end result of exploiting the gullible, I could not find fulfilment
and self-esteem. To feel self-esteem from work about which you feel
morally ambivalent or even morally abhorrent – that does not somehow
happen just because you have reached your sales targets for the
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This does not just apply to the stereotype of the corporate drone,
who takes on and loudly sings the praises of their company, regardless
of that company’s effect on the world. Anyone who works for a
company is affected, in ways that differ only by degree. Why would I
really care about the colour reproduction of a book cover for the ghostwritten autobiography of a former soap star? Or that the actress in a
second-rate film was shown attention by buying her a bunch of flowers?
The co-opting of my morals, along with the co-opting of my work
satisfaction, was the biggest cause of despondency in all my careers,
was the aspect of them that I needed to submerge most forcefully in
order to continue to work in them.
Be proud to work for us, the company says. Celebrate in our sales
success. But why would we want to? I never cared about the end
product I helped produce (albeit obscurely), much as I tried to convince
myself that was why I had wanted the job – and I helped to produce
books and films, two of my favourite art forms. Why would I care, when
I had played no part in deciding what was produced?
Eventually I realised that not only did my career work have no value
to me, much of it had little value to society. Or at least little value to
the kind of society that I valued – and it is this kind of value that is
necessary for self-esteem. When you unpick the end result of a great
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number of careers, do they really add any benefit to the kind of society
you wish to see?
If you choose to avoid a traditional career and concentrate on work
that you yourself value, you are often accused of selfishness, of ‘not
giving something back to society’. What this accusation really means is
that you are not paying taxes from a career salary. But what if the work
of your career does not ‘give something back to society’, because the
effect of what it produces is negative? A contribution to society through
taxes is cancelled out if you first coerce the gullible into buying stuff
they do not need, and second earn money in this valueless career rather
than in work that accords with your own moral values.
To other people we just work ‘in television’ or ‘in law’ or ‘in web
design’. We are good citizens because we contribute our tax money to
the pot that pays for public services, we play our part in the economy of
the country. We only consider the values of careers on the rare occasion
when the work impacts upon our personal lives. A parent takes pride
in the career of their marketing executive daughter, and only wonders
about her work if by some random chance she happens to have
organised the campaign that annoys them with unsolicited telephone
calls. If it is someone else’s parent annoyed by their daughter’s work,
their pride remains intact, and they pay no heed to the content of her
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We sons and daughters are deemed good citizens simply because
we have a career. But I think the good-citizen mask hides the
despondency a great many of us feel about our work, because our
careers co-opt and control our morals, and exhaust us as we pursue
this valueless work. Many people spend their whole lives in work that
looks only to the primary moral of their company, to make money.
When I think about the famous people whom I admire, the reason I
admire them is not for their money or fame – it is for their sovereignty,
their control over their lives – control that is taken away by a traditional
career. They decide when and how they do their work, every day, not
just at the weekends, they are able to make decisions about the work
they do based upon their own values. Before I started in adult work,
one of the joys I looked forward to was wresting control of my life from
my parents and teachers. But I immediately handed that control to my
employers. And for some people this control is relinquished for the
remainder of their working life.
Many of us cannot avoid earning money through work for
companies – that we will be controlled by them is inevitable, at least to
a degree. (I am compromised by corporations in the writing of this book
– I have used a pseudonym as I worry that the various corporations for
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whom I do freelance work will take offence.) But how much control we
hand over is dependent upon our level of attachment to our paid work.
If our attachment is unimportant, the fact that we do not value the work
will not matter so much, and we will change jobs if the morals become
too onerous. But we will not do this if we have put everything into this
career, have made it the most important part of our lives. This is the
danger when we prioritise our career over all other aspects of our lives.
Control over our work is already available to us – if we develop work
that we value that is not primarily for money. Of course we need to earn
money somehow, in order to live. But we should have no expectation
of self-esteem from this paid work, from a traditional career. To find
self-esteem from work you need to discover the work that is important
to you, regardless of money, and organise your paid work to allow a
proportion of your week to pursue it. Find your important work, and
then work at it for the rest of your life.
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5. Subsistence Work
No matter how little my careers lived up to expectations, I was not
prepared to give up on the whole career idea. I still did not know exactly
what I expected of my paid work. But what I did continue to expect was
that paid work, the work I undertook for money in order to live, would
always be my number one priority – that all other areas of my life, my
choices of where I lived, of how much spare time I had, of how often
I saw my friends and family were dependent on how I chose to earn
money. Or rather: if at the time I did not expect paid work to be my
number one priority – because I was not in the habit of listing the areas
of my life in order of priority – I anyhow behaved as though this was the
case. Because all other aspects of my life were dependent upon how I
chose to earn a living.
In order to have a life that included innovative, fulfilling work, above
all else I needed to unlearn this prioritising of paid work. The idea that
paid work is what defines you as a person (‘so what do you do?’) had
been planted in my brain at a young age, an idea that further told me
that paid work equated with social status. The unlearning of such an
all-pervasive idea was not an easy task. The priority of paid work is
reinforced by perpetual news reports of graduates who cannot find a
career, by parents worried that their children cannot find a job, by the
existence in the world of so many people who appear to care about the
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work they do, who profess the importance of their paid work. I was one
of those people making up the numbers. Even if I did not want to care
about paid work, my everyday actions were still those of someone who
appeared to care. I had no desire to impress my boss, yet I worked like
someone who wanted to impress his boss, because I thought this was
necessary in order to receive my salary each month. And so I still acted
(actions which translated themselves to thoughts) like someone who did
care, who cared very much – whose career was the most important part
of their life.
But all I had to do to solve this problem was to stop caring – to stop
worrying about whether or not I had a traditional career, to consider a
full-time respected job irrelevant to my status and self-esteem. I say
‘all I had to do’ as though this was easy, whereas of course this was a
sizeable psychological change, which reversed all ideas about work and
careers drummed into me since school.
The first stage of the process, of downgrading the importance of
paid work, happened to me almost by accident. My temporary contract
with the publishers came to an end, and I needed another job, so I
asked around the designers I knew in the publishing art department to
see if there was any other work I could do, and was offered work on the
layouts of books, setting the text and images. But on a freelance basis
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– I would only be paid if I worked, if the company decided there was
enough work for me.
Since then, in 1999, I have always worked freelance. I did not
embrace the idea at first – on the contrary I worried that I no longer had
a regular, guaranteed supply of money. What if I did not earn enough
money one month? How would I pay my rent, or afford to go out? But
once I had accustomed myself to the idea, the psychological change
was enormous. I was no longer required to care about the work, in as
much as I no longer needed to show any interest in the well-being of
the company. No one expected me to be part of the company ‘team’,
no one demanded I go on team-building days, or attend company
celebratory drinks. Indeed I was not, to my delight, even allowed. All
that was required of me was that I was reliable and good at my work
– and, ironically, my work was perhaps better than before, since it was
not burdened by the despondency of being a salaried employee. Best
of all I was not expected to pretend to care about the fortunes of the
companies for whom I freelanced – because I was an outsider, tied to
them only by our agreement that I would do good work and they would
pay me for it.
I had less money, but more time. Paid work slowly became less
important than other things – that is, the rest of my life. Less important
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than the work that I wanted to do for myself, and life with my friends
and family for which I had previously not had time. As I worked less I
found time to write more regularly. And so my paid work, rather than
dominating my life, took second place to the work I really wanted to
do, the work that I did find fulfilling, and that might possibly be a useful
addition to the world.
Following the downgrading of paid work’s importance came the
thought – why does it matter what this work is, this work that I do for
money? Paid work does not need to fulfil me – what it needs to do
most of all is to allow the greatest amount of time for the work I really
want to do. Paid work did not have to mean a ‘good’ job, one of the
traditional nine-to-five careers commonly pursued by graduates. Even
though I continued to earn money at the publishers, in a profession that
others considered a career, I did not need to think of it as important. I
just wanted the work for the money. And if money is the primary reason
for work, rather than fulfilment or status, there is a much wider choice
of jobs than the all-encompassing careers fought over by countless
I came to think of the work that earned me money as subsistence
work: work that I only needed to survive, not for fulfilment and selfesteem. I wanted to call ‘work’ the writing and other projects I did for
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myself, because those – on occasion, now with slightly more regularity
– I did find fulfilling. I had, unknowingly, come round to the idea of
traditional careers advice: find work that you love and you will be happy.
I just had not realised that this work might be unpaid, that it did not
need to be the work I did all week.
And from this realisation I saw that what was needed in place of
traditional careers advice was two different types of advice about work:
one for how to develop fulfilling (and almost certainly unpaid, at least
to begin with) work, and one for how to find subsistence work to pay
the bills. Any careers advice needed to specify with which type of work
it was concerned, because subsistence work and your own work were
very different things.
