Management Plan - The Woodland Trust

Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Adcombe Wood &
Woodram Copse
Management Plan
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Page No.
Plan review and updating
Woodland Management Approach
Site details
Site description
2.1 Summary Description
2.2 Extended Description
Public access information
3.1 Getting there
3.2 Access / Walks
Long term policy
Key Features
5.1 Ancient Semi Natural Woodland
5.2 Semi Natural Open Ground Habitat
5.3 Informal Public Access
Work Programme
Appendix 1: Compartment descriptions
Conservation Features
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
The Trust’s corporate aims and management
approach guide the management of all the
Trust’s properties, and are described on Page 4.
These determine basic management policies
and methods, which apply to all sites unless
specifically stated otherwise. Such policies
include free public access; keeping local people
informed of major proposed work; the retention
of old trees and dead wood; and a desire for
management to be as unobtrusive as possible.
The Trust also has available Policy Statements
covering a variety of woodland management
The information presented in this Management
plan is held in a database which is continuously
being amended and updated on our website.
Consequently this printed version may quickly
become out of date, particularly in relation to the
planned work programme and on-going
monitoring observations.
Please either consult The Woodland Trust
website or contact the
Woodland Trust
([email protected]) to confirm
details of the current management programme.
There is a formal review of this plan every 5
years and a summary of monitoring results can
be obtained on request.
The Trust’s management plans are based on the
identification of Key Features for the site and
setting objectives for their management. A
monitoring programme (not included in this plan)
ensures that these objectives are met and any
necessary management works are carried out.
Any legally confidential or sensitive species
information about this site is not included in this
version of the plan.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
The management of our woods is based on our charitable purposes, and is therefore focused on
improving woodland biodiversity and increasing peoples’ understanding and enjoyment of woodland.
Our strategic aims are to:
• Protect native woods, trees and their wildlife for the future
• Work with others to create more native woodlands and places rich in trees
• Inspire everyone to enjoy and value woods and trees
All our sites have a management plan which is freely accessible via our website Our woods are managed to the UK Woodland Assurance Standard
(UKWAS) and are certified with the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) through independent audit.
In addition to the guidelines below we have specific guidance and policies on issues of woodland
management which we review and update from time to time.
We recognise that all woods are different and that the management of our sites should also reflect
their local landscape and where appropriate support local projects and initiatives. Guidelines like
these provide a necessary overarching framework to guide the management of our sites but such
management also requires decisions based on local circumstances and our Site Manager’s intimate
knowledge of each site.
The following guidelines help to direct our woodland management:
Our woods are managed to maintain their intrinsic key features of value and to reflect those of the
surrounding landscape. We intervene when there is evidence that it is necessary to maintain or improve
biodiversity and to further the development of more resilient woods and landscapes.
We establish new native woodland using both natural regeneration and tree planting, but largely the
latter, particularly when there are opportunities for involving people.
We provide free public access to woods for quiet, informal recreation and our woods are managed to
make them accessible, welcoming and safe.
The long term vision for our non-native plantations on ancient woodland sites is to restore them to
predominantly native species composition and semi-natural structure, a vision that equally applies to our
secondary woods.
Existing semi-natural open-ground and freshwater habitats are restored and maintained wherever their
management can be sustained and new open ground habitats created where appropriate.
The heritage and cultural value of sites is taken into account in our management and, in particular, our
ancient trees are retained for as long as possible.
Woods can offer the potential to generate income both from the sustainable harvesting of wood products
and the delivery of other services. We will therefore consider the potential to generate income from our
estate to help support our aims.
We work with neighbours, local people, organisations and other stakeholders in developing the
management of our woods. We recognise the benefits of local community woodland ownership and
management. Where appropriate we allow our woods to be used to support local woodland,
conservation, education and access initiatives.
We use and offer the estate where appropriate, for the purpose of demonstration, evidence gathering
and research associated with the conservation, recreational and sustainable management of woodlands.
In particular we will develop and maintain a network of long-term monitoring sites across the estate.
