Chapter 10 Gases & Kinetic Molecular Theory I) Gases, Liquids, Solids Gases Liquids Solids Particles far apart Particles touching Particles closely packed very compressible slightly comp. Incomp. Dg << DR < Ds No definite vol. def. vol. def. vol. No def. shape No def. shape def. shape 1 II) Properties of Gases A) Amount (mass or moles) low molar masses Independent of vol. (V), pressure (P), temp. (T) B) Volume Gas takes shape of its container & completely fills it. vol. gas = vol. container Dependent on P & T 2 C) Temperature Both P & V depend on T - MUST use Kelvin D) All gases are miscible - mix completely homogeneous mixture 3 E) Pressure Gas particles exert pressure by colliding w. walls of container Depends on V & T SI unit : Pascal, 2 1 Pa = 1 N/m 4 1) Pressure Measurement Barometer: measures pressure of atmosphere Manometer: measures press. of gas or gas above a liquid in a vessel a) Units Standard Atmospheric Pressure Avg. atmospheric pressure at 0°C at sea level that supports a column of Hg 760 mm high. (1 atm) 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.325 k Pa = 14.7 lbs/in2 5 6 7 III) Gas Laws A) Boyle’s Law Volume is inversely proportional to Pressure (constant T & fixed amt. gas) 8 B) Charles’s Law Volume is directly proportional to Absolute Temp. (constant P & fixed amt. gas) 9 1) Ex: A gas occupies a vol. of 12.3 L at 177°C. What is its vol. when the temp. is 27°C? 10 C) Avogadro’s Law Avogadro’s Hypothesis: Equal volumes of gases, at same T & P, contain equal numbers of particles. Avogadro’s Law Volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas V = k3 C n 11 1) Determination of Mol. Wt. If 2 gases have equal vol. then there are equal numbers of particles & mass 1 molecule B (amu) mass 1 molecule A (amu) = mass B (g) mass A (g) Proof 12 2) Ex: There are 2 balloons at same P & T. One balloon contains H2 & the other contains an unknown gas, B, each w. a vol. of 1 L and masses as shown below. What is the MW of B? H2 1L 0.0900 g B 1L 1.44 g 13 IV) Ideal Gas Law Replace proportionality & rearrange 14 Universal Gas Constant Ideal Gas Hypothetical gas that behaves according to the Ideal Gas Law under all conditions Real Gas Ideal Gas low P, high T 15 A) Standard Temp. & Pressure Temp. & Pressure affect Volume Need a “standard” T & P as a reference point STP T = 0 °C (273.15 K) P = 1 atm 16 B) Molar Volume Volume of 1 mole of an ideal gas, Vm, at a given T & P At STP: Standard Molar Volume 1) Ex: What volume does 3.0 mol of gas occupy at STP? 17 C) Super Combined Gas Law Alternate writing of IGL: 18 D) Calc. Using Ideal Gas Law Given any three of P, V, n & T calc. the unknown quantity 1) Ex: What is the pressure in a container that holds 0.452 g of NH3, in a vol. of 400.0 mL & a temp. of 25°C? 19 2) Ex: A sample of gas occupies a vol. of 5.0 L at a pressure of 650.0 torr & a temp. of 24°C. We want to put the gas in a 100.0 mL container which can only withstand a pressure of 3.0 atm. What temp. must be maintained so that the container doesn’t explode. 20 21 V) Further Applications of IGL A) Determine MW & Molecular Formula MF = (EF)n n = MF EFW Determine EF & EFW from % composition data Determine MW PV = nRT D = = m/n D = m/V P RT 22 1) Ex: An unknown gas has a mass of 0.50 g. It occupies 1.1 L at a pressure of 252 torr & a temp. of 243°C. Its emp. formula is C2H5. What is its molecular formula? 23 24 B) Stoichiometry Problems Involving Gases Moles of reactants & products are related by balanced eqn. Moles of gases related to P, V & T Use Avogadro’s Law to express quantities of gas in volumes V% n (constant T & P) V = kn 25 1) Ex 1: What volume of oxygen gas would be required to produce 0.50 L of SO2 by the following rx.? 2 ZnS + 3 O2(g) v 2 ZnO + 2 SO2(g) 26 2) Ex 2: When the following rxn. was carried to completion at 27°C & 0.987 atm 3.20 L of CO was produced. How many moles of Sb4O6 were initially present? Sb4O6 + 6 C v 4 Sb + 6 CO(g) 27 3) Ex 3: What vol. of N2(g) at STP would be produced by the rxn. of 0.86 g of NO(g)? 