The principle criteria of subsistence work is that it does not need to
be fulfilling, it does not need to be work that you love. It is preferable
if it is, but has a much more important, overriding criteria: the best
subsistence work is simply that which allows you the most time and
freedom for your own work.
And this made some professions much more appealing as paid work
than others. Though I was lucky to have fallen into good subsistence
work, I wondered what kind of advice I might have found useful when
younger. What kind of work should I have sought in order to earn
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money? What are good subsistence professions in general? I saw that
the criteria applies to the work culture of the profession far more than
the actual content of the job. A good subsistence profession has these
• Part-time or freelance work is common
Although an irregular supply of money is a factor in freelance work,
there are many benefits in exchange for this low-level concern.
Freelance work is better paid because it is less secure, so you earn
more for less work. No one expects you to work longer than the
hours for which you are paid – if you do work longer, you are paid
more. You take holidays when you want, not just on bank holidays.
You decide if you want a day off.
Plumber, fitness instructor, nurse: it is common to work part-time
or freelance work in professions such as these. As a lawyer or
television executive it is not. This was what – although conveniently,
through no real decision-making on my part – was good about the
freelance work I had fallen into for the publisher: not that it was in
publishing, but that it was freelance. You control your time, and so
are more able to fit your paid work around hours that suit your own
It is difficult to work freelance when you start – you have to build
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up a reputation and clients, and in some professions it is easier
to do this from an employed position. You may choose to take an
employed position to begin with – but plan from the beginning how
you might convert this to freelance. The principle is, choose the job
less by its content than by its flexibility: if you take an employed
position, make it in a profession where freelance work becomes
easier later on. And if you need to work full-time when you start
(when it is difficult to support yourself on the most junior wage),
keep in mind that part-time/freelance work is your goal, your
overriding ambition for paid work.
• The workload is within your control
The culture of your subsistence job should not cause you to work
more than your agreed number of hours. In teaching, additional
unpaid hours are ‘expected’ of you. No work should be expected
of you in subsistence work. This paid work is not for the love of it,
it is for the money. Choose a profession where additional hours are
optional, paid, and paid at overtime rates.
‘Within your control’ also means your subsistence work does not
occupy your thoughts outside of the contracted hours. Thinking
is reserved for your own work. If a lucrative part-time job requires
that your boss and clients can call you at any point during your
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spare time, or if you have responsibilities that mean you think
about work in your spare time, this is not good subsistence work.
Workers who view their paid work as of primary importance
consider work outside of contracted hours ‘part of the job’. This is
bad subsistence work. You are not being paid. Avoid professions
where this is part of the work culture.
• The length of each project within the job is short
(A less important criteria.) I found that in order to take satisfaction
from writing I needed to work at it regularly, at least an hour or
two most days of the week. Without this regularity its importance
diminished. So for me subsistence work needs to be shorter
projects, of only a few hours each if possible, so that it can fit
around the time-slots I made for my own work. To be a selfemployed builder, for example, is not good subsistence work
for someone like me if each project requires full-time hours for a
number of weeks. Plumber and fitness trainer are jobs with short
projects. Computer programmer, although a job with freelance
opportunities, often involves lengthy projects that require fulltime work for many months. This does not mean work in such
a profession is not possible as subsistence work, simply that
depending upon the nature of your own work, short projects may
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the best types of subsistence job
extra work/mental energy
outside contracted hours?
firefighter waiter
can be done
police officer
estate agent
GrApHiC designer
plumber tefl
television executive
fLiGhT aTtEnDaNt
car mechanic
nurse therapist dentist
web designer
JoUrNaLiSt computer
teacher wedding photographer
insurance agent
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be more suitable. Even if they are the dull projects no one else
wants. Especially if they are the dull projects that no one else
wants – there will be less competition for them.
If your own work has different time requirements you will not find
this criteria as important. You may work for a number of weeks to
earn money, then spend a few weeks on your own work. But again,
the needs of your own work take priority.
In other words: the conditions under which paid work is carried out –
the work culture – are more important than the content when evaluating
whether a job is ‘good’ subsistence work. At school when I thought
about the type of career I might enjoy, I only considered the type of
work involved. I paid no attention to the actual conditions under which I
would do this work. When I thought about how I would like to work on a
film, I only thought about the excitement of being on set whilst someone
called ‘action’, and did not for a moment think about having to live in
a hotel and work seventy-hour weeks for three months. A programmer
friend was excited to find a better paid job as a consultant, but did
not consider the consequences of spending three days of every week
living hundreds of miles away from home. A midwife friend loved the
idea of helping mothers give birth, but had paid no attention to the fact
that babies are born at night as well as in the day, and found that she
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was completely unsuited to working night shifts. We pay little attention
to how the conditions of our hoped-for profession will affect us, when
the hours, the shift patterns and the location of the work has far more
impact on our everyday lives than the tasks involved.
The ability to work freelance, control of your workload, and length of
each work project – these are the factors you need to consider for any
paid employment. These are the aspects that give you control of your
everyday life, regardless of the content of the work. The content, the
tasks involved, are a poor indicator of the work culture. Prestige jobs,
such as my job on the film, are the worst example of this, particularly
those connected to any kind of celebrity. For a while I made the mistake
of taking on freelance work with a well-known author, seduced by better
pay and the glamour of working on bestselling books. Her celebrity
meant tighter deadlines and the insistence by editors and art directors
that you must drop everything if last minute alterations were needed,
because this project was so high-profile. The workload was completely
out of my control – I spent a lot of (unpaid) time organising the rest of
my life, just so I had the ability to drop everything. And I thought more
about this job in my spare time – worried whether the quality of my work
was satisfactory, whether it was good enough to keep this prestige job
that caused me to worry more than usual.
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I was much happier, much more mentally stimulated when I had
design projects that were short and required the least amount of mental
input – because now I had time to be mentally stimulated by my own
work. ‘Interesting’, ‘exciting’ and ‘working on prestige projects’ meant
long hours, more stress and no control. Routine and mindless were
what I was after. Much better that I saved interesting and exciting ideas
for my own work.
But these factors which make for good subsistence work are not at
all obvious if you have not yet worked in a particular profession. You will
not find this information on a company website, or in a job description
– you will have to find this out for yourself. This is one use for work
experience: to observe the people who work in that profession, to form
an understanding of the work culture. Ask friends, or relatives’ friends,
who do a particular job, question them about the actual nature of their
job, the expected overtime, the mental commitment. The questions to
ask are not, ‘is the work interesting?’, or ‘is this work relevant to the
talents I had identified at school?’. These are the questions to ask of
your own work. Questions to ask about subsistence work are, ‘are there
opportunities to do this work freelance?’, and ‘how much will this job
affect my life outside of work?’.
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If you treat the above criteria as the important factors in choosing
subsistence work you might think this limits you to boring work.
(Though do not easily dismiss boring subsistence work, not if it is wellpaid, flexible and fits well into your life. Some of my best subsistence
work has been the most boring.) But the work you do for money does
not have to be boring – it can be interesting, just so long as it is also
good subsistence work by the criteria above. Many of the sociallyrewarding jobs discussed in chapter 3 – doctors, teachers, nurses,
charity workers – are possible subsistence jobs, in that these are
professions where it is possible to work part-time or freelance.
Ironically the people I know who freelance or work part-time in
socially-rewarding work appear to enjoy the rewards of these jobs
more easily. They are less affected by all the aspects that make them
unrewarding: unpaid overtime, overwork, office politics. Work as a
bank-staff nurse, or a specialist teacher unattached to a school, or
a temp for any profession, and you have much more control over
these aspects of your work. The careerist mindset looks down upon
temporary or freelance staff, views them as ‘not part of the team’, but
this attitude must just be ignored. I have no desire to be part of such a
team, because membership demands extra work and stress.
Of course many rewarding jobs, even when part-time, require
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training, which may mean full-time training. These and other good
subsistence jobs may require a degree. The cost of the training for
subsistent work has to be weighed against the loss of control and
the debt you will incur as a result. (More about this in the University
chapter.) All these considerations need to bear in mind the basic
principle: that subsistence work is of secondary importance and exists
to support your own, more fulfilling work.
If you are currently stuck in a stressful full-time career that you wish
to leave, you may think that you do not want to start again in different
subsistence work. But there is no reason why your current work cannot
become subsistence work. The first step is just to think of it as such
– in other words to regard it with the level of importance it deserves,
that is, very little. Can you elbow your way down to a position of less
responsibility, where you can work freelance? Can you make yourself
indispensable in some area, become an expert in a particular specialist
task, and therefore are paid more for less work?
Everyone who earns money though freelance or casual subsistence
work has, at least at the start, one major fear: that their work will dry up,
that they will have no money, that they will not be able to pay their bills.
