Youth justice annual statistics

Youth Justice Statistics
2013/14
England and Wales
Youth Justice Board / Ministry of Justice
Statistics bulletin
Published 29th January 2015
Youth Justice Statistics
2013/14
England and Wales
Youth Justice Board / Ministry of Justice
Statistics bulletin
Also available on the Gov.uk website at
www.gov.uk/government/collections/youth-justice-annual-statistics
Contents
Contents
4
Introduction
5
Statement of use
7
Executive Summary
9
Flows through the Youth Justice System, 2013/14
14
Understanding the flows through the Youth Justice System
15
Chapter 1: Gateway to the Youth Justice System
17
Chapter 2: First Time Entrants to the Youth Justice System
23
Chapter 3: Characteristics of people in the Youth Justice System
26
Chapter 4: Proven offences by young people
30
Chapter 5: Young People Sentenced
33
Chapter 6: Use of remand for young people
38
Chapter 7: Young people in custody
42
Chapter 8: Behaviour management in the secure estate
47
Chapter 9: Proven re-offending by young people, 2012/13 cohort
54
Chapter 10: Criminal Histories of Young People
58
Chapter 11: Comparisons with the adult system
61
Customer Service Commitment
65
Links to other resources
67
Explanatory notes
69
Data sources and quality
69
Annex A: Performance Outcomes in the YJS, 2013/14
74
Annex B: Resources in Youth Offending Teams
79
Annex C: Levels of crime experienced by young people
83
Annex D: International comparisons
85
Annex E: Average Time from Offence to Completion
86
Annex F: Sources used for each chapter
87
4
Introduction
These statistics concentrate on the flow of young people through the Youth
Justice System (YJS) from the 1st April 2013 to 31st March 2014 (hereafter
2013/14). Following on from the recommendations in the Overcoming Barriers
to Trust in Crime Statistics report 1 this publication guides the user through the
flows of the justice system in England and Wales for young people aged 1017 years.
The data described in this document come from various sources including the
Home Office (HO), Ministry of Justice (MoJ), Youth Offending Teams (YOTs)
and youth secure estate providers. The report is produced by the Analysis
team and the Information team in the Youth Justice Board (YJB) under the
direction of the Chief Statistician in the MoJ.
Details of all of the administrative databases, bespoke collections and
research findings used for this report can be found in the Explanatory notes.
Where data are taken from other publications, links can be found within the
chapters. A separate Glossary has been published alongside this report to
provide users with further information on the terminology, especially the types
of disposals given to young people.
As this is an annual report, the focus is on 2013/14, however, much of the
data used in this report are drawn from quarterly publications, and in some
cases more up to date information may be available. We hope this document
provides an overall summary of the Youth Justice System which allows users
to find everything in one place. All data referred to are available in the
supplementary tables that accompany this report.
This publication starts by looking at the number of young people arrested,
given youth cautions (previously reprimands and final warnings), Penalty
Notices for Disorder or Anti-Social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs). It then goes on
to look at those who are entering the system for the first time. The publication
continues to describe the characteristics of young people who have been
convicted, in terms of their demographics.
The publication also covers the proven offences committed by young people
and the sentences they received. There are separate chapters on the use of
remand (both in custody and in the community) for young people; details of
the profile of young people in custody and behaviour management in the
youth secure estate.
Towards the end of the publication we look at trends in proven youth reoffending, the criminal histories of young people in the system and the
differences between the trends in the youth and adult system.
In addition, there are annexes to the publication that cover key outcome
measures relating to youth justice in 2013/14, as well as information on
budget and staffing levels in Youth Offending Teams. There is a brief
1
www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/reports---correspondence/reports/index.html
5
discussion of International Youth Justice Systems, a reference to the Crime
Survey for England and Wales as well as an annex on the average number of
days from offence to completion. There are also details of the data sources
used in this publication.
The publication includes extended information on the ethnic group of young
people in various sections of the report and shows comparisons with young
adults (as well as older adults). We have also included some information on
knife possession and the average amount of time from offence to completion.
These new items are in response to customer need.
This 2013/14 report includes historic information on the period of the August
2011 disturbances for some of the information presented (e.g. arrests in
2011/12). For further information please see;
www.gov.uk/government/publications/statistical-bulletin-on-the-publicdisorder-of-6th-9th-august-2011--2
6
Statement of use
The focus for this publication is to draw together a range of statistical data
about young people (aged 10-17 years) in the Youth Justice System in
2013/14. The publication is intended to help users understand the various
stages of the Youth Justice System in England and Wales, and the volume of
young people at each stage.
The contents of the report will be of interest to government policy makers and
those monitoring policy, the agencies engaged with the Youth Justice System
