CS4442/9542b Artificial Intelligence II Prof. Olga Veksler Lecture 2 Introduction to ML Basic Linear Algebra Matlab Some slides on Linear Algebra are from Patrick Nichols Outline • Introduction to Machine Learning • Basic Linear Algebra • Matlab Intro Intro: What is Machine Learning? • How to write a computer program that automatically improves its performance through experience • Machine learning is useful when it is too difficult to come up with a program to perform a desired task • Make computer to learn by showing examples (most frequently with correct answers) • “supervised” learning or learning with a teacher • In practice: computer program (or function) which has a tunable parameters, tune parameters until the desirable behavior on the examples Different Types of Learning • Learning from examples: • Supervised Learning: given training examples of inputs and corresponding outputs, produce the “correct” outputs for new inputs • study in this course • Unsupervised Learning: given only inputs as training, find structure in the world: e.g. discover clusters • Other types, such as reinforcement learning are not covered in this course Supervised Machine Learning • Training samples (or examples) x1,x2,…, xn • Each example xi is typically multi-dimensional • xi1, xi2 ,…, xid are called features, xi is often called a feature vector • Example: x1 = {3,7, 35}, x2 = {5, 9, 47}, … • how many and which features do we take? • Know desired output for each example y1, y2,…yn • This learning is supervised (“teacher” gives desired outputs) • yi are often one-dimensional • Example: y1 = 1 (“face”), y2 = 0 (“not a face”) Supervised Machine Learning • Two types of supervised learning: • Classification (we will only do classification in this course): • yi takes value in finite set, typically called a label or a class • Example: yi ∈{“sunny”, ”cloudy”, ”raining”} • Regression • yi continuous, typically called an output value • Example: yi = temperature ∈[-60,60] Toy Application: fish sorting classifier fis h fis h im ag sp ec ie salmon s e sorting chamber sea bass Classifier design • Notice salmon tends to be shorter than sea bass • Use fish length as the discriminating feature • Count number of bass and salmon of each length 2 4 8 10 12 14 bass 0 1 3 8 10 5 salmon 2 5 10 5 1 0 12 10 Count 8 salmon sea bass 6 4 2 0 2 4 8 10 Length 12 14 Single Feature (length) Classifier • Find the best length L threshold fish length < L classify as salmon fish length > L classify as sea bass • For example, at L = 5, misclassified: • 1 sea bass • 16 salmon 2 4 8 10 12 14 bass 0 1 3 8 10 5 salmon 2 5 10 5 1 0 • Classification error (total error) 17 = 34% 50 Single Feature (length) Classifier 12 fish classified as salmon fish classified as sea bass 10 Count 8 salmon sea bass 6 4 2 0 2 4 8 10 12 14 Length • After searching through all possible thresholds L, the best L= 9, and still 20% of fish is misclassified Next Step • Lesson learned: • Length is a poor feature alone! • What to do? • Try another feature • Salmon tends to be lighter • Try average fish lightness Single Feature (lightness) Classifier 1 2 3 4 5 bass 0 1 2 10 12 salmon 6 10 6 1 0 14 12 Count 10 8 salmon sea bass 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 Lightness • Now fish are classified best at lightness threshold of 3.5 with classification error of 8% Can do better by feature combining • Use both length and lightness features • Feature vector [length,lightness] lightness ba ss decision boundary decision regions sa lm on length • Classification error 4% lightness Even Better Decision Boundary length • Decision boundary (wiggly) with 0% classification error Test Classifier on New Data lightness • The goal is for classifier to perform well on new data • Test “wiggly” classifier on new data: 25% error length What Went Wrong? added 2 samples • We always have only a limited amount of data, not all possible data • We should make sure the decision boundary does not adapt too closely to the particulars of the data we have at hand, but rather grasps the “big picture” What Went Wrong: Overfitting • Complicated boundaries overfit the data, they are too tuned to the particular training data at