Results After exposure with high but not with medium NoA we

Critical Care 2012, Volume 16 Suppl 1
Results After exposure with high but not with medium NoA we
observed a statistically significant decrease in maximum mitochondrial
respiratory capacity (E-state, C 133 (118; 148) vs. high NoA 111 (106;
113), and medium NoA 129 (123; 140), P <0.05 C vs. high NoA). Both
LPS and LPS + high NoA did not affect E-state respiration (LPS: 152
(136; 179), and LPS + NoA 129 (125; 137)), but increased routine (R)
respiration when compared to control (C 45 (40; 55) vs. LPS 66 (51; 72)
and LPS + NoA 65 (55; 68), P <0.05; high NoA 41 (37; 47), and medium
NoA 52 (51; 57), NS).
Conclusion High but not moderate doses of noradrenaline reduced
mitochondrial respiration in alveolar macrophages in vitro. Surprisingly,
LPS increased routine respiration regardless of simultaneous
noradrenaline exposure.
Japiassú AM, et al.: Crit Care Med 2011, 39:1056-1063.
Porta F, et al.: Inflammation 2009, 32:315-321.
Renner K, et al.: Biochim Biophys Acta 2003, 1642:115-123.
Effects of the anti-diabetic imeglimin in hyperglycemic mice with
septic shock
F Wagner1, J Vogt1, U Wachter1, S Weber1, B Stahl1, M Groeger1, O McCook1,
M Georgieff1, P Fouqueray2, T Kuhn2, E Calzia1, P Radermacher1,
E Fontaine3, K Wagner1
University Medical School Ulm, Anesthesia, Ulm, Germany, 2Poxel, Lyon,
France, 3Université Joseph Fourier, LBFA, Grenoble, France
Critical Care 2012, 16(Suppl 1):P21 (doi: 10.1186/cc10628)
Introduction Shock-related hyperglycemia impairs mitochondrial
function and integrity [1], ultimately leading to apoptosis and
organ failure [1,2]. Imeglimin is a new anti-diabetic drug with antihyperglycemic and anti-apoptotic properties [3]. Therefore we
investigated its effects in hyperglycemic mice with septic shock.
Methods Immediately after cecal ligation and puncture, mice
randomly received s.c. vehicle (n = 9) or imeglimin (n = 10; 100 μg/g).
Fifteen hours later animals were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated
and instrumented for a consecutive 6-hour observation period. After
a second imeglimin bolus, colloid fluid resuscitation and continuous
i.v. noradrenaline were titrated to maintain normotensive and
hyperdynamic hemodynamics. Then 2 mg/g/hour glucose was infused
to induce hyperglycemia. Glucose oxidation and gluconeogenesis
were derived from blood 13C6-glucose and mixed expiratory 13CO2/12CO2
isotope enrichment during continuous isotope infusion. Liver mitochondrial activity was assessed using high-resolution respirometry
[4,5], Bax, HO-1 and NF-κB expression by immunoblotting and EMSA.
All data are median (quartiles).
Results Imeglimin decreased blood glucose levels (165 (153; 180) vs.
192 (184; 221) mg/dl, P = 0.007) by increasing whole body glucose
oxidation (55 (52; 57) vs. 51 (49; 55)% of infused isotope, P = 0.085), which
coincided with partial restoration of gluconeogenesis (0.38 (0.34; 0.41)
vs. 0.31 (0.27; 0.33) mg/g/hour, P = 0.032), liver mitochondrial activity
(oxidative phosphorylation (136 (134; 160) vs. 116 (97; 122) pmol O2/
second/mg tissue, P = 0.003); maximal oxidative capacity (166 (154;
174) vs. 147 (130; 159) pmol O2/second/mg tissue, P = 0.064). Imeglimin
increased liver HO-1, reduced liver Bax expression and attenuated NFκB activation (all P <0.001).
Conclusion Imeglimin improved whole body glucose utilization and
gluconeogenesis, a well-established marker of liver metabolic capacity
[4,5], and attenuated organ injury, at least in part due to inhibition of
the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
Acknowledgements In memoriam of Xavier Leverve who initiated this
project; supported by an unrestricted grant from Poxel.