at both national and local levels, as well as academics, the voluntary and
community sector and others who want to understand more about the Youth
Justice System.
The data are compared with the previous year (2012/13 in most cases) as a
short term comparator, 2010/11 as a medium term comparator and where
data are available, a longer time series is provided back to 2003/04.
‘National Statistics’ designation
The UK Statistics Authority has designated these statistics as National
Statistics, in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007
and signifying compliance with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics.
Designation can be broadly interpreted to mean that the statistics:
• meet identified user needs;
• are well explained and readily accessible;
• are produced according to sound methods; and
• are managed impartially and objectively in the public interest.
Once statistics have been designated as National Statistics it is a statutory
requirement that the Code of Practice continue to be observed.
Implementation of changes to offence classifications
In July 2013, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) re-designed the
classifications used to present police recorded crime statistics, following
recommendations from the National Statistician’s review of Crime Statistics in
England and Wales in June 2011. The changes to classifications were
implemented in the ONS statistical bulletin ‘Crime in England and Wales, year
ending March 2013’, published in July 2013, alongside a methodological note 2
providing more detail on the changes and their impact on time-series for key
measures. No change has been made to the coverage of offences in the
police recorded crime series, and most changes are presentational, with some
offences moving between classifications or being separated out of existing
groupings.
2
www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/method-quality/specific/crime-statisticsmethodology/presentational-changes-on-police-recorded-crime-in-england-and-wales.pdf
7
In this publication information is presented mainly on the new offence group
breakdowns.
For further information on the terms used in this report, please see the
Glossary provided.
If you have any feedback, questions or requests for further information
about this statistical bulletin, please direct them to the appropriate
contact given at the end of this report.
8
Executive Summary
This publication looks at the English and Welsh Youth Justice System (YJS)
in 2013/14 in terms of the number of young people in the system, their
offences, outcomes and the trends over time.
Overview
The Youth Justice System (YJS) in England and Wales works to prevent
offending and re-offending by young people under the age of 18 years. The
system is different to the adult system and is structured to address the needs
of young people. The YJS is far smaller than the adult system (see Chapter
11 for more details). The Youth Justice Board (YJB) is the executive nondepartmental public body that oversees the YJS in England and Wales.
The overall number of young people in the YJS continued to reduce in
2013/14. Reductions have been seen in the number entering the system for
the first time (First Time Entrants), as well as reductions in those receiving
sentences in and out of court, including those receiving custodial sentences.
The re-offending rate has increased, but there were significant falls in the
number of young people in the re-offending cohort, the number of re-offenders
and the number of re-offences. Since 2010/11, there have been 51 per cent
fewer young people coming into the Youth Justice System and 40 per cent
fewer young people (under 18) in custody.
Arrests and out of court disposals 3
Latest available arrests data relate to the 2012/13 financial year. In 2012/13
there were 1.07 million arrests for notifiable offences in England and Wales, of
which 126,809 were of people aged 10-17 years. These 10-17 year olds
arrested accounted for 11.8 per cent of all the arrests, whereas all 10-17 year
olds make up 10.5 per cent of the total population of England and Wales of
offending age. 4
The number of arrests of young people has fallen by 24 per cent between
2011/12 and 2012/13. This continues the downward trend seen since the
peak in arrests in 2006/07.
In 2013/14, 25,625 youth cautions were issued by the Police. Please note,
reprimands and final warnings were replaced by youth cautions for offences
committed from 8th April 2013. This is a decrease of 17 per cent on the 30,739
given in 2012/13, and a decrease of 73 per cent on the 96,381 given in
2003/04.
3
A disposal is an umbrella term referring both to sentences given by the court and to out of
court decisions made by the police. Disposals can be divided into four separate categories of
increasing seriousness starting with out of court disposals then moving into first-tier and
community-based penalties through to custodial sentences.
4
In England and Wales people of offending age are classed as those aged 10 years or older.
The general 10-17 population figures are from the ONS mid year estimates for 2012.
9
There were also 400 Penalty Notices for Disorder (PNDs) 5 given to 16-17
year olds in 2013/14 and in 2013 there were 277 Anti Social Behaviour Orders
(ASBOs) given to young people. In the last year, the number of PNDs issued
to young people has decreased substantially due to PNDs no longer being
available to young people from 8th April 2013 and the number of ASBOs was
at a similar level to the number in 2012.
Proven offences by young people
Overall there were 90,769 proven offences committed by young people that
resulted in a caution or conviction in 2013/14, down by eight per cent from