hand • Therefore complicated boundaries tend to not generalize well to the new data • We usually refer to the new data as “test” data Overfitting: Extreme Example • Say we have 2 classes: face and non-face images • Memorize (i.e. store) all the “face” images • For a new image, see if it is one of the stored faces • if yes, output “face” as the classification result • If no, output “non-face” • also called “rote learning” • problem: new “face” images are different from stored “face” examples • zero error on stored data, 50% error on test (new) data • Rote learning is memorization without generalization slide is modified from Y. LeCun Generalization training data test data • The ability to produce correct outputs on previously unseen examples is called generalization • The big question of learning theory: how to get good generalization with a limited number of examples • Intuitive idea: favor simpler classifiers • William of Occam (1284-1347): “entities are not to be multiplied without necessity” • Simpler decision boundary may not fit ideally to the training data but tends to generalize better to new data Underfitting • We can also underfit data, i.e. use too simple decision boundary • chosen model is not expressive enough • There is no way to fit a linear decision boundary so that the training examples are well separated • Training error is too high • test error is, of course, also high Underfitting → Overfitting underfitting “just right” overfitting Sketch of Supervised Machine Learning • Chose a learning machine f(x,w) • • • • w are tunable weights x is the input sample f(x,w) should output the correct class of sample x use labeled samples to tune weights w so that f(x,w) give the correct label for sample x • Which function f(x,w) do we choose? • has to be expressive enough to model our problem well, i.e. to avoid underfitting • yet not to complicated to avoid overfitting Training and Testing • There are 2 phases, training and testing • Divide all labeled samples x1,x2,…xn into 2 sets, training set and test set • Training phase is for “teaching” our machine (finding optimal weights w) • Testing phase is for evaluating how well our machine works on unseen examples Training Phase • Find the weights w s.t. f(xi,w) = yi “as much as possible” for training samples (xi, yi) • “as much as possible” needs to be defined • How do we find parameters w to ensure f(xi,w) = yi for most training samples (xi,yi) ? • This step is usually done by optimization, can be quite time consuming Testing Phase • The goal is to design machine which performs well on unseen examples • Evaluate the performance of the trained machine f(x,w) on the test samples (unseen labeled samples) • Testing the machine on unseen labeled examples lets us approximate how well it will perform in practice • If testing results are poor, may have to go back to the training phase and redesign f(x,w) Generalization and Overfitting • Generalization is the ability to produce correct output on previously unseen examples • In other words, low error on unseen examples • Good generalization is the main goal of ML • Low training error does not necessarily imply that we will have low test error • we have seen that it is easy to produce f(x,w) which is perfect on training samples (rote “learning”) • Overfitting • when the machine performs well on training data but poorly on test data Classification System Design Overview • Collect and label data by hand salmon sea bass salmon salmon sea bass sea bass • Split data into training and test sets • Preprocess by segmenting fish from background • Extract possibly discriminating features • length, lightness, width, number of fins,etc. • Classifier design • Choose model for classifier • Train classifier on training data • Test classifier on test data we look at these two steps in this course Basic Linear Algebra • Basic Concepts in Linear Algebra • vectors and matrices • products and norms • vector spaces and linear transformations • Introduction to Matlab Why Linear Algebra? • For each example (e.g. a fish image), we extract a set of features (e.g. length, width, color) • This set of features is represented as a feature vector • [length, width, color] • All collected examples will be represented as collection of (feature) vectors [l1, w1 , c1 ] [l2 , w2 , c2 ] example 1 example 2 [l3 , w3 , c3 ] example 3 l1 l 2 l 3 w1 w2 w3 c1 c2 c3 matrix • Also, we will use linear models since they are simple and computationally tractable What is a Matrix? • A matrix is a set of elements, organized into rows and columns rows feature 4 feature 3 feature 2 feature 1 columns 2 7 6 10 1 4 4 9 6 4 9 6 example 1 example 2 example 3 Basic Matrix Operations • addition, subtraction, multiplication by a scalar a b e c d + g f a + e b + f add elements = h c + g d + h a b e c d − g f a − e b − f subtract elements = h c − g d − h a b α ⋅ a α ⋅ b = α ⋅ multiply every entry c d α ⋅ c α ⋅ d Matrix Transpose T • n by m matrix A and its m by n transpose A x11 x12 x x 21 22 A= M M xn1 xn2 L x1m L x2m L M L xnm x11 x21 x x 12 22 T A = M M x1m x2m L xn1 L xn2 L M L xnm Vectors • Vector: N x 1 matrix x1 v= x2 • dot product and magnitude defined on vectors only x2 x2 x2 a a+b v x1 b a-b a x1 vector addition b x1 vector subtraction More on Vectors • n-dimensional row vector x = [x1 x2 K xn ] x1 x 2 T x = • Transpose of row vector is column vector M xn • Vector product (or inner or dot product) x, y = x ⋅ y = xT y = x1 y1 + x2 y2 +K+ xn yn = ∑x y i i i=1Kn More on Vectors • Euclidian norm or length x = 2 x ∑i x, x = i =1Kn • If ||x|| =1 we say x is normalized or unit length xT y • angle q between vectors x and y : cos θ = x y • inner product captures direction relationship cos θ = 0 y cos θ = 1 cos θ = −1 y x y x T x y=0 x⊥y xT y = x y > 0 x xT y = − x y < 0 More on Vectors • Vectors x and y are orthonormal if they are orthogonal and ||x|| = ||y|| =1 • Euclidian distance between vectors x and y x− y = ∑( x − y ) 2 i i =1Kn x-y x i y Linear Dependence and Independence • Vectors x1, x2,…, xn are linearly dependent if there exist constants α1, α2,…, αn s.t. • • • α1x1+ α2x2+…+αnxn = 0 αi ≠ 0 for at least one I Vectors x1, x2,…, xn are linearly independent if α1x1+ α2x2+…+αnxn = 0 ⇒ α1 = α2=…= αn= 0 Vector Spaces and Basis • The set of all n-dimensional vectors is called a vector space V • A set of vectors {u1,u2,…, un } are called a basis for vector space if any v in V can be written as v = α1u1+ α2u2+…+αnun • u1,u2,…, un are independent implies they form a basis, and vice versa • u1,u2,…, un give an orthonormal basis if 1. ui = 1 ∀i 2. ui ⊥ u j ∀i ≠ j Orthonormal Basis • x, y,…, z form an orthonormal basis T x = [1 0 0] x⋅ y = 0 y = [0 1 0] x⋅z = 0 y⋅z = 0 T z = [0 0 1] T Matrix Product a11 AB = M an1 a12 M an2 a13 M an3 L M L b11 a1d b21 M b31 and M bd1 L L L L L b1m b2m b3m = M bdm cij cij = 〈ai, bj〉 ai is row i of A bj is column j of B • # of columns of A = # of rows of B • even if defined, in general AB ≠ BA Matrices • Rank of a matrix is the number of linearly independent rows (or equivalently columns) • A square matrix is non-singular if its rank equal to the number of rows. If its rank is less than number of rows it is singular. • Identity matrix AI=IA=A 1 0 I = 0 0 0 L 0 1 L 0 0 O M 0 L 1 T • Matrix A is symmetric if A=A 1 2 9 5 2 9 5 7 4 8 4 3 6 8 6 4 Matrices -1 • Inverse of a square matrix A is matrix A s.t. -1 AA = I • If A is singular or not square, inverse does not exist T • Pseudo-inverse A is defined whenever A A is not singular (it is square) -1 T T A = (A A) A T -1 T AA =(A A) AA=I MATLAB • Starting matlab • • • Clear + - */ ^ help arith • A=[2 3;4 5] A’ • • • • • • find(A>3), colon operator * / ^ .* ./ .^ eye(n),norm(A),det(A),eig(A) max,min,std help matfun • if i== 1else end, if else if end for i=1:0.5:2 … end while i == 1 … end Return help lang Graphics • • Matrix and vector operations .m files scripts function y=square(x) help lang Flow control • • • • • ==,&,|,~,xor help relop double Char Programming in Matlab • • • • Lists, vectors, matrices • • • • help elfun Data types • • Relational operators • • • • Scalars, variables, basic arithmetic • • • • quit more help general Elementary functions • Basic Navigation • • • • xterm -fn 12X24 matlab • help graphics help graph3d File I/O • • load,save fopen, fclose, fprintf, fscanf

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