Vanhorebeek I, et al.: Crit Care Med 2009, 37:1355-1364.
Devos P, et al.: Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006, 9:131-139.
Fouqueray, et al.: J Diabetes Metab 2011, 2:4.
Albuszies G, et al.: Intensive Care Med 2007, 33:1094-1101.
Baumgart K, et al.: Crit Care Med 2010, 38:588-595.
Adrenomedullin blockade improves catecholamine responsiveness
and kidney function in resuscitated murine septic shock
K Wagner1, U Wachter1, J Vogt1, S Weber1, M Groeger1, O McCook1,
M Georgieff1, A Bergmann2, H Luettgen2, E Calzia1, P Radermacher1,
F Wagner1
University Medical School Ulm, Germany; 2AdrenoMed AG, Henningsdorf,
Critical Care 2012, 16(Suppl 1):P22 (doi: 10.1186/cc10629)
Introduction The effects of adrenomedullin in circulatory shock states
are controversially discussed: while its exogenous supplementation
improved organ function and survival [1] in experimental models due
to maintenance of hyperdynamic hemodynamics [2] in otherwise
hypodynamic conditions, high blood levels were associated with
increased mortality in patients with septic shock [3], most likely as a
result of excessive vasodilatation [4] and/or impaired systolic heart
function [5].
Methods Immediately after cecal ligation and puncture to induce
peritonitis, mice randomly received vehicle (n = 11) or the adrenomedullin antibody HAM1101 (n = 9; 2 μg/g to achieve antibody
concentrations >4 ng/ml). Fifteen hours later animals were anesthetized,
mechanically ventilated and instrumented for a consecutive 6-hour
observation period. Colloid fluid resuscitation and continuous i.v.
noradrenaline were titrated to maintain normotensive (mean blood
pressure >60 mmHg) and hyperdynamic hemodynamics. Creatinine
blood levels and clearance were assessed as surrogate for glomerular
filtration [6,7]. All data are median (quartiles).
Results Adrenomedullin antagonism decreased the noradrenaline
requirements needed to achieve target hemodynamics (0.009 (0.009;
0.012) vs. 0.02 (0.015; 0.044) μg/g/hour, P <0.001), increased total
diuresis (2.6 (2.3; 3.9) vs. 0.6 (0.5; 2.7) ml, P = 0.028) resulting in improved
fluid balance (0.18 (0.14; 0.2) vs. 0.26 (0.19; 0.27), P = 0.011) and kidney
function (creatinine levels at the end of the experiment: 1.3 (1.2; 1.5) vs.
2.0 (1.5; 2.9) μg/ml, P = 0.006; creatinine clearance: 400 (316; 509) vs.
197 (110; 301) μl/minute, P = 0.006).
Conclusion In resuscitated murine septic shock, early modulation
of excess adrenomedullin activity via antibody HAM1101 improves
cardiovascular catecholamine responsiveness, ultimately associated
with attenuation of acute kidney injury.
Acknowledgements Supported by an unrestricted grant from
AdrenoMed AG.
Wu R, et al.: Mol Med 2009, 15:28-33.
Ertmer C, et al.: Br J Anaesth 2007, 99:830-836.
Guignant C, et al.: Intensive Care Med 2009, 35:1859-1867.
Mazzocchi G, et al.: Life Sci 2000, 66:1445-1450.
Hyvelin JM, et al.: J Card Surg 2002, 17:328-335.
Wagner F, et al.: Shock 2011, 35:396-402.
Wagner F, et al.: J Trauma 2011. [Epub ahead of print]
Activated protein C, severe sepsis and 28-day mortality
M De La Torre-Prados, A García-de la Torre, M Nieto-González,
I Lucena-González, R Escobar-Conesa, A García-Alcántara,
A Enguix-Armada
Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain
Critical Care 2012, 16(Suppl 1):P23 (doi: 10.1186/cc10630)
Introduction Protein C (PC) deficiency is prevalent in severe sepsis,
studies showing that more than 80% of patients with severe sepsis
have a baseline PC level below the lower limit of normal [1,2]. The aim
of the study was to relate the anticoagulation activity evaluated by PC,
with clinical parameters and 28-day mortality.