2012/13 and down by 68 per cent since 2003/04. The largest percentage falls
in proven offences between 2010/11 and 2013/14 have been in the following
offences; public order offences fell by 60 per cent, breach of statutory order
offences by 55 per cent and motoring offences by 54 per cent. The number of
drugs offences reduced by 34 per cent and the number of robbery offences
reduced by 37 per cent between 2010/11 and 2013/14.
First Time Entrants
In 2013/14, there were 22,393 first time entrants (FTEs) to the Youth Justice
System. The number of first time entrants fell by 75 per cent from 2003/04 to
2013/14 and fell by 20 per cent in the last year.
Trends in first time entrants, 2003/04 to 2013/14
Number of First Time Entrants
Youth caution
Conviction
120,000
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
2013/14
2012/13
2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
2005/06
2004/05
2003/04
In 2013/14, 30 per cent of FTEs to the Youth Justice System were young
people aged 10-14. This group showed the biggest reduction (59 per cent) in
FTEs between 2010/11 and 2013/14.
5
Penalty notices for disorder should be no longer available for persons under 18 from 8th April
2013.
10
Young people receiving a substantive outcome 6
There were 41,569 young people who received a substantive outcome 7 in
England and Wales in 2013/14. This number has reduced by 16 per cent from
2012/13 and by 51 per cent since 2010/11.
Young people sentenced
In 2013/14 there were 33,902 young people sentenced in England and Wales.
This has fallen by 23 per cent in the last year. The number of young people
sentenced to immediate custody fell by 21 per cent from 2,815 in 2012/13 to
2,226 in 2013/14. This number has fallen by 65 per cent since 2003/04, when
there were 6,288 young people sentenced to immediate custody.
Young people in custody (under 18)
The average population of young people in custody in 2013/14 (under 18) was
1,216. The average population in custody (under 18) has reduced by 21 per
cent in the last year, and by 56 per cent since 2003/04. The average custody
population in 2013/14 including 18 year olds held in the youth secure estate
was 1,318. This represents a 23 per cent reduction on the average of 1,708 in
2012/13.
Trends in young people in custody, 2003/04 to 2013/14
Av erage No. y oung people in c ustody
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
2013/14
2012/13
2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
2005/06
2004/05
2003/04
Cus tody Population (under 18)
Custody Population (inc 18)
Overall the average length of time spent in custody increased from 85 days in
2012/13 to 90 days in 2013/14. For Detention and Training Orders (DTOs), it
decreased from 115 to 109, for remand it increased from 45 to 51 and for
longer sentences it increased from 302 to 409.
6
A substantive outcome is an out of court or court disposal.
7
As recorded by Youth Offending Teams.
11
Behaviour management in the youth secure estate
There were 5,714 incidents of restrictive physical interventions (RPIs) used in
the youth secure estate in 2013/14, down by 21 per cent from 2010/11 and a
down by 12 per cent since 2012/13. The number of RPIs per 100 young
people increased from 20.5 in 2010/11 and from 23.8 in 2012/13 to 28.4 in
2013/14.
Alongside this, there were 1,318 incidents of self harm, a decrease of seven
per cent on 2010/11 and a decrease of eight per cent on 2012/13. The
number of self harm incidents per 100 young people increased from 4.1 in
2010/11 and 5.2 in 2012/13 to 6.6 in 2013/14.
There were 2,932 assaults by young people in custody, down by 18 per cent
on 2010/11, but an increase of seven per cent when compared with 2012/13.
The number of assaults per 100 young people increased from 10.1 in both
2010/11 and 2012/13 to 14.6 in 2013/14.
There were 2,392 occasions where single separation was used in Secure
Children’s Homes or Secure Training Centres, down by 46 per cent since
2010/11 and down 12 per cent on 2012/13. The number of single separation
incidents per 100 young people decreased from 64.5 in 2010/11 and 42.7 in
2012/13 to 38.9 in 2013/14.
Deaths in custody and number of serious incidents
There have been 16 deaths of young people in custody since 2000; the most
recent of these being three deaths in youth custody during 2011/12.
Complete data on the number of serious incidents in the community is not
available for 2012/13 or 2013/14, because of a change in the way that
information is recorded.
Re-offending by young people
The overall (binary) re-offending rate for young people was 36.1 per cent in
2012/13, with an average of 1.08 re-offences per offender in the cohort
(frequency rate) and 2.99 re-offences per re-offender.
The number of young people in the re-offending cohort has gone down every
year since 2007/08, with particular reductions among those with no previous
offences and those receiving out of court disposals. As such, the cohort is
comprised of young people whose characteristics mean that they are more
likely to re-offend. This is reflected in the higher average number of previous
offences for each young person, which was 1.74 in 2007/08 and 2.57 in
2012/13.
Criminal history of young people
The proportion of young people sentenced for indictable offences and who
were previously known to the Youth Justice System has decreased over time.
In 2003/04, 88 per cent of the young people sentenced for an indictable
offence, had one or more previous convictions or cautions. By 2013/14 this
proportion had fallen to 82 per cent.
12
In 2013/14, four per cent of young people sentenced for an indictable offence
had 15 or more previous offences. This figure has risen from the two per cent
in 2003/04 but decreased from five per cent in 2012/13.
Average time from offence to completion