Any activities we undertake will conform to sustainable forest management principles, be appropriate for
the site and will be balanced with our primary objectives of enhancing the biodiversity and recreational
value of our woods and the wider landscapes.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
This public management plan briefly describes the site, specifically mentions information on public
access, sets out the long term policy and lists the Key Features which drive management actions.
The Key Features are specific to this site – their significance is outlined together with their long (50
year+) and short (5 year) term objectives. The short term objectives are complemented by a
detailed Work Programme for the period of this management plan. Detailed compartment
descriptions are listed in the appendices which include any major management constraints and
designations. A short glossary of technical terms is at the end. The Key Features and general
woodland condition of this site are subject to a formal monitoring programme which is maintained in
a central database. A summary of monitoring results is available on request.
Site name:
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Grid reference:
ST222178, OS 1:50,000 Sheet No. 193
35.64 hectares (88.07 acres)
Ancient Semi Natural Woodland, Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty,
Environmentally Sensitive Area, Site of Special Scientific Interest
2.1 Summary Description
Overlooking Taunton Vale in the Blackdown Hills area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and part of a
Site of Special Scientific Interest. Note that some of the extensive network of paths and rides are
very steep and may be wet and uneven underfoot.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
2.2 Extended Description
Adcombe Wood and Woodram Copse is a steeply sloping, westerly facing woodland in the
Blackdown Hills AONB. The wood is part of the scarp woodlands overlooking the Taunton Vale
which form a distinctive landscape feature. There are excellent examples of several of the seminatural broadleaved woodland types associated with the Blackdowns (See Ref File) for which the
wood has been designated as part of a larger Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). It is
principally high forest with small areas of coppice and scrub woodland. A number of veteran trees
survive in the wood including Small-leaf Lime, Oak and Wild Service.
The whole site is designated as Ancient Woodland. Part of the wood is ASNW, part was over
planted with oak C1900 and part is abandoned common land dominated by dense stands of
hawthorn with occasional mature open grown oak and ash. Additional interest lies in the unimproved
grassland field at the southern end of the site which was cleared of planted conifers in 1997-9, also
rides and glades which have noteworthy plant and butterfly populations.
The area is greensand over White Lias limestone, which when it occurs on the surface creates
patches with the potential for interesting flora. The soils are generally free draining, however there
are many springs arising in the wood which have caused localised land slips. These conditions are
typical of the Jurassic/Triassic ridges in Somerset.
There is an extensive ride network through the wood, some of which has fallen into disuse.
Management access is available directly from the public highway at the east of the wood with
additional access across farmland at the west. A RUPP runs along the eastern boundary and a
footpath, crosses near the northern end. althoug hthis is scarp in places and no longer used. The
wood is at least half a mile from the surrounding villages of Pitminster, Blagdon Hill, Felton and
Corfe; however footpath links to make the wood accessible and popular for active walkers. The
boundaries of the woodland are quite indistinct in places where it adjoins other woodland, but small
historic earth banks demarcate the WT ownership.
3.1 Getting there
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Adcombe Wood is set in a rural location between the villages of Blagdon Hill and Corfe, to the south
of Taunton. There is an entrance at the south east corner of the wood with space to park 2 or 3 cars
off Old Combe Hill, a narrow country lane without pavements running between Corfe and Feltham.
A bridleway runs from this entrance along the eastern boundary which slopes to the north. Foot
access can also be gained from public footpaths on the western boundary and a public footpath runs
east to west through the wood whilst numerous permissive paths offer further routes through the
wood. All of the paths are unsurfaced and can be uneven with large stones, sudden variations in
level and tree roots. In general the wood lies on a steep west facing slope, and most path routes
include walking up or down slopes - the east-west public footpath is particularly steep and can get
very slippery in winter.
Nearest toilet- various in Taunton including Paul Street and Taunton Bus station - which have
facilities for disabled people (RADAR key required), and baby changing facilities approximately 4.5
miles away. Information is taken from Taunton Deane council website April 2013.
