46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2015) 1358.pdf Modeling NiO Activities in Silicate Melts Considering Separate Contributions from Ni 2+ and O2-: Dependence of O2- on melt polymerization. L. Anderson1, E. Young1, and R. O. Colson1, 2, 1Minnesota State University Moorhead, Moorhead MN, [email protected] Introduction: Partition coefficients for trace element components in silicate melts depend on activity coefficients in the melt. These activity coefficients vary with composition in complex ways. We have previously proposed that modeling of trace element activities might be improved if the oxide component is modeled as the composite of separate activities for cation and oxide anion [1, 2]. Our modeling in this way has been quite successful, but we have found that a few points from the most depolymerized melts from  and  deviate from the trend of other data, suggesting unmodeled variations in depolymerized melts. We report here additional experiments in depolymerized melts to test these results and to understand what might be causing these deviations. Experimental Methods: End-member compositions for two series between more polymerized and less polymerized melts were prepared from reagent grade chemicals and ground with an agate mortar and pestle under methanol. These end member compositions were: Diopsidic, FMS, and SCMA10-5 (labled as Depoly in Table 1). A series of compositions for each trend was prepared by mixing these end-member mixtures in the proportions shown in Table 1, again grinding under methanol. About 0.3wt% NiO was added to each composition. Experiments were run on Pt wire loops in a 1-atm gas mixing furnace in a CO2 atmosphere at temperatures as shown in Table 1. Temperatures were measured with a type-S thermocouple placed adjacent to the sample. The activity coefficients for NiO in the Fe-free experiments were measured using square wave voltometry after the methodology in . In this method, a voltage is imposed between platinum electrodes immersed in the melt and the resulting current measured. This current results from the reduction of Ni+2 into the platinum cathode while O2- is oxidized to O2 at the anode. Free energy for the reaction, and activity coefficients for NiO, can be calculated from the voltage at which the current reaches a peak. To check for equilibrium during the experiments, we checked for shifts in peak position at different rates of voltage change. The electrochemical method only works in Fe-free systems because reduction of the Fe would mask any current arising from the reduction of Ni2+. To measure the activity coefficients for NiO in the Fe-bearing systems, we used an approach similar to , measuring the ratio of the concentration of Ni in the Pt loop to that in the melt (using a JEOL 733 Superprobe with long counting times). At any one temperature, pressure, and fO2, we can compare Ni concentration in platinum in equilibrium with a known melt to that in an unknown melt according to the relationship a*melt/X*Pt = amelt/XPt where a*melt = activity of NiO in a standard melt in which the activity coefficient is known, amelt = the activity of NiO in the melt of interest, and XPt = the concentration of Ni in Pt. We calculated the activity coefficient from the relationships: γ = a/X, with the activity determined relative to the standard state of liquid NiO after the free energy expression from . Table 1. Experimental Compositions and Results T (C) 100 % DiDepoly 75% DiDepoly 50% DiDepoly 35% DiDepoly 1562 γ NiO 1.92 SiO2 Al2O3 MgO CaO FeO 55.5 0 18.6 25.9 0 1564 2.24 52.6 2.5 22.9 21.9 0 1561 2.38 49.6 5 27.3 18.0 0 1600 2.67 47.9 6.5 29.9 15.6 0 FMS75%Di FMS50% Di FMS25%Di FMS0%Di 1566 1.89 49.0 0 17.7 19.4 13.9 1566 1.56 42.5 0 16.9 13.0 27.7 1564 1.33 36.0 0 16.0 6.5 41.6 1564 1.32 29.5 0 15.1 0 55.4 Modeling NiO Activity: Activities for NiO in silicate melts vary in a complex way with melt polymerization, as shown both by the degree of scatter in the data seen in Figure 1 and in the apparent reversal of trend. We have proposed previously [1, 2] that in order to understand this complexity, we should look beyond NiO acting as a simple oxide compound, and instead consider the Ni+2 cation and the O-2 ion acting separately within the melt. The activity of NiO can be related to activites of the ionic species through a reaction of the sort NiO ↔ Ni2+ + O2-. We have proposed  that a near-ideal mixing model can be derived for Ni2+ in silicate melts, where the Ni2+ mixes with a ‘mixing pool’ of cations of similar size and charge to Ni+2. The proportion of a cation 46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2015) 1358.pdf 7.50 6.50 γNiO 5.50 4.50 3.50 2.50 1.50 0.30 oxide ion goes to infinity as BO goes to 0, an unrealistic result. Thus, the deviation seen in Fig. 2 is not unreasonable. 