The fear that my work this month will not continue next month, that I
will find no other work, loomed over me at first, and I still worry about
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it now, just as I have done for more than fifteen years. In those years I
have taken on additional financial responsibilities, including children.
When I am not worrying myself, I listen to other freelancers’ money
worries, over and over, month after month as the work continues.
Because the worry is out of proportion to the reality. Money
worries for freelancers are a constant presence, but they are a minor
background hum. The existence of this low-level worry is an indication
of the freedom that freelance work brings you, and has to always be
weighed against the worries of a careerist, the worry of what they gave
up in exchange for job security: control of their own life. Job security
with a regular, reliable wage is the trump card that the full-time careerist
waves over the freelance subsistence worker – forgetting that their
employer waves this same security card over them, the stick with which
to beat uncontrollable amounts of work from them.
There are alternative forms of job security when you have freelance
subsistence work. A less worrying way to work is to find jobs for two or
more different people – if one source of work dries up, this does not cut
off all sources of income. And I found another, more unexpected source
of security, when I began to work and associate with other freelancers:
the existence of other, previously invisible, freelance work. Not work
that is advertised, but almost always found by word of mouth. The
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freelancers I know support and have supported their own work with,
amongst other things: multiple cleaning jobs, chaperoning boarding
school children, delivering artwork, teaching workshops, working as
a film extra and being a drug trial test subject. There are many other
subsistence jobs of this type. You only find out about this category of
jobs if you hang around with other people who want the seek the same
kind of paid work, and who know you are on the lookout. Full-time
careerists are completely unaware of the existence of this kind of work.
‘Luck is being ready.’ Brian Eno
Subsistence work is one part of a self-made career – the boring part,
perhaps. Find the right kind of work, the kind that allows time for work
you really value, and the importance of subsistence work in your life
But subsistence work that is not part of a full-time career will lack
one thing: a career salary. This is the subject of the next chapter: how to
live cheaply.
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6. Live Cheaply
I have casually breezed over one large consequence of subsistence
work: that part-time work means part-time money. This was not
deliberate – in no way am I suggesting that the self-made career is only
available to those with a trust fund. But if you want to have time for
innovative work, the conclusion is unavoidable: if your subsistence work
is less than full-time, then you must live on less than full-time wages. If
you want a life that is not controlled by a career, you must live cheaply.
This seems unrealistic, I’m sure. If you are young and poorly paid
you probably feel it is difficult to survive even on a full-time wage. I can
picture my younger self howl with derision at the idea. ‘I’ve been living
on next to no money for ages,’ he complains. ‘If I have a full-time career
and the salary that goes with it I can live as I want, leave home, have
nights out without watching my money all the time, be independent.
I don’t care if I don’t find my career fulfilling right now. I want to enjoy
myself.’ And if you are not so young, already in a full-time job and better
paid you may also feel it is difficult to survive on a full-time wage. But it
is not difficult – so long as you are happy to return to the kind of lifestyle
you had when young and poorly paid.
To live cheaply I have to watch what I spend, to worry where my
money goes. I act like someone who does not worry, whilst carefully
watching what I spend, whilst being a cheapskate. I worry because this
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is the only way to make spare time for myself. The act is because to not
worry about money, to not be a cheapskate, has a certain cool to which
I am not immune. But it is not cool. The people I know with large debts
and hefty spending habits are not those with time for their own work.
They are the people chained most tightly to their careers.
What was not obvious to me at first was that if you treat your own
work seriously, if you dedicate time to discovering the fulfilment that
your own innovation can provide, this fulfilment and self-esteem more
than compensates for a reduced inability to spend money, to purchase
stuff. There is an amount of money I need for basic survival, and there is
an additional amount of money that I can choose to spend on comfort
and pleasure. But fulfilment from the process of work that I truly value
is more than replacement for the comfort and pleasure of stuff. To have
a number of hours a week when I am able to do work I value, that I feel
could be a useful addition to the world, in which I can feel a meaningful
sense of progress, is more than compensation for cheap living. (I may
be completely wrong that the work is a useful addition to the world. I
can only hope.)
Whatever money worries there are in a self-made career, it is not
as though I had less money worries when I had a traditional career
and full-time salary. Every career made demands on my income that
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I was unable to avoid. I spent a chunk of my salary on travel to work,
and a larger proportion on more expensive accommodation within
easy commuting distance of central London. I bought food for lunch
each day so as not to waste precious time in the morning making it for
myself. But much more financially crippling was my changed attitude to
the money left over: now I viewed the gadgets, the alcohol, the holidays
I could purchase as simply what I deserved for working so hard. At one
time I viewed holidays as an adventure – now they were a well-earned
break from the stress of work. Now I deserved the lifestyle my salary
afforded me – and needed that money to purchase all that I deserved.
I wanted to live in a decent flat, to own the latest technology, to drive a
car, to have a foreign holiday each year, and all this I deserved because
I worked hard.
I worked my way through my salary each month. There was a similar
amount left over as in the times when I had no job – that is, nothing. The
rate at which my salary reduced to nothing was intensified because I
chose to associate with one group of people whom also had a lifestyle
to which they thought themselves entitled: my work colleagues. I
had little choice in the matter – I was part of the team. Senior work
colleagues set the expense level of our socialising, and provided a
blueprint for our more junior aspirations. By signing up for a career I had
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signed up to the arms race for a bigger and better lifestyle, in which I
could not help but feel the pressure to participate.
My problem in these early career jobs (a problem of which I was
entirely unaware) was that there was no obvious alternative. I had no
work of my own I was keen to pursue, no fulfilling use for my limited
spare time. The primary use of any spare money from my career salary
was entertainment, the fallback option. I needed to spend money to
avoid boredom. But there is a cheap alternative to boredom: work of
your own that you genuinely value, work to which you are keen to return
whenever you have the opportunity, which almost certainly costs less
money to pursue than entertainment. Once I had discovered this, cheap
living was a much easier option.
‘I sell an app for money, then I spend less than I make.’
Instapaper creator Marco Arment
Living cheaply has a long history of shame. The idea that less
money means lower status is deeply entrenched in our psyches. It is
associated with anti-commerce hippies, with being anti-modern and
anti-technology. For me it is none of these things. The only problem
with cheap living is how you feel about cheap living, and once you stop
associating it with low status it is no problem at all. I am fortunate to
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have always had enough to get by, but this has been easier because
I have always tried to need less to get by. If I find a cheaper way to do
something, I am pleased because it means I can work less and so have
more time for my own work. I view the cheap option with glee, rather
than annoyance or shame.
There are cheaper options for everything. Houseshare rather than
live on your own. Couchsurf or houseswap rather than pay for holiday
accommodation. Hitchhike. Read library books. Be a late-adopter
and using secondhand technology that traditional careerists trade
for new models: a cheap mobile, not an expensive smart phone. Live
somewhere where a car is unnecessary. Buy clothes from charity shops
and wear them until they fall apart – there are plenty of great clothes in
charity shops, given away by people with careers. Cook for yourself and
your friends rather than eat out. Cheaper options almost always require
more time and energy – but you have more time and energy when you
work less because you do not have a career.
When I first started working I knew about the cheaper options – I just
chose not to take them. The hard part was to see all these choices as
useful rather than demeaning. Careerists are forced into the expensive
option: they eat out because they have no time to cook, they are forced
to take time off on more expensive public holidays, they do not have the
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time to search around charity shops for clothes. Careerists say, I want a
salary so that I don’t have to worry about money. But there’s the choice:
either you worry (a little) about money, or you worry about to where
exactly your life disappeared.
Houseshare, dress cheaply, don’t eat out, share costs with
your friends – this all sounds as though directed at teenagers and
twentysomethings. As though for those who are older, who have more
responsibilities, particularly those who have children, this kind of cheap
living is not possible. How can you expect to earn part-time wages
and pay rent on accommodation big enough for a family, or pay for a
For me the cheap living principles did not change as I grew older. I
have a family with two children, and live in a house. But before that we
lived in a flat for ten years (it was quite a squeeze by the end). There
was the choice of moving somewhere bigger, if we were prepared
to work more hours to pay for it. But we chose to stay there and live
cheaply, because we valued the kind of life we had, whilst earning
money part-time. We had, in effect, a tiny houseshare consisting of
just one family. We were fortunate in that we started a mortgage at
the beginning of the 2000s – we might not be able to start a mortgage
now given the current housing situation. But the point is that the other
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cheap-living options remain the same: we dress from charity shops
(or passed-on clothes for the children), do without much of the latest
technology, houseswap or camp for holidays, and avoid restaurants and
takeaways. When the children were very small we actually felt like we
had more money than before, because we did not socialise as much.
Now the children are older I regularly need to explain to them that the
flipside of having less money spent on them is that we get to spend
more time with them. They don’t understand or like the argument. But
they do like me to spend more time with them.