Nearest bus stop: Bus services in the area are limited but the nearest stop is at the Lamb & Flag
Inn, Blagdon Hill - from where you walk approximately 1/2 mile along a dead-end country lane
(Curdleigh Lane) and then follow a public footpath to the right across a level pasture field (stock
often present) into the north east entrance at the bottom of the wood. Information taken from
Traveline website April 2013 or phone 0870 608 2 608
Nearest railway station: Taunton - approximately 4.5 miles away
3.2 Access / Walks
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
To fulfil the Trust aim of protecting ancient woodland the intention is to maintain the wood as mixed
high forest with a diversity of age and structure, with a healthy understorey and ground flora together
with plentiful deadwood habitat. As the wood is already structurally and species diverse it is
envisaged that this will be achieved with minimum intervention.
In order to maintain the level of public access and enjoyment rides will be managed to keep them
open; this will also benefit the ride edge habitat.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
The Key Features of the site are identified and described below. They encapsulate what is important
about the site. The short and long-term objectives are stated and any management necessary to
maintain and improve the Key Feature.
5.1 Ancient Semi Natural Woodland
Adcombe Wood is part of a complex of ASNW, PAWS and planted secondary woodland. Approx
quarter of the wood is thought to be ASNW, the remainder of the site has been planted or
regenerated naturally. The wood is dominated by ash, pedunculate oak and an understorey of hazel
and thorn. There are scattered small leaved lime, hornbeam and wild service throughout and typical
calcicolous shrubs such as spindle, wayfaring tree and dogwood. The ground flora contains
abundant bluebell, dog's mercury and stinking iris as well as Somerset notable species tutsan and
herb paris. Rides, glades, ponds, springs and wet boggy areas add diversity. The wood has a varied
structure with areas of dense canopy and other parts more open with a scattering of mature trees,
abundant understorey and regeneration.
one small area of rhododendron was found and mostly eliminated during the last plan period
Adcombe Wood and Prior's Park SSSI is designated because the woods include excellent examples
of several of the broadleaved semi-natural woodland types associated with the Blackdown Hills.
Adcombe is in Favourable condition whilst the others are all Improving. Adcombe links these areas
of ASNW, PAWS and other semi natural habitats thereby contributing to WT aim of protecting
ancient woodland.
The alder dominated boggy areas of the site have caused its inclusion in the UKBAP Priority Habitat
under Wet Woodland.
Opportunities & Constraints
Neighbouring woodland is conifer Plantation on Ancient Woodland and has very limited ground flora
- ensuring Adcombe Wood is robust will allow it to act as a seed reservoir if the PAWS is restored
Factors Causing Change
Deer Damage, invasive rhododendron
Long term Objective (50 years+)
The wood is maintained as predominately mixed native broadleaved woodland with varied native
species and age structure. A diverse mix of woodland ground flora will be present throughout the
wood. Abundant dead and dying wood provide habitat for fungi and invertebrates.
Short term management Objectives for the plan period (5 years)
The area needs little intervention, all that will be required during this plan will be checks annually for
threats or invasive species and to take action to reduce the threat that they pose, if found. One very
thorough search to be made once during the plan with checks in other years.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
5.2 Semi Natural Open Ground Habitat
A rough grassland field extending to 2.9ha. Although neglected for many years and planted with
conifers, which have now been removed, the field contains a rich diversity of herbs and grasses,
including orchids and cowslips. Wet flushes in the field support communities associated with
unimproved marshy grassland. The field is a good butterfly habitat with the nationally rare Duke of
Burgundy and Wood White recently present (1996) but not seen during the last plan period. At a
small separate grassland glade Early Gentian was once recorded and may still be present, as well
as common centaury, and both early purple and common-spotted orchids.
The large meadow has been summer grazed and this has helped to keep the ground flora becoming
dominanted by rushes. Scrub is not grazed and has been cut on a rotational basis to prevent it
Calcareous grassland within the Blackdown Hills is restricted to a small number of locations. Despite
their small size they support a wide range of species. The Woodland Trust site supports a good
representation of these, including many rarities, which add to the overall biodiversity of the area.
This goes to fulfil the Trusts aims of benefiting all biodiversity.