Methods A cohort study of 150 patients >18 years with severe sepsis
according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, in an ICU of a university
hospital. Demographic, clinical parameters and coagulation markers
during the first 24 hours were studied. PC activity was analysed using
a haemostasis laboratory analyser (BCS® XP; Siemens). Descriptive and
Critical Care 2012, Volume 16 Suppl 1
comparative statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15.0
(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Results We analyzed 150 consecutive episodes of severe sepsis
(16%) or septic shock (84%) admitted to the ICU. The median age was
64 years old (interquartile range, 48.7 to 71); male: 60%. The beginning
of severe sepsis took place in the emergency area in 46% of cases.
The main sources of infection were respiratory tract 38% and intraabdomen 45%; 70.7% had medical pathology. The 28-day mortality
was 22.7%. The profile of death patients were men (64.7%, n = 22),
with significantly higher average age (63 vs. 57 years; P = 0.049), as
well as clinical severity scores, APACHE II (29.8 vs. 24.1; P <0.001) and
SOFA (12.1 vs. 8.9; P <0.001) and major dysfunction organs (4.6 vs. 3.6;
P <0,001); we observed significantly major consumption of PC (55.2 vs.
70.1, P = 0.011). Lower levels of PC were found in surgery septic shock
patients, neurological focus or catheter-related infection and Gramnegative pathogens from blood cultures. The ROC analysis showed
superior risk prediction of SOFA score for 28-day mortality, AUC 0.81
(95% CI: 0.73 to 0.88, sensitivity: 73.5%; specificity: 76.7%, P = 0.001),
that improves by combining with PC, AUC 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.90,
sensitivity: 77%; specificity: 83%, P = 0.001).
Conclusion This cohort study showed an improvement in the survival
in septic patients under a lower consumption of PC. Low levels of PC are
associated with more severity in Sepsis, dysfunction organ and poor
Brunkhorst F, et al.: Protein C concentrations correlate with organ
dysfunction and predict outcome independent of the presence of sepsis.
Anesthesiology 2007, 107:15-23.
Yan SB, et al.: Low levels of protein C are associated with poor outcome in
severe sepsis. Chest 2001, 120:915-922.
Soluble usokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a useful
biomarker to define advent of sepsis in patients with multiple
M Patrani1, M Paraschos1, M Georgitsi2, E Giamarellos-Bourboulis2,
K Mandragos1
Korgialeneion Benakeion Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2University of Athens,
Medical School, Athens, Greece
Critical Care 2012, 16(Suppl 1):P24 (doi: 10.1186/cc10631)
Introduction Soluble usokinase plasminogen activator receptor
(suPAR) has been considered a useful biomarker to define prognosis in
patients with sepsis [1]. The present study aimed to define the kinetics
of suPAR during the physical course of patients with multiple injuries.
Methods A total of 62 patients were enrolled. All patients were
bearing: multiple injuries necessitating ICU admission with an injury
severity score (ISS) more than 8; and systemic inflammatory response
syndrome. Patients with infections upon ICU admission were excluded
from the study. Peripheral venous blood was sampled within the first
24 hours after ICU admission. Blood sampling was repeated within the
first 24 hours upon advent of sepsis. suPAR was measured in serum by
an enzyme immnunoassay.
Results Mean ISS of patients was 14.6. Median suPAR upon ICU
admission was 3.74 ng/ml (range: 1.57 to 16.77 ng/ml). No correlation
was found between ISS and suPAR. Sepsis was presented in 27 patients.
Median suPAR upon sepsis diagnosis was 7.05 ng/ml (range: 2.18 to
32.51 ng/ml) (P <0.0001 compared with ICU admission). This change
corresponded to median increase of 57.81%.
Conclusion The presented findings show that measurement of serum
suPAR may help diagnosis of sepsis presenting in patients with multiple
Savva A, et al.: J Infect 2011, 63:344-350.