The criminal court timeliness measure is an estimated average of the time
criminal cases spend in the Criminal Justice System, across both Magistrates’
and Crown tiers of criminal court.
In 2013/14, for all completed criminal cases 8 , the average number of days
from the time that the offence took place until the case was completed (and a
final decision was made) was 111 days. This is an increase on the 108 days
in the previous year and continues an upward trend.
8
In Magistrates and at Crown Courts
13
Flows through the Youth Justice System, 2013/14
Recorded Crime:
1
3,718,043
Young people diverted
from formally entering
YJS2 (not known)
Young people
formally dealt with by
the YJS: 71,918
Defendants
proceeded against:
45,893
Young people
arrested (2012/13):
126,809
Out of court
disposals: 26,025
Youth Cautions3:
25,625
Young people
sentenced by the
courts: 33,902
Notes on flow chart:
1. Includes adults and young
people. Age of offenders is not
known when crimes are
reported to the police.
2. The number of young people
diverted from formally entering
the Youth Justice System
through schemes such as
Triage is not currently known
3. Reprimands and final warnings
were
replaced
by
youth
cautions for offences committed
th
from 8 April 2013.
4. Penalty notices for disorder
should be no longer available
for persons under 18 from 8th
April 2013.
5. Average custodial sentence
length is for indictable offences
only.
Anti-Social
Behaviour Orders
(2013): 277
Young people given
community
sentences by the
courts: 22,675
Penalty Notices for
4
Disorder given to
young people: 400
Young people given
other court
sentences: 9,001
Young people given
custodial sentences:
2,226
Average population
in custody:
1,216
Average custodial
sentence length:
14.5 months5
14
Understanding the flows through the Youth Justice
System
In 2013/14 there were 3.7 million crimes reported to the police in England
and Wales. At the time of reporting these crimes, the age of the person
responsible is not always known.
The police in England and Wales made around 1.07 million arrests in 2012/13
(data for 2013/14 is not yet available 9 ), and of these 126,809, 11.8 per cent,
were of young people aged 10-17 and for notifiable offences. Not all young
people who come into contact with the police formally enter the Youth Justice
System; some will be diverted through schemes such as Triage or a
restorative justice programme 10 . The number of young people who are
diverted from the system at this stage is unknown. In some cases no further
action will be taken against a young person, the case will be dropped or they
are found to be not-guilty at court, which is why arrest figures are higher than
those of disposals.
The true number of offences committed by young people that come to the
attention of the police or other criminal justice agencies will be higher than is
shown by these statistics, due to the reasons set out above.
In 2013/14 there were 71,918 young people formally dealt with by the Youth
Justice System (proceeded against or given an out of court disposal). Please
note, that the same young person may be responsible for more than one
offence in a given period (e.g. a young person may be cautioned for an
offence in April and then receive a referral order for a different offence in
September).
There are a number of ways offences are dealt with either outside or inside
the courts;
Anti Social Behaviour Order (ASBOs)
ASBOs are a civil disposal given to young people for low level anti social
behaviour. The ASBO is not a formal criminal disposal, but to breach the
conditions of an ASBO can result in a criminal outcome, including a custodial
sentence. There were 277 ASBOs issued to young people in 2013 (latest
information available is for calendar year 2013).
9
Due to be published in April 2015. Information for 2012/13 is available at
www.gov.uk/government/statistics/police-powers-and-procedures-england-and-wales-2012to-2013
10
For more information please see the User Guide to Home Office Crime Statistics:
www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/116226/user-guidecrime-statistics.pdf
15
Out of court disposals
1. Youth cautions – In 2013/14, 25,625 youth cautions were issued by the
Police. Please note, reprimands and final warnings were replaced by
youth cautions for offences committed from 8th April 2013.
2. Penalty notices for disorder (PND) – Financial penalties for low level
offences for 16-17 year olds. In 2013/14 there were 400 PNDs given to
young people. Please note, penalty notices for disorder should be no
longer available for persons under 18 from 8th April 2013.
Court proceedings and young people sentenced
In 2013/14 there were 45,893 defendants (aged 10-17) proceeded against in
the courts. Of these 33,902 were sentenced for their offences. Those who
were not sentenced may have been found not guilty or had the case against
them dropped. Of those that were sentenced:
3. 9,001 young people were sentenced to first tier 11 (sentences, including
fines and discharges);
4. A further 22,675 young people were sentenced to community
sentences, including youth rehabilitation orders. See Glossary for more
information;
5. A small number of young people were sentenced to immediate custody
(2,226) accounting for 6.6 per cent of all young people with sentences.
The average custodial sentence given for indictable only offences was
14.5 months. The most common type of custodial sentence given was
a Detention and Training Order (DTO), where half the time is typically
served in custody and the remainder in the community on licence and
under YOT supervision.
Information on waiting times
In 2013/14, the average time from offence to completion for youth arrest 12 for
young people was 89 days.
The average time from offence to completion consists of the following
processes:




Offence to arrest - average of 12 days;
Arrest to charge - average of 19 days;
Charge to first listing - average of 17 days;
First listing to completion - average of 41 days.
11
This is an umbrella term used for the following orders made at court: bind overs,
discharges, fines and deferred sentences. For more information please see the Glossary.
12
Where a Magistrate’s youth panel sat and the date of arrest is known.
16
Chapter 1: Gateway to the Youth Justice System
This chapter provides details of young people who were arrested13 and given
out of court disposals. These disposals included youth cautions (these were
previously reprimands and warnings) 14 and Penalty Notices for Disorder
(PNDs) 15 . There is also information on Anti Social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs)
which are a civil sanction given at court and can also be given on conviction
for a criminal offence.
The data on out of court disposals has mostly been taken from the MoJ’s
Court Proceedings Database (CPD). For further information see the quarterly
Criminal Justice Statistics publication:
www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-justice-statistics-quarterly
Further information on young people sentenced can be found in Chapter 5
and definitions can be found in the Glossary.
Key findings

In 2012/13, there were 126,809 arrests of young people (aged 10-17)
for notifiable offences 16 , accounting for 11.8 per cent of the total
number arrested. Young people accounted for 10.5 per cent of the
offending age population 17 (i.e. those aged 10 and over), suggesting
that young people are over-represented in the criminal justice system.

In 2013/14, there were 25,625 youth cautions given to young people in
England and Wales. This is a decrease of 17 per cent on the 30,739
given in 2012/13, and a decrease of 73 per cent on the 96,381 given in
2003/04.