Opportunities & Constraints
The grassland sites are small and isolated, although the wider habitat is being restored in the
Neroche area.
Access to the smaller glade is difficult
Factors Causing Change
Natural Succession To woodland, Scrub invasion
Long term Objective (50 years+)
To maintain the field as species rich unimproved grassland as long as it can be done sustainably.
Scattered trees and small clumps of scrub will be maintained for diversity, but covering only a small
portion (to a maximum of 20% of the entire meadow at any given time).
The open glade to the east of the wood remains open and abundant with wildflowers.
Short term management Objectives for the plan period (5 years)
The meadow will continue to be grazed over summer months to achieve a balance of desirable
species, not dominated by coarse rushes.
The edges will be cut on a five year rotation to ensure a transitional woodland edge habitat. This is
known to be suitable for the rare butterflies amongst many other species.
Scrub will be surveyed to establish up to 20% cover within the meadow and to keep it within this limit
larger blocks will be broken up after grazing has finished each year if required.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
5.3 Informal Public Access
There are paths and rides throughout the wood which link into a wider footpath network. Due to
springs and surface water a number of grips and stretches of boardwalk have been installed. The
public footpath crossing the northern end of the wood is extremely steep. A RUPP runs along the
eastern boundary. Several benches have been installed at viewpoints on the RUPP through the
Woodland Dedication scheme. There is a small pull-in at the road entrance allowing parking for 2-3
cars. A designated Parish Council Circular walk adjoins the western boundary.
The paths are steep in places and at times slippery; they are unsurfaced and as a consequence
uneven in places.
The Woodland Trust believes everyone should have accessible woodland within walking distance
from their homes and the ownership and management of Adcombe Wood goes to help further this
Opportunities & Constraints
Much of the site is steep and slippery especially at wet boggy areas.
Fly-tipping at the entrance of Old Combe Hill is an occasional nuisance.
High levels of usage have potential to damage biodiversity interests
Factors Causing Change
Surface water from springs causing erosion of paths, Illegal motorbiking has caused damage to
Long term Objective (50 years+)
The site will be well used and highly valued by many local people who enjoy a more challenging
walk up the slopes of this wood to be rewarded by the fine views from the top
Short term management Objectives for the plan period (5 years)
Short term objective is to keep the wood safe and welcoming for quiet informal recreation. To
acheive this path and rides cut twice a year, with maintenance as necessary on the boardwalk and
grip. Annual checks will be made to ensure this keeps the paths in suitable condition to meet
Once in the plan period a survey of access will be undertaken to ascertain the suitability of the paths
focussing on areas known to as wet flushes to see if the existing infastructure is adequate. Action
will be taken to improve or remove structures as necessary to meet objective of safe, welcoming
Entrances will be maintained when paths cut with additional litter clearance as necessary to ensure
that the gate does not become a fly-tip hotspot.
Tree safety surveys will be undertaken following Trust policy.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Type of Work
2013 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2013 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2013 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2014 WMM - General Site Management
2014 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2014 WMM - General Site Management
2014 NWH - Maintenance Work
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
Clearance of fallen tree to clear
pathways for visitor access
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
clear debris from stream trapped
against bridge and repair stile at top
end of fenced off area
At mapped location undertake the
following works to improve access:
Remove all logs in wet section.
Scrape back top soil to reach hardcore
of path leaving a level surface ideally
with camber facing to the west. Scrape
back to a distance of 6m either side of
exisitng boardwalk.
Dig drainage ditch to east side of path
beneath the bank
Dig drainage channel to allow collected
water to flow away from path and dig
second such drainage channel 10m to
the south of existing boardwalk in
natural hollow. These should allow the
water to flow into the woodland to the
west of the path.
Clear debris from underneath existing
boardwalk to allow free drainage.
Cut back 1/4 of vegetation behind
fenceline surrounding meadow to
create transitional wood edge habitat.
Focus on the densest part and work in
rotation cutting anew section each year
Cut the scrub regrowth in the meadow.