2 NO(g) + 2 H2(g) v 2 H2O(g) + N2(g) Remember: 1 mol gas = 22.41 L at STP 28 VI) Gas Mixtures & Partial Pressures Each gas acts independently. Total pressure depends only on the total # particles & not kind. A) Partial Pressures Pressure each gas would exert if it were the only gas present at same T & V as for mixture. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures Ptot = P1 + P2 + P3 + CCC 29 N Ptot = 3 Pj j=1 Assume each gas behaves ideally Pj = nj ( RT V N N j=1 j=1 ) Ptot = 3Pj = (RT/V)3nj = (RT/V)ntot 30 1) Mole Fraction Pj nj = nT Related to partial pressures Pj PT nj (RT/V) = nT (RT/V) = Pj Pj = Pj PT 31 2) Ex: A mixture of 40.0 g of O2 & 40.0 g of He has a total pressure of 0.900 atm. What is the partial pressure of O2? 32 VII) Kinetic-Molecular Theory Explains behavior of ideal gases A gas consists of molecules in constant random motion K.E. = ½ m (urms) 2 urms = root-mean-square (rms) speed 1 N E si ) 2 1/2 urms = ( N i 33 34 5 Postulates of Kinetic Theory (1) Molecules move continuously and randomly in straight lines in all directions and various speeds. -- Properties of a gas that depend on motion of molecules, such as pressure, will be the same in all directions. (2) Gases are composed of molecules whose size is negligible compared to the average distance between them. -- Most of the volume occupied by a gas is empty space. -- Ignore the volume occupied by the molecules. (3) Intermolecular forces (attractive and repulsive forces between molecules) are negligible, except when the molecules collide with each other. -- A molecule continues moving in a straight line with undiminished speed until it collides with another gas molecule or with the walls of the container. (4) Molecular collisions are elastic. -- Energy can be transferred between molecules but the total average kinetic energy remains constant. (5) The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature, K (kelvin). -- At any given temperature, the molecules of ALL gases have the SAME average kinetic energy. – The higher the temperature, the greater the average kinetic energy. 35 A) Ideal Gas Hypothetical gas which conforms to all the assumptions of the K.M.T. B) Real Gases Obey K.M.T. (behave ideally) at high temp. & low pressure High Temp: K.E. great enough to overcome I.A.F. Low Pressure: few particles in a large volume 36 C) Molecular Speeds Distribution of KE & u is dependent on Temperature Total KE of 1 mole of gas = 3/2 (RT) Avg. KE of 1 molecule = ½ m u2 1 3 ½ m u = ----- C ---- RT NA 2 2 3 RT 3 RT u = ------- = ------NAm 2 3 RT 1/2 u = ( -------- ) 37 1) Ex: Calc. the speed of a molecule of O2 that has the avg. KE at room temp, 20°C. 3 RT 1/2 u = ( -------- ) 38 D) Qualitative Interpretation of Gas Laws Pressure caused by collisions of molecules w. container’s walls - frequency of collisions/unit area - force/collision Molecular conc. & avg. speed determines the freq. of coll. Avg. molecular speed determines avg. force/coll. 39 1) Boyle’s Law T constant | KE constant | u constant ˆ avg. molecular force/coll. remains constant Inc. Volume Molecular conc. dec. - freq. of coll./unit area dec. ˆ P dec. 40 1) Charles’s Law T inc. | KE inc. | u inc. - inc. force/coll. - inc. freq. of coll. Keep P constant Volume must inc. so the # molecules/unit vol. & freq. of coll. will dec. ˆ T inc., V inc. 41 VIII) Diffusion & Effusion A) Diffusion Dispersion of a gas throughout a vessel Why does it take so long for a gas to diffuse? - have molecular collisions Avg. distance traveled between collisions is called the mean free path Higher density of gas | Smaller m.f.p. 42 43 44 45 2) Ex: The rate of effusion of an unknown gas is 2.91 times faster than that of NH3. What is the molecular wt. of the gas? 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 B) Calculations 1) Ex 1: The pressure of 2.50 mol of Xe in a 2.000 L flask is 31.6 atm at 75°C. Is the gas behaving ideally? 53 54

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