There were 400 Penalty Notices for Disorder given to 16-17 year olds
in 2013/14 and in 2013 there were 277 Anti Social Behaviour Orders
(ASBOs) given to young people.
13
The arrest data come from the Home Office and are only available up to and including
2012/13. Information for 2013/14 will be released in April 2015.
14
Reprimands and Warnings were abolished on 8 April 2013 by the Legal Aid, Sentencing
and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 and replaced by youth cautions.
15
Penalty notices should be no longer available for persons aged under 18 from 8 April 2013.
16
Notifiable offences are those offences which require the police to record an incident as a
crime and report the occurrence to the Home Office.
17
Taken from the ONS mid-year (census) population estimates for 2012.
17
Preventing Youth Crime and Diversion from the Youth Justice System
Section 37 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, states that the principal aim of
the Youth Justice System is the prevention of offending and re-offending by
young people. It therefore remains important that local (youth justice) services
are measured against their ability to reduce first time entrants to the system.
There have been recent changes to funding and delivery mechanisms for
prevention and diversion. While the responsibility for reducing first time
entrants to the system remains with YOTs, the responsibility and funding for
youth crime prevention is more dispersed across a number of agencies,
including:
o
Police and Crime Commissioners (PCCs) with funding from the
Home Office;
o
Children’s Services via the Early Intervention grant from the
Department for Education;
o
Centrally commissioned Liaison and Diversion Services funded
by NHS England;
o
Troubled Families services funded by Department for
Communities and Local Government.
This means that diversionary activity is now often undertaken by agencies
other than YOTs.
The Early Intervention Foundation (EIF), established in 2013, also focuses on
early intervention in areas such as family and preventing young people getting
involved in gangs and violence. 18
The changes introduced by the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of
Offenders Act (2012) made further, significant changes to the out of courts
framework. These changes support the aim of diverting young people away
from the Youth Justice System where appropriate.
Out of court disposals allow the police to deal quickly and proportionately with
low level, often first time offending which does not merit prosecution at court.
This allows the police to spend more time on frontline duties and tackling
serious crime.
It is important that out of court disposals are used appropriately and that their
use is understood by practitioners and the following is a set of revised and
strengthened guidance to support this.
Liaison and Diversion
The Youth Justice Liaison and Diversion (YJLD) pilot scheme was developed
in 2008 to enhance health provision within the Youth Justice System. The aim
was to facilitate help for young people with mental health and developmental
problems, speech and communication difficulties, learning disabilities and
18
See, for example, http://www.eif.org.uk/
18
other similar vulnerabilities at the earliest opportunity after they enter the
Youth Justice System.
The final evaluation report 19 relating to six pilot schemes was delivered to the
Department of Health in January 2012. It made a number of
recommendations including integrating diversion within existing services and
into police practice and developing an evidence-based ethos.
Arrests for notifiable offences
Latest data on arrests are taken from the Home Office’s ‘Police Powers and
Procedures England and Wales 2012/13’ statistical release:
www.gov.uk/government/statistics/police-powers-and-procedures-englandand-wales-2012-to-2013
Data for 2013/14 are not yet available and are scheduled to be published in
April 2015.
Figures on arrests reported to the Home Office rely on incidents being
reported to and recorded by the police. They can also be affected by police
priorities and practices, and therefore should not be used to infer total levels
of crime committed by young people.

In 2012/13, there were 126,809 arrests of young people (aged 10-17)
for notifiable offences. Arrests of young people accounted for 11.8 per
cent of total arrests in 2012/13. Young people accounted for 10.5 per
cent of the offending age population (i.e. those aged 10 and over).

Young males accounted for 10 per cent of total arrests and young
females two per cent. They accounted for 5.4 per cent and 5.1 per cent
of the overall population respectively.

Arrests of young people fell by 24 per cent between 2011/12 and
2012/13, with the largest percentage fall being for robbery (down by 27
per cent). This continues the downward trend seen since the peak in
arrests in 2006/07.

Between 2002/03 and 2012/13 the number of young people arrested
for notifiable offences has fallen by 58 per cent, from 299,500 in
2002/03 to 126,809 in 2012/13. The types of offences that had the
largest percentage falls over that period were theft and handling stolen
goods; criminal damage; and fraud and forgery.
19
www.gov.uk/government/publications/evaluation-of-the-youth-justice-liaison-and-diversionpilot-scheme-final-report
19
Young people arrested for notifiable offences
Chart 1.1: Trends in arrests of young people for notifiable offences by
gender, 2002/03 to 2012/13
400,000
Males
Females
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
2012/13
2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
2005/06
2004/05
2003/04
2002/03
Youth cautions
Excluding motoring offences, there were 25,625 youth cautions given to
young people in 2013/14. This was a decrease of 17 per cent on the 30,739
given in 2012/13, and a decrease of 73 per cent on the 96,381 given in
2003/04.

Between 2012/13 and 2013/14 the number of youth cautions fell by 23
per cent for females, and 15 per cent for males. This was a 17 per cent
reduction overall.

The number of youth cautions fell for all ethnic groups, with Asian and
White having the largest percentage falls.