Concentrate on the second half (where
the growth is thickest) leaving the first
half uncut
Due By
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
2014 SL - Tree Safety Emergency Work
2014 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2014 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2014 SL - Tree Safety Emergency Work
2015 SL - Tree Safety Emergency Work
2015 WMM - General Site Management
2015 WC - Site Maintenance
2015 WC - Site Maintenance
2015 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2015 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2016 WMM - General Site Management
2016 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2016 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
Safely remove storm damage 2 ash
trees from bottom path as discussed at
site meeting with Site Manager.
(Please refer to WT EM contact terms
aand conditions).
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
remove two fallen trees from bridlepath 12/12/14
clear two trees on the top path that are
blocking/leaning over the path.
Cut back 1/4 of vegetation behind
fenceline surrounding meadow to
create transitional wood edge habitat.
Focus on the densest part and work in
rotation cutting a new section each year
removal of old tree guards from bottom
edge of wood (above lower path)
c.f. removal of old tree guards from
bottom edge of wood (above lower
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
Cut back 1/4 of vegetation behind
fenceline surrounding meadow to
create transitional wood edge habitat.
Focus on the densest part and work in
rotation cutting anew section each year
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
2017 WMM - General Site Management
2017 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2017 AW - Visitor Access Maintenance
2018 WMM - General Site Management
Cut back 1/4 of vegetation behind
fenceline surrounding meadow to
create transitional wood edge habitat.
Focus on the densest part and work in
rotation cutting anew section each year
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
Path cut around entire path network
and entrance maintenance. Litter pick
as required.
Cut back 1/4 of vegetation behind
fenceline surrounding meadow to
create transitional wood edge habitat.
Focus on the densest part and work in
rotation cutting anew section each year
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
32.80 Oak
2.90 Ash
1860 High forest
Key Features
Mostly wet
Informal Public
ground/exposed Access
site, Very steep
mine shafts/sink
holes etc
Ancient Semi
Woodland, Area
of Outstanding
Natural Beauty,
Sensitive Area,
Site of Special
Scientific Interest
Mixed high forest woodland, generally NVC W8 ash high forest with hazel understorey and
occasional veteran small-leaved lime, hornbeam, and wild service tree. Part is ASNW, part was
planted with oak in 19C and part is abandoned common land dominated by dense stands of
hawthorn with occasional mature open grown oak and ash. A section was heavily thinned around
1990, the site now consisting of scattered standards of oak and ash with hazel understorey and
young ash regeneration. An area near Curdleigh Farm was underplanted with mixed species which
has generally failed but a few wild cherry survive.
The ground flora is richest in the older parts of the wood, with bluebell, arum, dog's mercury, wood
anemone, woodruff, moschatel, yellow archangel and Herb Paris. The more recently established
woodland is dominated by ivy. Localised boggy areas and springs throughout cause the site to be
listed as Wet Woodland under the UKBAP. There is a small glade in the wood which is notable for
its calcareous grassland interest, this has the local name of the ‘Green Patch’.
The woodland is listed as a SSSI for the overall ancient woodland habitat.
Wood pasture
Informal Public Area of
habitats/species Access
on or adjacent to
Natural Beauty,
site, Services &
Sensitive Area
Unimproved calcareous rough grassland from which Norway spruce P1980 were removed under a
WIG in 1997-9. Some small groups of native trees and scrub remain which are developing into
individual parkland trees. Some felling under the powerlines in the winter of 2012-13 has pollarded
some trees.
Early Gentian was once recorded at this site, but has not been found for many years. Wood White
and Duke of Burgundy Fritillaries have been recorded, although the poor summers of 2007 – 8 may
have decimated these colonies as none have been recorded since then.
Gentle north facing slopes dominated by grass but with rush and blackthorn regeneration abundant.
Many interest wildflowers are to be found including orchids, moschatel, oxeye daisy and cowslips.