If all this sounds dull and boring – that is a judgement on the value
of a costly social life and a spacious house filled with nice things. The
subject under discussion is whether it becomes more difficult to live
cheaply as you become older. I do not think it does, because even if
you have children to pay for, when older you are almost certainly in a
position where you have better contacts, and better knowledge of how
earn more money from your subsistence work. Over the years I have
worked freelance I have become better at identifying the work I can
do quickly for the best hourly rate, and tried to steer myself towards
that kind of work as much as possible. We may have (relatively) more
expenses when older, but we have greater earning abilities per hour
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And I hope to continue in the same manner into old age. I do not
have a pension, because I do not envision the need to spend more than
I do now by the time I am old enough for a state pension. The amount
of a state pension is probably about what I live on now. It is possible
I will have earned more by that time – who knows, I may even have
earned money from my own work. But much more useful is to have
work that I love to sustain me in my old age. Anything else is just a
How much money you need to live is just that – the amount you
need to live the life you make for yourself. If you plan to quit your career
with a full-time salary for lower wages these are the questions you have
to ask: what are my essential costs, and which are the costs I only have
because I have this full-time career? The work you do for yourself is
the centre around which all the costs for food, accommodation and
socialising revolve, whatever your age. If this work is good and fulfilling,
these costs become less important. When I hear some of my peers in
their forties talk about the increased expenses that come with a family
and growing older, they do not describe unavoidable expenses: they
describe the trappings they either think they deserve because they work
hard (the meals out, the foreign holidays, the leisure accessories, the
gym and sport club membership), or the extra costs they cannot avoid
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because of their full-time career. A full-time career distorts the idea of
unavoidable expenses.
You can avoid this, even if you currently have a family and career. If
you are wondering how to quit, living cheaply is one of your first steps.
Reduce your expenses now, live as though you already work part-time,
so you know how to when the time comes. If you have a partner or
children you will need to discuss with them why you will not have so
much money in the future. Part of the reason for choosing such a life is
for the option to spend more of it with a partner or children. This is the
exchange: to give up expensive holidays and other material treats for a
life of less stress and more self-esteem. To strive for a life from which
you don’t need a holiday.
My biggest aid to cheapskate living is cheapskate friends. I would
never call them this to their face of course – everyone is susceptible
to the taint of the cheapskate label – but that is what they are, and
that is why I like them. They prefer the cheap options: eating at each
others’ houses rather than in a restaurant, camping in this country
rather than flying abroad. If you are serious about finding time for
your own work, a certain ruthlessness is needed – you have to spend
less time with expensive friends and more time with the cheap ones.
Happily this principle goes hand-in-hand with the pursuit of your own
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work – because the best support for work of your own and a self-made
career is others who purse work of their own, and therefore want to live
Cheapskate friends understand why I do not want to waste money,
and will not make me feel ashamed of it. Careerist friends with large
salaries suggest the more expensive options – because their ability to
spend validates their reason for working so hard.
If your response to the above is, ‘I don’t want to dress from charity
shops’, and, ‘I really want the latest smart phone’, think of this as the
careerist mindset. The idea that a permanent salary and the ability
to buy stuff are essential to life is drummed into us from the day we
first spend money in a shop, the desire for money an extension of our
biological drive for survival. We all worry that without a certain amount
of money we will be out on the street, homeless, vulnerable. But in
developed Western countries actual biological survival is not a problem
for the majority of people. The problem that occupies more of us is how
to make the most of our survival, how to live a fulfilled life. And fulfilment
comes from work that we originate and value ourselves.
The careerist mindset that insists we need a full-time salary is
imposed by school, by our parents, by advertising, by government
and society as a whole. Most of all it is imposed upon us by traditional
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careerists, who are constantly at pains to justify the fact that they have
chained themselves to a career for the entirety of their working lives.
The parent who says, ‘I worked hard all my life, why do you think you
are any different?’ cannot bear the idea that perhaps they wasted their
life with all that work for someone else.
Ignore the pressures from society that suggest you are a failure
because you do not have money to throw around. You are not failing to
‘give something back to society’ if you do not have a full-time salary –
not if you discover and develop work that you think is important to bring
in to the world. Part of this valuable work may, if you choose, be unpaid
socially-beneficial work. Then you can benefit society in ways that a
career exploiting the gullible never will.
One day, you may make money from your own work. But money
is not relevant to the work’s main purpose, which is satisfaction and
self-esteem. Read the biographies of musicians, film directors and
writers who have become wealthy from their work, and you find that
the majority of them started out living cheaply in order to do what they
loved. But aside from wealthy successes, much more common are the
successful people who did not become wealthy: the artists, amateur
sportspeople and inventors, even some of the well-known ones, who
scrape a living in order to spend their lives at work that they love. Those
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with self-made careers are able to lead the lives they want not because
they have plenty of money to do so, but because they have enough
money to do so.
‘My wife and I have lived on 37 dollars a month before now, and always with
sang froid. I doubt if I make more than 400 per annum – and knock about Europe
as I like.’
D.H. Lawrence
(revelling in his cheap living freedom, even when working as a full-time writer)
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7. University is Not Essential
This far I have been entirely scathing of one widely-held belief: that
the path to a fulfilled life follows a route from school to university to
salaried career – because this route is one that misses the possibilities
for innovative work. So it will come as little surprise if I now proceed to
condemn university as a waste of time and money, and irrelevant to a
life of fulfilment and self-esteem.
Except this is a surprise to me. Because although that is the obvious
conclusion from what I have written so far, I find myself loathe to say
university is a waste of time. I greatly benefitted from a university
education, from experiences that, had I missed out on, may have meant
that I did not end up where I am now, doing the kind of work that I
genuinely love.
I benefitted from a university education in every way – except
perhaps from the attainment of a degree. I enjoyed my degree course,
was stimulated by what I learnt – but the useful benefits that I took
from university, as in the ones that inform a self-made career, were
by-products of the actual education. I learned many useful skills,
because I had to leave home in order to attend, and because there
were thousands of other people my own age who also attended the
university. I learnt how to negotiate living in a household of peers rather
than family members, how to cook for myself, how to ration money so
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I had some left at the end of a term. There were the lessons of how to
set limits on drinking and drug-taking and not sleeping when there was
no parental brake. University was also the first time I had the chance
to experience proper education, by which I mean the first time I had
the time and inclination to take a piece of knowledge and investigate it
further, for no other reason than my own satisfaction. Those three years
could have been the foundation of a self-made career, had I taken full
advantage of the opportunities to start my own work. But I was too
busy taking in the heady education of doing whatever the hell I liked.
But even though I benefitted from all these non-academic lessons,
that does not mean university is the only place they can be found.
Everything I learnt, all those things that have nothing to do with careers
and paid work, I could have discovered without going at all. They
are open to everyone, including those innovators who did not pass
the required exams for university. What is needed, should you not
be able or not want to go on to higher education, is to truly not go,
to absolutely not go – to instead go far away from home in the other
direction, preferably abroad. Somewhere where you can not-study
most effectively, and yet still soak up the lessons of communal living,
of responsibility for yourself, free of the sense that what you are doing
is just one more step in the direction of a traditional career. Work a
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subsistence job, live cheaply and save some money to go away – or
if you cannot wait that long, save money for the plane ticket and work
when you get there. But you have to get away. When I travelled and
worked abroad in my mid-twenties I unwittingly brought back with me
reminders of the most useful lessons of university: of how to live with
people my own age, of how to look after myself, of how to manage
money. Along with some additional ideas from meeting and observing
people who had found or created subsistence work that I did not know
existed. Most of all I had experienced the pleasure of deciding what to
do for myself – the pleasure of innovation.
It is not enough simply not to go to university – you have to force
yourself to go somewhere else, rather than mope around, mope around
until you are strong-armed by outside forces into one conclusion, that
the only alternative is a full-time job.
Of course for some people a university degree is very useful, is
in fact essential for their self-made career: in scientific research for
example, or training in a particular skill at art college. If, when you leave
school, you have a burning desire for this particular kind of valuable
work (work that you value rather than your parents or your careers
advisor), then go to university. But if you do this you have a different
problem: how to avoid debilitating debt that may still control your life
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years later. Obtaining money is not a problem for students, there are
many institutions happy to lend – the problem is whether you are able to
manage this money, to live by at least some of the principles of cheap
living. If you mire yourself in credit card and overdraft debt at university,
the kind that cannot be deferred, it is the biggest barrier to time for
valuable work upon graduation. Student loans are not, for now, such
a great problem, since you are only required to repay them when you
have a certain level of income. But if you have just left school and are
offered free money in the form of overdrafts and credit cards, it is sorely
tempting to take on other less deferrable debts.