Between 2012/13 and 2013/14 there were decreases across all offence
types, including a 38 per cent decrease in the number of young people
given youth cautions for robbery; and a 23 per cent fall in those for
criminal damage and arson. There was also a 14 per cent decrease in
young people given youth cautions for sexual offences, from 401 to
346.
Chart 1.2: Trends in youth cautions by gender 20 , 2003/04 to 2013/14
140,000
Males
Females
Youth Cautions
120,000
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
2013/14
2012/13
2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
2005/06
2004/05
2003/04
20
Excluding cautions where gender is unspecified.
20
Anti-Social Behaviour Orders
Anti-Social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs) are civil orders, designed to prevent
someone causing ‘harassment, alarm or distress’. They can be issued on
application to a court by a relevant body (police, local authority, etc) and
following conviction for a relevant criminal offence. Breach of an ASBO is a
criminal offence, punishable by up to two years in custody for young people
(five years for adults). ASBOs became available from 1 April 1999; however
data on the age of ASBO recipients are only available from 1 June 2000. The
latest published data cover the period to the end of 2013 21 . For further
information please see:
www.gov.uk/government/statistics/anti-social-behaviour-order-statisticsengland-and-wales-2013
In 2013, there were 277 ASBOs given to young people aged 10-17. This is a
slight increase compared with 2012, when there were 273 ASBOs issued to
young people. In 2003 there were 629 ASBOs issued to young people. Of the
277 ASBOs given to young people in 2013, 29 (10 per cent) were granted an
Individual Support Order 22 upon application at the Magistrates court.
Chart 1.3: Trends in Anti-Social Behaviour Orders for young people,
2003 to 2013
No. ASBOs issued to young people
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0
2003
21
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Data is published in calendar years
22
Individual Support Orders (ISOs) are court orders only available for 10-17 year olds which
can be attached to ASBOs made on application. ISOs impose positive conditions on the
young person to address the underlying causes of the behaviour that led to their ASBO being
issued. ISOs are available at magistrates' courts.
21
Penalty Notices for Disorder
Penalty Notices for Disorder (PNDs), more commonly known as ‘on the spot
fines’, were introduced under the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001. The
scheme was initially piloted in four police force areas in England and Wales
from August 2002. It was rolled out to all 43 police forces in England and
Wales by April 2004. Please note PNDs could only be given to young people
aged 16 and over. Data for 16 and 17 year olds are presented here.
From 8th April 2013, PNDs were no longer available for young people aged
under 18, but a small number of cases are reported upon in this publication.
There were 400 PNDs given to young people aged 16 to 17 in 2013/14. This
is a substantial decrease on the 2,884 given in 2012/13 but the fall is
attributable to the non availability of PNDs.
22
Chapter 2: First Time Entrants to the Youth Justice
System
This chapter provides an overview of the number of first time entrants (FTEs)
to the Youth Justice System. It is based on data recorded on the Police
National Computer (PNC) and covers the period up to 2013/14.
This data relates to proven offences only, where a young person is given a
formal out of court or court disposal. As such this is not a measure of the
amount of crime committed by young people, as only a proportion of crimes
are detected and resolved, and the age of offender is not known until the point
of arrest. Although the number of FTEs has fallen, the true level of youth
crime may be rising or falling. For the latest MoJ publication please see:
www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-justice-statistics-quarterly.
An offence is defined as a first offence if it results in the person receiving their
first youth caution or court conviction – i.e. they have no previous criminal
history recorded on the PNC. Offences resulting in further youth cautions or
convictions are known as further offences since the person already has a
recorded criminal history. For more information on criminal histories please
see Chapter 10.
Key findings

In 2013/14, there were 61,053 offences 23 committed by young people
(aged 10-17 years) recorded on the PNC, who had at least one offence
that resulted in a youth caution or conviction. Of these 22,393 (37 per
cent) were first offences, and the rest were further offences. In
2003/04, there were 185,478 offences committed by young people,
with 48 per cent being first offences.

Since 2012/13, the number of FTEs has fallen by 20 per cent from
28,059 to 22,393 in 2013/14 – continuing the downward trend since the
2006/07 peak. The number of FTEs has fallen by 75 per cent since
2003/04 and by 51 per cent since 2010/11.