0.7159 *NBO2/BO γNiO/(modeled γNi2+) that participates in the mixing pool is inversely proportional the difference in cation size between the cation of interest and Ni2+. The activity for Ni2+ then takes on the form of aNi2+ = XNi2+/Mixing Pool. 2.8 2.3 1.8 2:1 1.3 0.3 -0.2 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 Molar SiO2 + TiO2 + 0.5*AlO1.5 Fig. 1. NiO activity coefficients relative to a standard state of liquid NiO. Squares are from the present study. Diamonds are from [1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12]. We also proposed that the O-2 oxide ion activity can be modeled assuming that the oxide ion is buffered by bridging oxygens and non-bridging oxygens (BO and NBO respectively) according to the following reaction. Si-O-Si + O-2 2Si-O or (BO) + O-2 2(NBO) From this we can derive the activity of the oxide ion as the following: aO2- = K(NBO2/BO)  Figure 2 shows the residuals for this type of modeling for activity data from a number of workers. Residuals of the model are assigned to error in the modeling of the oxide ion through the expression: 0.7159*NBO2/BO – γNiO/(modeled Ni2+). Conceptually, this expression is the difference between the activity for the oxide ion modeled from the expression above and a value for the oxide ion activity based on measured values for NiO activity and the modeled Ni2+ activity. This yields a deviation of the modeled oxide ion activity from values based on actual measurements. The sharp decrease in scatter in the data relative to Figure 1 shows the overall success of this approach in understanding the complex variations in NiO activity with composition, but the residuals deviate sharply from zero as the melt becomes increasingly depolymerized—meaning that our model for the activity of the oxide ion appears to become increasingly wrong for less polymerized melts. We might expect that bridging oxygens can only buffer the oxide ion under conditions where the concentration of bridging oxygens is large compared to the oxide ion, true only in highly-polymerized melts. Also, we know that the expression for the oxide ion activity above must fail at low BO, since the model predicts that the activity of 1:1 0.8 3:1 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 Molar SiO2 + TiO2 + 0.5*AlO1.5 Figure 2. Data sources as in Fig 1. Ratios show ratio NBO:BO, with NBO calculated as (2*total O)-4*(SiO2 + TiO2+0.5*AlO1.5)/(total O), and BO = 1-NBO. The activity of the oxide ion begins to deviate from the model equation at values for SiO2+TiO2+0.5*AlO1.5 less than about 0.6, corresponding to a NBO/BO ratio of about 1:1. Additional sharp deviations occur at NBO/BO ratios of 2:1 and 3:1. The correlation between where these deviations occur and stoichiometric parameters for NBO/BO suggests the possibility that we can better understand variations in the oxide ion activity, and from that variations in activities for a wide range of trace element oxides, by considering that the buffering reactions controlling the oxide ion in the melt change with degree of polymerization. Conclusions: Modeling activity for NiO by considering separate variations in activities for Ni2+ and O2- works well, but only if the variations in activity of the oxide ion are modeled differently in regions of the melt defined by stoichiometric ratios of NBO/BO. This is consistent with the idea that fundamental reactions in the melt that buffer the oxide ion change as melt polymerization changes. Other trace oxides might be modeled in a similar fashion, with the same variation in the oxide ion applying to those components as well. References:  Colson R. O., et al (1995) GCA 59, 909925  Colson R. O. et al (2005) GCA 69, 3061-3073  Holzheid A. et al (1997) Chem. Geol. 139, 21-38  O’Neill H St. C., and Eggins S M (2002) Chem. Geol. 186, 151-181  Capobianco C J and Amelin A A (1994) GCA 58, 125140  Campbell I H and Naldrett A J (1979) Can. Mineral. 17, 495-505  Doyle C D and Naldrett A J (1987) GCA 51, 213-219  Ertel W et al (1997) GCA 61, 4707-4721  Pretorius E B and Muan A (1992) J Am Ceramic Soc 75, 1490-1496  Semkow K W and Haskin L A (1985) GCA 49, 1897-1908  Snyder D A, and Carmichael I S E (1992) GCA, 56, 303-318.
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