The temptations of debt make university at the present time a
less-and-less worthwhile option as the place to learn university’s nonacademic lessons. If the actual academic education is not essential to
your valuable work – if as yet you have no idea of the nature of this work
– it may be better not to go. At least not straight away. The rampant
increase in student debt through tuition fees in the UK has had a major
effect on the worth of a degree – as a greater proportion of people
become graduates that expensive degree certificate becomes a less
valuable work ticket. Is it a good idea to burden yourself in debt for this
if you can find university’s benefits elsewhere?
And if you do work hard to obtain the more valuable career tickets,
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the better degrees from the more prestigious universities, the high price
of higher learning has changed the notion of what a university education
is for: the expense has made the degree a financial transaction rather
than an educational experience. Today’s potential students now,
understandably, view university as an investment: I am paying a fivefigure sum for this, so I had better obtain a good degree, to ensure a
well-paid job, in order to pay it back. If you go to university in this spirit
the non-academic lessons are less likely to be taken on board, as the
workhorse attitudes drummed into you in order to pass school exams
continue. If university is spent simply focussed on passing a degree
you are less likely to ease yourself out of the mindset that paid work
is the number one focus in life, are less likely to see the value of work
you do for yourself. With the focus intensified on a career at the end
upon graduation, students subconsciously take on the values of the
companies for whom they would like to work, even before they start
– propelled as they are by debt and choice of degree course towards
lockdown careers, where their own values are submerged, perhaps
forever, beneath the values of a company.
Intelligent university graduates are the people society needs to allow
time to struggle with society’s challenges, to have time to consider
innovative work of their own. But the main struggles for many intelligent
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graduates are debt and the pressures of a career. There is no time to
concentrate on anything else, not because they do not want to, but
because are not able.
‘Students who acquire large debts putting themselves through school are unlikely
to think about changing society. When you trap people in a system of debt, they
can’t afford the time to think.’
Noam Chomsky
If you need to go to university for the work that is valuable to
you, or if you are keen on a type of subsistence work that requires
a degree such as teaching or nursing, then go. But even if you do,
there is nothing – apart from your school and parents – to compel
you to go straight away. Or after just a single year. The emotions I felt
upon leaving school were the joy that suddenly I had no parents or
teachers to tell me what to do, and the fear that there were no parents
or teachers to tell me what to do. This was not a good state of mind in
which to make decisions that had profound effects on the rest of my
life. There was a great temptation to allow university to institutionalise
me again straight away – an institutionalisation that, upon graduation,
many students hand immediately to an employer.
To take yourself out of the institution is to become an adult who
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thinks for themselves – which is part of the necessary learning process
for a self-made career. In a life comprised partly of subsistence work
and partly of your own innovative work, you tell yourself what to do.
Overcoming the fear of this (or at least reducing it to manageable
levels) is part of the process for anyone who wants time for their own
innovative work. It cannot be somehow avoided. The opportunity to tell
yourself what work you will do, to organise how and when you work is,
for me, the greatest asset of a self-made career.
What would I change if I were to leave school now, how would I aim
for a self-made career? I would train in a good subsistence profession,
maybe as a plumber or TEFL teacher, go abroad to work in casual jobs
and learn the non-academic university lessons, and think about and
investigate the work I really wanted to do. When I came home, however
much time later, perhaps I would go to university, or perhaps not.
My parents might despair and wonder what all that time spent in
education was for. Society might view this as a waste of education.
But is that really all parents and society think education is for, a ticket
to a career? Real education opens your mind to the possibilities of the
world. The useful parts of education are not for anything in particular, at
least not for anything that might translate into earning potential. They
are for prompting you in the direction of the work that will sustain you
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for the rest of your life.
Whatever you do when you leave school, the main goal is to avoid
the depressing life of so many graduates: those who leave university
with a degree but no knowledge of work that truly interests them; who
spend their first months, perhaps years, miserably toiling in part-time
subsistence work, and spend all their spare time desperately applying
for that golden career job; who, when to their joy they finally land their
longed-for career realise, more months or years down the line, the
stress and lack of fulfilment that this career provides; and who then
wonder, now burdened with their career lifestyle, how they might return
to the part-time subsistence work that they had upon graduation.
Skip the career part, pursue meaningful work of your own supported
by that subsistence work, and this life is easily avoided.
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8. The Joy of Work
All through this book I have insisted that work for yourself, truly
innovative work, is a real source of genuine fulfilment. Without providing
any kind of explanation as to why I found this to be the case. I have
spent chapters outlining why the work culture of traditional careers
prevented me, and, I think, prevents people generally, from finding
fulfilment, and I have said much about what it is that traditional careers
lack. But nothing that explains what it is about work for yourself that
actually does make it fulfilling.
Because it is not at all obvious why work that you do for yourself is
fulfilling. If you currently work in a full-time career that you wish to quit,
this is one of the big obstacles: it is not obvious that quitting to do work
of your own will actually be more fulfilling that the work you do now, for
money. Certainly it was not obvious to me, for a long time.
There is a widely held belief that innovative work of your own is
limited to a certain section of the population, those people who are
‘creative’, a belief that I held throughout my twenties and into my
thirties. I did not consider myself one of these creative people (not least
because the label sounds pompous and invites ridicule). I wanted to be
one of these people, but I did not know how. The work I wanted to do
was writing, but I had not studied English at university. Nor had I been
to art school, another route that provides an automatic creative label.
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Somehow I did not qualify, except for the fact that I loved writing and
literature and wanted to write myself.
Besides, I found writing a chore. My early attempts provided no
fulfilment or pleasure in the actual writing. None, that is, beyond the
fantasies about the prestige that publication of this unfulfilling work
might bring, of the life I might lead if I earnt money from writing and no
longer had to support myself with subsistence work. I took no pleasure
from writing stories in the present because I was too busy picturing
myself writing stories full-time in the future, imagining a time where I
wandered into a bookshop and saw my book displayed on a shelf. I
was not taking pleasure from writing, but from publishing, in that easiest
of formats, inside my own head. Despite my lack of joy in the work I
continued, driven by the far-distant idea that this was what I wanted
to do with my life: make a living as a full-time writer, writing stories in
which I took no pleasure and found no fulfilment.
What helped me progress through those early years of
disillusionment was a sense of discipline. Although I was not convinced
I had the ability to write anything valuable, either to myself or others,
what I did have was self-discipline: I had the ability to make myself sit at
a desk for an allotted number of hours a week and concentrate on the
task in hand. I followed the advice to set myself regular time slots each
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week, and began to arrange my subsistence work around these time
slots. It did not matter how many hours they totalled – when my children
were young it was perhaps an hour in the morning three times a week.
But setting these hours for myself gave the work a seriousness that
helped me value what I was doing.
Discipline over my work, insisting that I kept regular writing
hours, even if I spent the time staring at a piece of paper or screen,
eventually lead to an understanding of the first feature of fulfilling work:
sovereignty, ownership of the work. Writing may have not yet been
fulfilling for me, but at least it was my own work, work that I had told
myself to do, and had then gone ahead and completed. Work which, in
contrast to a traditional career, I decided when and how long I did it for.
Sovereignty over work is the real goal of education, I believe. It is
what all good teachers want to instil in students at school. They want
students to investigate a range of activities and ideas about the world,
in order that they might get an idea of which interest them the most. Not
so they might use those of most interest as a way of earning money, but
so they might continue to enjoy learning all through their life. Genuine
education helps people understand the sense of fulfilment provided by
sovereignty over the work you choose – it enthuses children (and adults)
in a subject to the point that they continue the work in their own time,
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without further need of encouragement or reward. But good teachers
and schools are hampered at all turns in their attempts to demonstrate
the value of sovereignty, geared as school is towards careers.
Because schools teach little about the value of sovereignty, it is
something you must learn for yourself. And to do so you have to put in
the time it takes to understand this, the hours spent sitting at a desk
or wherever it is your work takes place. You have to overcome all the
encouragement not to understand the fulfilment provided through the
creation of something from nothing, even if those beginning somethings
are less than you hoped for. Other people – what selfish individuals –
encourage us to socialise with them and enjoy ourselves, rather than
use spare time for work of our own. We encourage ourselves not to do
our own work, because there is no penalty for not doing so, we argue
with ourselves as to why we have better things to do.
‘The idea does not have to be big. It just has to be yours. The sovereignty you
have over your work will inspire far more people than the actual content ever will.’
illustrator Hugh MacLeod
It is the sovereignty of publicly-successful people that we admire,
I think, when we wish we had their money and fame. We admire their
ability to choose the work they do, or their ability to do no work: the
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sovereignty that their money or fame allows. But many of us can have a
version of this sovereignty, without the added difficulty of becoming rich
or famous.