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Ancient Woodland
Ancient woods are defined as those where there has been continuous woodland cover since at least
1600 AD. In Scotland ancient woods are defined strictly as sites shown as semi-natural woodland
on the ‘Roy’ maps (a military survey carried out in 1750 AD, which is the best source of historical
map evidence) and as woodland all subsequent maps. However, they have been combined with
long-established woods of semi-natural origin (originating from between 1750 and 1860) into a
single category of Ancient Semi-Natural Woodland to take account of uncertainties in their
identification. Ancient woods include Ancient Semi-Natural Woodland and plantations on Ancient
Woodland Sites (see below). May support many species that are only found in ancient woodland.
Ancient Semi - Natural Woodland
Stands in ancient woods defined as those consisting predominantly of native trees and shrubs that
have not obviously been planted, which have arisen from natural regeneration or coppice regrowth.
Ancient Woodland Site
Stands in ancient woods that have been converted to plantations, of coniferous, broadleaved or
mixed species, usually for timber production, including plantations of native species planted so
closely together that any semi-natural elements of the understorey have been suppressed.
Beating Up
Replacing any newly planted trees that have died in the first few years after planting.
A tree having broad leaves (such as oak) rather than needles found on conifers (such as Scots
The uppermost layer of vegetation in a woodland, or the upper foliage and branches of an individual
Felling of all trees within a defined area.
Permanent management division of a woodland, usually defined on site by permanent features such
as roads. See Sub-compartments.
A tree having needles, rather than broadleaves, and typically bearing cones.
Continuous Cover forestry
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
A term used for managing woods to ensure that there are groups or individual trees of different
ages scattered over the whole wood and that some mature tree cover is always maintained.
Management is by repeated thinning and no large areas are ever completely felled all at once.
Trees which are cut back to ground levels at regular intervals (3-25 years).
Exotic (non-native) Species
Species originating from other countries (or other parts of the UK) that have been introduced by
humans, deliberately or accidentally.
Field Layer
Layer of small, non-woody herbaceous plants such as bluebells.
Group Fell
The felling of a small group of trees, often to promote natural regeneration or allow planting.
Long Term Retention
Discrete groups of trees (or in some cases single trees) that are retained significantly past their
economic felling age. Operations may still be carried out within them and thinning is often necessary
to maintain stability.
Minimum Intervention
Areas where no operations (such as thinning) will take place other than to protect public safety or
possibly to control invasive exotic species.
Mixed Woodland
Woodland made up of broadleaved and coniferous trees.
National vegetation classification (NVC)
A classification scheme that allows an area of vegetation to be assigned to the standardised type
that best matches the combination of plant species that it contains. All woodlands in the UK can be
described as being one of 18 main woodland types (W1 - W18), which principally reflect soil and
climatic conditions. For example, Upland Oakwoods are type W11, and normally occur on well
drained infertile soils in the cooler and wetter north and west of Britain. Each main type can be
subdivided into numerous subtypes. Most real woods contain more than one type or sub-type and
inevitably some woods are intermediate in character and can't be properly described by any sub
Native Species
Species that arrived in Britain without human assistance.
Natural Regeneration
Naturally grown trees from seeds falling from mature trees. Also regeneration from coppicing and
Adcombe Wood & Woodram Copse
Origin & Provenance
The provenance of a tree or seed is the place where seed was collected to grow the tree or plant.
The origin is the geographical location within the natural range of a species from where seeds/tree
originally derives. Thus an acorn collected from a Turkey oak in Edinburgh would have an Edinburgh
provenance and a southern European origin.
Re-planting an area of woodland, after it has been felled.
Shrub Layer
Formed by woody plants 1-10m tall.
The growing and care of trees in woodlands.
Trees of one type or species, grouped together within a woodland.
Temporary management division of a compartment, which may change between management plan
The felling of a proportion of individual trees within a given area. The remaining trees grow to fill in
the space created.
Tubex or Grow or Tuley Tubes
Tubes placed over newly planted trees or natural regeneration that promote growth and provide
protection from animals such as rabbits and deer.
The control of vegetation immediately around newly planted trees or natural regeneration to promote
tree growth until they become established. Either by hand cutting or with carefully selected weed
killers such as glyphosate.
Trees or groups of trees blown over (usually uprooted) by strong winds and gales.
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