Role of mannose-binding lectin on pneumococcal infections
J Solé Violán1, I García-Laorden1, F Rodríguez de Castro1, A Payeras2,
J Ferrer Agüero1, M Briones3, L Borderías4, J Aspa5, J Blanquer3, O Rajas5,
M García-Bello1, J Noda1, J Rello6, C Rodríguez Gallego1
Hospital Dr Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; 2Hospital Son Llatzer,
Palma de Mallorca, Spain; 3Hospital Clínico y Universitario, Valencia, Spain;
Hospital San Jorge, Huesca, Spain; 5Hospital de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain;
Hospital Universitario Vall d´Hebró, Barcelona, Spain
Critical Care 2012, 16(Suppl 1):P25 (doi: 10.1186/cc10632)
Introduction The role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency
(MBL2 XA/O + O/O genotypes) in host defences remains controversial.
The surfactant proteins (SP)-A1, SP-A2 and SP-D, and other collectins
whose genes are located near MBL2, are part of the first-line lung
defence against infection. We analyzed the role of MBL on susceptibility
to pneumococcal infection and the existence of linkage disequilibrium
(LD) among the four genes.
Methods We studied 348 patients with pneumococcal communityacquired pneumonia (P-CAP) and 1,591 controls. A meta-analysis of
MBL2 genotypes in susceptibility to P-CAP and to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was also performed. The extent of LD of MBL2 with
SFTPA1, SFTPA2 and SFTPD was analyzed.
Results MBL2 genotypes did not associate with either P-CAP or
bacteraemic P-CAP in the case–control study. The MBL-deficient O/O
genotype was significantly associated with higher risk of IPD in a metaanalysis, whereas the other MBL-deficient genotype (XA/O) showed
a trend towards a protective role. We evidenced the existence of LD
between MBL2 and SPs genes.
Conclusion The data do not support a role of MBL deficiency on
susceptibility to P-CAP or to IPD. LD among MBL2 and SP genes must
be considered in studies on the role of MBL in infectious diseases.
Role of serum biomarkers in the diagnosis of infection in patients
undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
M Pieri1, T Greco1, AM Scandroglio1, M De Bonis1, G Maj1, L Fumagalli2,
A Zangrillo1, F Pappalardo1
Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; 2Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele
Turro, Milan, Italy
Critical Care 2012, 16(Suppl 1):P26 (doi: 10.1186/cc10633)
Introduction Although rates and causal organisms of infections occurring
in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have already
been described [1], diagnosis of infection itself is challenging in clinical
practice. In addition, a significant heterogeneity in infection surveillance
practice patterns among ELSO centers has recently been reported [2]. The
aim of the study was to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) and
procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection in
critically ill patients requiring ECMO, and to assess the difference between
venovenous (VV) and venoarterial (VA) ECMO setting.
Methods A case–control study on 27 patients. We analyzed serum
values of PCT and CRP according to the presence of infection.
Results Forty-eight percent of patients had infection. Gram-negative
bacteria were the predominant pathogens (54%), and Candida was
the most frequent isolated microorganism overall (15%). PCT had an
AUC of 0.681 (P = 0.0062), for the diagnosis of infection in patients on
VA ECMO, but failed to discriminate infection in the VV ECMO group
(P = 0.14). The AUC of CRP was 0.707 (P ≤0.001) in all ECMO patients. In
patients receiving VA ECMO, PCT had good accuracy with 1.89 ng/ml
as the cut-off (SE = 87.8%, SP = 50%) and CRP as well with 97.70 mg/l
as the cut-off (SE = 85.3%, SP = 41.6%). PCT and CRP tests in parallel
had SE = 87.2%, and SP = 25.9%. Four variables were identified as
statistically significant predictors of infection: PCT and CRP tests in
parallel (OR = 1.184; P = 0.0008), age (OR = 0.980; P ≤0.001), presence
of infection before ECMO implantation (OR = 1.782; P ≤0.001), and the
duration of ECMO support (OR = 1.056; P ≤0.001).
Conclusion Both traditional and emerging inflammatory biomarkers
can help in the diagnosis of infection in patients receiving ECMO.
Indeed, we demonstrated for the first time that PCT is a reliable
infection marker in patients undergoing VA ECMO. We suggest routine