It is hard to recognise the value of sovereignty when you start your
own work. What helps with this recognition is the second feature of
fulfilling work: a sense of progress. A sense that the work you do today
has improved on the work you did previously. But if recognising the
value of sovereignty is hard at first, recognising progression in your
own work is almost impossible. You have nothing by which to judge
progress. You do not know where you are going with your own work
because you have no particular goal, except an ultimate and ultimately
false goal of seeing a book you have authored in a bookshop, or playing
a gig to thousands of adoring fans, a goal which, as an indicator of how
you should proceed with your work on a day-to-day level is completely
When I started writing my whole sense of progression was bound
up in what other people thought of my work, in how others viewed
and praised my writing. And other people did not view or praise it at
all, because I showed it to no one. I merely judged how others might
think about it if they had happened to read it. When I did come to
show stories to other people, they were, at first, inevitably people I
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knew well, because strangers had no interest in what I had written. I
gained no useful feedback, not because my friends and family were
poor judges of writing, but because I could not distinguish between
praise for the actual writing and praise as encouragement – because
they were my friends and family. Even later, when I sent stories to
competitions without any success this did not tell me much. Maybe the
story was quite good and ranked just below the winning entries. Maybe
it was appalling. Maybe it was amazing and just not the taste of the
judges. Whichever it was, it told me little about whether I had made any
progress or not.
We might feel like an imposter because no one has given us
permission to do this work, but that is just Imposter Syndrome – who
am I to think I can do this kind of work? But everyone suffers from
Imposter Syndrome. Including all those people who are now famous
for the works they created. Countless biographies of creative people
contain a line to the tune of, ‘I was not really sure what I was doing until
X wanted to publish/booked me for/exhibited Y’. Everyone feels like an
imposter until that time when a stranger praises your work and perhaps
even offers money for it. Even later in their self-made careers many of
the famous only appear to feel a little less of an imposter.
The sense of progress I eventually discovered was not from any
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external source or reaction of others. At first I did not even recognise
it as such, because it was an amnesiac’s progress, and I did not really
know how it was happening. During the months and years of sitting
down at my time slots, whenever I reached a stage I had not reached
before – when I finished the outline of a story, when I finished a story,
then a collection of stories – each time I looked back in disbelief that
this completion had actually taken place, that I had managed to reach
this stage of the work. When I read back on what I had completed,
it was generally better than I remembered – not necessarily good, or
something I wanted to show to other people, but at least contained
something I liked, and which I was not aware of writing at the time
of doing so. And eventually there existed something which, at the
beginning, I had completely doubted my ability to create. I thought it
impossible I could ever write anything book length – how on earth do
you construct a coherent theme through that many words, I wondered?
Yet if you are reading this then obviously I managed to do so. This
book, from the point of view of my beginner self, is an impossible
achievement. Its value to others is debatable, but its value to me is
huge. And from each stage that feels like an achievement further
progress is possible.
The gulf between what you think you can do now and what you
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might do in the future is the same. How you progress from one level of
work to another is, for me, completely unknown. And this unknownness
is what hinders us so much from making a start. It makes progress
slow, if each time you sit down you lose the conviction of your ability
to repeat the process. Perhaps this is a definition of innovative work:
the endless succession of unconscious progression to a new stage
of the work, where once again you find yourself stumped as to how
to continue. I do not think I am alone in this experience – this is
what I imagine people mean when they talk about writing from the
unconscious: they are mystified at their previous ability to create what
they see in front of them.
I have never lost this fear of sitting down at the start of a writing
time slot. Each time I am convinced that nothing good will come of
writing that day. Sometimes nothing does come – but much more often
something does, something I was not expecting. The delight that, more
often than not good writing comes out of a writing session, despite
that fact that it is never expected – this is the sense of progress that
provides fulfilment. It is, I think, along with sovereignty, the fact that this
work only happened because I told myself to do it, that makes work
This kind of fulfilment is not found in a traditional career. No one
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looks back at the tasks they have completed in their salaried job and
sits in wonder at how they happened. You look back, glad that these
particular tasks are over, and move on to the next tasks. That’s if you
look back at all, because there is no time to look back, to reflect on
work. There is little sense of progress and certainly no sovereignty, for
you do not control the work, you do not decide to do the work, and the
work would simply be done by someone else if not by you.
We are held back from starting the work that we want to do by
the idea that we have no talent for it. If we follow a traditional career
as a vet or a engineer we are given confidence by the fact that we
have passed exams in the subject and someone has accepted our job
application for the position. In work of your own no one provides this
kind of confidence boost. You have no idea if you have a talent for the
work you want to do. But talent to me feels like not much more than a
label given with hindsight to people who managed to complete some
work that they wanted to do, in a manner that delighted (at least some)
other people.
With work of your own you have something else guiding you – the
fact that you love this kind of work, that you have a desire to do this
thing. Your search for the work you want to do might be guided by
your particular body shape or mental aptitude, but it is also guided by
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your tastes. Taste is not about talent but about your ability to recognise
value. I valued the work of other writers, and wanted to replicate that
value. Part of your own work is recognising why the work of others that
you value has value. If you love someone else’s work it is an indication
that this is the type of work that you think would be valuable to the
world if you produced it yourself. Your taste is a guide to the nature of
the work that you might love to do yourself.
‘It’s the same process as anything: identifying who your heroes are, figuring out
what they did, and then just going and doing it.’
filmmaker Steven Soderbergh
This is why we tend to, and why it is right to copy our heroes when
we start out – we try to reproduce the value that our heroes have
brought into the world. What we eventually copy, if we work at and
progress our own work, is not the content or exact style of others, so
much as the effect that their work has on an audience. The work of
our heroes is our teaching material when we start: the parts of other
people’s work that we value, the lines, the scenes, the themes, the
sounds, the organisational principles that brought us pleasure.
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‘For a songwriter, you don’t really go to songwriting school; you learn by listening
to tunes. And you try to understand them and take them apart and see what
they’re made of, and wonder if you can make one, too. And you just do it by
picking up the needle and putting it back down and figuring it how these people
did this magical thing.’
musician Tom Waits
Although I write here about the work of writing, this is only because
that is the work that I like to do. This book will appeal more to people
interested in writing books, because it is writing written in a book.
But innovative work is not limited to writing, or music, or anything
traditionally called ‘arty’. To categorise certain subjects as ‘the arts’ is
misleading, if it gives the impression that innovative work is only to be
found in the arts, that creativity and innovation are only found in writing,
film, music, painting, and so on. There is creativity in everything: in
science, in sport, in starting your own business, even in more abstract
ideas such as organising people. For me, ‘art’ means any activity in
which you feel the pleasure of innovation, and an ‘artist’ is someone
who values their own innovative work, who values it more than the work
they do for money.
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‘There are various myths about creativity. One is that only special people are
creative; another is that creativity is just about the arts; a third is that it’s all to do
with uninhibited “self-expression”. None of these is true.’
education advisor Sir Ken Robinson
It took me a long time to understand the value of sovereignty and to
feel a sense of progress – to understand that this was what made my
own work a more worthwhile pursuit than a traditional career. Part of the
problem was that all discussions I had on the subject were with myself,
were inside my head. I rarely found the opportunity to discuss my lack
of fulfilling work, because I knew no one else who felt the same way.
In fact I probably knew lots of people who felt the same way, lots of
people with whom I worked in full-time careers. But we were not having
these conversations. Or at least not having these conversations with an
eye to what the alternative might be, but simply bemoaning our careers.
What I needed was to find a gang – a group of people who felt the
same way. I found this by accident, when I rented a space in a studio
for my freelance work, sharing with other freelancers, each with their
own version of the self-made career. Here I found a gang of like-minded
people – and it felt like a gang, because we had a shared ambition, to
stay away from the unsatisfying culture of traditional careers. I was able
to talk about the work I really wanted to do in a way that I could never
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have mentioned in my career jobs, where it always seemed like the
ambitions of a fantasist. Here it felt like something that could happen. I
could make mistakes and fail in my ambitions and still feel they were a
worthwhile pursuit. It did not matter that the other gang members did
not do the same work. Writing is a solitary activity, but even though I did
not actually work with them, it was a comfort and inspiration to have a
circle of friends who understood a desire to write books. Or play music,
or build computer games, or study the planets. Or do anything that
gave higher priority to their own work rather than work for money.
If I had not accidentally found a gang, I would have needed to seek
one out. If you do not have a gang, go find one. (The value of training
for your work is as much for meeting a gang of similarly-interested
people as the skills you learn.) The power of a good gang cannot be
overstated. Not only for the mutual support, but also the social warmth
of belonging to a group, a group formed around the shared idea of how
to live in the world, around the idea that innovative work is the path to a
fulfilled life. Rather than the shared idea of a careerist workplace, which
is usually how we sell this product to as many people as possible.
This work of your own is, alongside subsistence work, the other
half of a self-made career. One day this work of your own may turn into
something from which you earn money. But that is not the purpose of
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the work. Sovereignty and a sense of progress are the purpose of the
work. They are the features which make work joyful, are the features
which are not found in a traditional career. If money becomes the main
purpose then it has become subsistence work, and you will need some
new innovation to keep you interested again.
Do not wait until you are ‘ready’ to start your own work. No one is
ever ready – you become ready by working. If you need to convince
yourself to quit your current full-time career, a major part of the
encouragement will be if you have an inkling of the fulfilment your own
work can bring. You need to investigate this before you quit, need to set
yourself however many hours you can spare whilst still working in your
career. All you need to be ready to start is to finish reading any more
books on creativity and innovation – both the reading and writing of
which are stalling tactics to avoid beginning the work we really want to
Schedule time slots each week that are only for your work, be
disciplined and keep to them. Record the details of the work of your
heroes that gives you pleasure as a spectator, and try to work out how
to reproduce that effect. Find your gang. Just make stuff.
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9. Success
For most of the time I wanted to be a writer, I ignored the fact that
by actually putting words onto paper I was doing so, was being a writer.
But this was not an argument I found particularly convincing, because if
writing is just about putting words onto paper, then everyone is a writer.
If we are judging on word count alone, careerists who produce lengthy
corporate reports are much more prolific writers. I wanted the writing I
did to be something more than this.
At first the goal appeared obvious: to be a writer was to be a
published writer, was to see your books on the shelves of a bookshop.
To receive prestige and, ultimately, to make a living of writing, to earn
enough not to need subsistence work. Success in the innovative work
that we want to do is very often equated with converting this unpaid,
part-time hobby into a full-time paid job, a self-made career from which
you can make a living.
But one of the main reasons I found it hard to find pleasure in writing
was that I was not even looking for it in the actual process of creating
something. I bored myself in my vain attempts to be successful: in the
hours spent researching short story competitions, in discovering which
were the easiest and cheapest to enter, in altering the style and word
count of my stories in order to give them more of a chance. None of this
work to be successful was successful. Instead it took me away from
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the times when I did feel pleasure, in actually putting words on paper, in
trying to recreate the delight that I feel at reading the writing of others.
Many ‘successful’ careers, it seems to me, are tainted by the
same confusion. The measure of success is the size of its impact on
society, of the status the success confers. The television presenter,
whose work impacts on thousands of people, is more successful than
a gardener. (This is another attraction of careers in television, film and
other media, because they have a large public impact compared to
other professions, an impact easily recognised by others.) But this
measure says nothing about the pleasure taken from the process of the
successful work, or about the impact of the process on that other part
of your existence that is the rest of your life.
‘When you work for free, no one can tell you what to do’
photographer Bill Cunningham
Whilst I failed to feel successful as a writer, there was an alternative
feeling of success: I had, at least, managed to set myself up with a
routine and situation that made the unpleasurable writing the main
focus of my week. I had freelance subsistence work which meant I
could spend a couple of hours each morning, a few days a week,
working away at the unpleasurable writing. I had sovereignty over
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my work. And from this situation that I had created I took a lot of
satisfaction. What I did not have was a nine-to-five career, but instead
the opportunity to control my life in a way that gave me a sense of selfesteem – self-esteem that had been missing from all my careers. I could
schedule my week as I liked, I could attend any of my children’s school
events without thinking, I could take the afternoon off if I chose. I had
the opportunity to work for free in socially-beneficial work, for which I
had no time in a full-time career. But most of all, although I did not feel
like I had made a success of writing, life was at least centred around
this work, this work that I really wanted to do, however unsuccessfully,
that I hoped had value should I ever have the chance to show it publicly.
Even without the mythical book in a bookshop, this life in itself felt
like a kind of success – certainly in comparison to the traditional careers
that were out of my control. The cheap living and less than full-time
hours spent on subsistence work means the government label me
underemployed, with the implication that I must be folornly wandering
the streets, bored, or drowning my sorrows. But this is not how I feel,
because I have work of my own to do – work that I hope is of value to
the world, should it one day be finished in a way to my satisfaction. A
purpose that was missing when misemployed in any of my traditional
careers, where I did not care if the end result was of value to the world,
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and most of the time knew that it was not.
This version of success is one of ‘sustainable creativity’ – a phrase
coined in Miranda Ward’s book F##k the Radio, We’ve Got Apple Juice,
about the rise and supposed fall of the band Little Fish, who chose to
leave their major record label and support slots on stadium rock tours in
order to take back control of how they made their music, on the cheap
in their own home. This kind of sustainable creativity simply requires
that you make enough money from your own work to continue to do
this work, regardless of public recognition. I want to alter this definition
slightly – and say that sustainable creativity means you make enough
money from a combination of your subsistence work and (perhaps) your
own work, that you continue to have time for work that you love and
value. How much of the work you sell and how much you sell it for is
irrelevant. This kind of sustainable creativity is possible for any number
of people who have a desire to do innovative work.
I could never have felt this kind of success in any of my traditional
careers. There I was unhappy with the routine I made for myself –
or rather had imposed upon me. I did not feel the satisfaction of
progress in career work: if I completed a piece of work well, or worked
particularly hard, I made my life worse, because now I was expected to
work at this more efficient level. Instead I felt a fool, because I did not
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think the work added any benefit to the world, and because I had no
interest in benefitting the company or its shareholders.
A greater sense of success came when I eventually started to take
pleasure from the work itself, and felt less desperate to be traditionally
successful, to be published. Which was when I had my first story
published. I was still pleased to see something I had written accepted
in a magazine. But this was hardly the big deal I imagined – mainly
because I now had to write something else. And to claim this as
some kind of success, which was actually publication in an obscure
magazine, was just a pointless act of egotism. (Though it would be
equally pointless to pretend that writing, an act of putting down your
thoughts on paper and imploring others to read them, or making music,
or even starting a charitable organisation, contains no element of
egotism.) But what I mean to say is that I stopped worrying about being
published because I felt like I had already succeeded.
At what, I’m not exactly sure. Not, certainly, in making a living or
even any money at all from the work I wanted to do. More that I had
managed to arrange my life so that the continued effort to do this work,
of trying and usually failing to bring about the effects of delight which I
felt from other people’s work, was the main focus of work, of a working
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Of course it would be good to be widely published. But if that
were to happen I do not really want it to affect the pleasure from the
process of the work. It is possible that some day I might earn a living
from writing – though I doubt it, given my pace of working. But if we do
earn money from our creative work, enough to give up the subsistence
job, then we have to continue to earn money from this work. And we
then have a continued need to create saleable work in the future. We
are in danger of being back in a position much like the careerist, where
in order to make enough money to live from the sale of paintings, or
vintage clothes, or whatever, we must now cater to the tastes of a
particular patron or strand of public taste. This was the reason Little
Fish gave up the success of their stadium rock tours – this kind of
success damaged the simple pleasures of making music.
As Austin Kleon reimagined for the end of Charlie and the Chocolate
Willy Wonka: But Charlie, don’t forget what happened to the man
who suddenly got everything he always wanted.
Charlie Bucket: What happened?
Willy Wonka: He had to run a fucking chocolate factory!
Does this mean I ought to fight against the egotistical desire to
be a successful, that is, famous author? I would not have to do any
134 chap t er 9 | S u ccess
subsistence work, I could spend every day writing, and spend every day
worrying that my next book would sell enough to earn a living. I would
certainly finish more work, but I’m not sure I would enjoy the work any
more, or that the sum total of my life’s activities, time with my family,
a social life, subsistence work and my own work would add up to any
more. Even as I write this I wonder if I believe what I am saying – I
know I want acknowledgement and fame as much as the next egotist,
even if it does me no good. But this desire is about status, is about
social value. It is separate from, and works against the intellectual
value of work for yourself and the pleasure of innovation. Perhaps all I
can do is bear in mind that prestige is of a lower quality value than to
feel successful to yourself, and that prestige has adverse as well as
beneficial effects.
‘Prestige is like a powerful magnet that warps even your beliefs about what you
enjoy. It causes you to work not on what you like, but what you’d like to like.’
Paul Graham
All this is, of course, very convenient for someone who wants an
excuse for why they have not managed to make their work public, for
why they have not been published, for why they have not started the
organisation they want to see exist. I use it every time work does not
chap t er 9 | S u ccess
go well. But the sensation of success is mainly about whether we do
the work to our satisfaction, and only in part what others think of it.
Your experience of creating the songs your band plays, or the children’s
forest school you create, or the course that you organise around your
passion for astronomy, is determined to some degree by their reception,
but mostly by the fact that you have created them at all.
This low-level, unfamous innovative life is available to many people,
to many stuck in a career and who know it is not the work that they
most want to do in the world. The size of the audience or number of
beneficiaries from whatever you do does not have to be large to feel the
pleasure: art is art for an audience of six. The illustrator who holds an
exhibition simply to show their work publicly has succeeded – the one
who holds an exhibition and is disappointed when they make no sales
has not.
A reasonable question is, if to work for free and in relative obscurity
is fulfilling and meaningful, where are the examples of this in society?
The people held up as success stories are the business leaders, the
public scientists, the famous artists, all of whom appear to find pleasure
in paid work. Why should I not aspire to be one of them?
We can, of course. But the public success of these people is a
social success that tells us nothing of how they feel about the creation
136 chap t er 9 | S u ccess
of their work, of whether they took any pleasure from innovation. It tells
us nothing about whether the work they did was of value to themselves
or to the world at large. It is a definition of success that is often out of
their hands and warped by fame. Many more people can experience the
success that comes from innovative work of their own, without the need
to make the extra effort to become famous as well. If self-esteem from
work is your aim, becoming famous is an accidental by-product of the
fact that your work brings pleasure and meaning to yourself and others
There are many unknown people who work away at their own
innovative work, who perhaps make some money but not a living from
it, who support themselves with other subsistence work, and who
live a life they consider successful because they are fulfilled by what
they do. They are just not visible, because their notion of success is
not the same as society’s notion of success, and they do not inspire
the next generation to follow their example because of this invisibility.
I knew of no one who lived like this when growing up, and so had no
model to emulate – it took me until my thirties to even be aware of their
I said in the introduction that the people I know who live this way are
the happiest people I know. Perhaps it is not that they are the happiest
chap t er 9 | S u ccess
– pleasure from innovative work is not about being happy all the time.
But they are the ones with the most sense of purpose, with the most life
in them. Because they are constantly looking for what to do next in their
work, are constantly learning. Not always making the valuable work they
want, but learning more about how they might do so. The search for
and creation of work of value is the source of their fulfilled lives.
Take semi-retirement from the world of full-time careers. Do so
before you even start. You are not slacking off, you are not joining the
ranks of the unemployed, you are not failing to give something back
to society. You are only unemployed, or underemployed, if you have
no work of your own with which to fill your spare time. Your own work,
should you decide, can have social benefits beyond those you can
achieve in a career job, because your work derives from your own
When you are immersed in a project of your own which gives you
pleasure, you always have the knowledge that there is work to which
you are keen to return. You don’t get Sunday-evening blues before
Monday’s work, because even if you have to go to subsistence work
the next day, it will not be long before you can get back to the work that
really thrills you.
The work we do for ourselves may one day make us money – it
138 chap t er 9 | S u ccess
may even make us a living. Or we may work away at it, unknown,
unacknowledged and probably, despite the fact we have stuck with it
because it is what we like to do above anything else, lamenting the fact
that we are unknown and unacknowledged. But this scarcely matters.
We have to do something with our lives – and that something is better
off as a perpetual search for the work of which we feel truly proud.
‘One way or another we all have to write our studies of D.H. Lawrence. Even if
they will never be published, even if we will never complete them, even if all we
are left with after years and years of effort is an unfinished, unfinishable record
of how we failed to live up to our earlier ambitions, still we have to try to make
some progress with our books about D.H. Lawrence.’
writer Geoff Dyer
chap t er 9 | S u ccess
Notes and further reading
p7: to emphasise that you do not need permission: a great influence on my ideas
about permission, or lack of it, was all-round outsider artist Bill Drummond, in particular
his book 100 (2012), where he talks of his own epiphany about permission upon reading
Play Power by Richard Neville, an account of Neville’s social radicalism in the 1960s:
Chapter 1: No Value, No Innovation
p15: I saw the best minds of my generation: Neal Stephenson quote from Solve For X
p20: The reality is the best people who have great ideas in science: Chris Viebacher
quote from talk by Steve Keil at 2012 The Next Web conference:
p21: Draw the art you want to see: from Steal Like an Artist by Austin Kleon, p48
(2012): Great ideas throughout the whole book, particularly about
just getting on with your own work. (See also for his always
interesting blog and tumblr posts.)
Chapter 2: Creative Careers are Not Creative
p34: LucasArts eulogies: see article by Ben Kuchera in http://bit.
p36: Art suffers the moment other people start paying for it: Hugh MacLeod quote
140 N otes and F urther R eading
from his book Ignore Everybody: and 39 Other Keys to Creativity, via:
Chapter 3: Rewarding Careers are Not Rewarding
p41: if you wanted to be . . . a cause-championing journalist: see George Monbiot’s
advice to aspiring journalists:
p45: We can so easily slip back: Rainer Maria Rilke quote from the essay Requiem for
a Friend:
Chapter 4: No Control
p58: We knew we could never trust a company: Robert Krulwich quote from his
2011 commencement speech to Berkeley Journalism School (video:
krulwichspeech, transcript:
p63: ‘misemployment’ definition from Alain de Botton’s website The Philosopher’s
Chapter 5: Subsistence Work
p80: actual conditions under which I would do this work: for some online accounts of
the realities of various professions, see this collection on my website I add to from time
to time:
p86: Luck is being ready: Brian Eno quote from On Some Faraway Beach by
David Shepherd (2008), a good biography of the ever-interesting Eno:
somefarawaybeach. Quote taken from Brian Eno’s own (but difficult to find) A Year With
Swollen Appendices, his diary from 1995, a fascinating account of someone constantly
trying to produce innovative work:
N otes and F urther R eading
Chapter 6: Live Cheaply
p92: I sell an app for money: Marco Arment quote via Austin Kleon’s blog:
p97: Strive for a life from which you don’t need a holiday: see also Neil Gaiman
and Neil de la Grasse on why truly fulfilling work never feels like ‘work’:
gaimantyson (from the highly-recommended
p99: who scrape a living in order to spend their lives at work that they love: for a
great account of how thirteen US bands thrived successfully in the 1980s on next
to no money whilst independent of major record labels – and how this can be a
model for anyone’s creative and productive life – see Our Band Could Be Your Life
(2001) by Michael Azerrad (particularly the chapter on The Minutemen):
p100: My wife and I have lived on 37 dollars: D.H. Lawrence from Out of Sheer Rage
by Geoff Dyer (Abacus, 1998), p139:, originally from D.H.
Lawrence’s Letters, Vol. 3, Oct 1916 – June 1921 (edited by James T. Boulton and
Andrew Robertson, 1984), p734
Chapter 7: University
p108: Students who acquire large debts: Noam Chomsky quote originally from
Chapter 8: The Joy of Work
p116: The idea does not have to be big: Hugh Macleod quote from his essay How to
Be Creative on The most downloaded talk on a website primarily devoted
to business start-ups and thus hard, stressful work, tells how the author fitted his
creative illustration work around his paid job, and how it changed his life. Also great
142 N otes and F urther R eading
insights about how money always changes your relationship to work. (Download a PDF:
p118: Imposter Syndrome: see Steal Like an Artist by Austin Kleon, p27 (2012): http://
p122: It’s the same process as anything: Steven Soderbergh quote from
p122: copy our heroes: for much more on why it is fine to copy your heroes, see Steal
Like an Artist by Austin Kleon (2012):
p123: For a songwriter, you don’t really go to songwriting school: Tom Waits quote
from NPR interview:
p124: There are various myths about creativity: Ken Robinson quote from Guardian
interview: Education advisor Ken Robinson’s great
TED speech ‘Schools Kill Creativity’ ( is the most watched
video on the TED site. His most recent book, Finding Your Element, looks at how we
might discover the work that will give our life meaning)
Chapter 9: Success
p130: When you work for free: Bill Cunningham quote from the film Bill Cunningham
New York:
p132: F**k the Radio, We’ve Got Apple Juice by Miranda Ward & Little Fish (2012):
p134: But Charlie, don’t forget what happened: Austin Kleon’s Willy Wonka quote:
p135: the intellectual value of work: for a much lengthier analysis of why status from
work and the pleasure of innovation are in opposition to each other, see Robert Pirsig’s
N otes and F urther R eading
book Lila: an Inquiry into Morals (1992): The argument is too long
to include here (and you might need to read his classic earlier book Zen and the Art
of Motorcycle Maintenance as background), but the short version is that this is the
explanation of something we know instinctively: that the desire for fame, prestige and
recognition works against the pleasure we take in the creation of work
p135: Prestige is like a powerful magnet: Paul Graham quote from How To Do What
You Love:
p136: art is art for an audience of six: from a talk by Brian Eno on surrender in art at
the Brighton Festival 2010. Video of Eno talk on the same themes:
p139: One way or another we all have to: Geoff Dyer quote from Out of Sheer Rage
(Abacus, 1998), p231:
144 N otes and F urther R eading
Many thanks to Dave House and Becky
Rush for reading and commenting on early
drafts. And of course to Kate, not only for
reading drafts but also for not minding that
I’ve set down on paper some of the ideas
contained here . . .