In 2013/14, 76 per cent of FTEs had a youth caution, compared with 89
per cent in 2003/04.
First Offences and Further Offences Committed by Young People
In 2013/14, 61,053 offences were committed by young people, of which 37
per cent (22,393) were first offences and 63 per cent were further offences
(38,660). Although both the numbers of first offences and further offences
have fallen since reaching a peak in 2006/07, the proportion of first offences
23
These are first offences or further offences (a young person may have committed more
than one further offence).
23
has decreased. In 2003/04, 48 per cent of offences committed were first
offences and in 2013/14 this had fallen to 37 per cent.
Chart 2.1: First and further offences committed by young people,
2003/04 to 2013/14
First offences
Further offences
250,000
38,660 22,393 2013/14
36,922 2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
46,55428,059 2012/13
64,235
80,352
45,968
2007/08
0
78,532
100,380
2006/07
50,000
62,563
110,757
2005/06
100,000
90,338
116,790
107,623
2004/05
105,047
110,425
96,147
2003/04
117,519
100,315
88,403
150,000
97,075
Number of offences
200,000
Year
Trends in First Time Entrants to the Youth Justice System
The number of FTEs has fallen by 75 per cent from 88,403 in 2003/04 to
22,393 in 2013/14. The number of FTEs has fallen by 80 per cent, since the
peak in 2006/07. In the last year, the number of FTEs has fallen by 20 per
cent from 28,059 in 2012/13 to 22,393 in 2013/14.
Of the 22,393 FTEs in 2013/14, 16,930 (76 per cent) had a youth caution, with
the remaining 5,463 receiving convictions (predominantly community
sentences). The proportion of FTEs receiving a youth caution (or reprimand or
warning) has fallen when compared with 2003/04 (when 89 per cent of FTEs
had a youth caution).
When examined by offence type, 36 per cent of FTEs were for summary non
motoring offences; 23 per cent were theft offences and 13 per cent were drug
offences.
24
Chart 2.2: Trends in first time entrants, 2003/04 to 2013/14
Number of First Time Entrants
Youth caution
Conviction
120,000
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
2013/14
2012/13
2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
2005/06
2004/05
2003/04
Trends in First Time Entrants by demographic characteristics
In 2013/14, 30 per cent of FTEs to the Youth Justice System were aged 1014. This group showed the biggest reduction (59 per cent) in FTEs between
2010/11 and 2013/14. A larger proportion of 17 year olds receive a conviction
than for the younger age groups.
Females accounted for 5,035 or 22 per cent of all FTEs in 2013/14, compared
with 28 per cent in 2010/11. Since 2010/11, the number of young females
entering the Youth Justice System has fallen by 61 per cent, compared with a
48 per cent drop for young males.
When examined by ethnic group 24 , young people who were Black, Asian or
Other Minority Ethnic groups (BAME) accounted for 16 per cent of all FTEs in
2013/14, which is the same percentage as in 2010/11. White young people
accounted for 78 per cent in 2013/14 compared with 81 per cent in 2010/11
and six per cent of FTEs’ ethnicities were unknown. Since 2010/11, the
number of BAME young people entering the Youth Justice System has fallen
by 51 per cent compared with 53 per cent for white young people.
24
As recorded by Police on the Police National Computer (not self-reported).
25
Chapter 3: Characteristics of people in the Youth
Justice System
This chapter reports on the demographic characteristics of the young people
who received an out of court or court disposal (i.e. a substantive outcome) in
2013/14. This is not a count of the total number of young people that the local
Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) worked with. YOTs will also be working with
some young people on disposals from previous years and with young people
on prevention programmes.
It is important to note that these figures relate to the number of individual
young people who received a substantive outcome 25 and not the number of
offences or disposals. These data are taken from the Youth Justice Board’s
(YJB) Youth Justice Management Information System (YJMIS). The data in
the YJMIS was submitted by YOTs. YOTs do not work with all young people
who received youth cautions.
To supplement this information, data from the Police on the number of young
people who received a formal sanction (either out of court or a court
conviction) is displayed. This is data taken from the Police National Computer
(PNC). These PNC figures are consistently higher than the number of young
people recorded by YOTs, but the disparity in these figures is decreasing and
the trend runs in parallel. Some exploratory work conducted by the YJB found
that the primary reason for this disparity is that YOTs are not always aware of
all the youth cautions and youth conditional cautions issued by the police. The
data from the YOTs are broken down by age, gender and ethnicity.
The data from the YJMIS is available, broken down by each YOT in the
regional tables that accompanies this publication.
www.gov.uk/government/publications/youth-justice-statistics.
Key findings
25

According to data held on the YJMIS, 41,569 26 young people received
a substantive outcome in 2013/14. This is a reduction of 16 per cent
from 49,222 in 2012/13. Overall, 81 per cent were male, and 78 per
cent aged over 15 years 27 . Most (75 per cent) came from a White
ethnic background.

Data from the PNC shows that there were 42,596 young people who
had first or further offences resulting in a caution or conviction in
2013/14. This was a 20 per cent reduction from the 53,337 young
people on the PNC in 2012/13.
An out of court or court disposal.
26
This figure and all the YJMIS data used in chapters 3 and 6 comes from an extract of the
live YJMIS system taken in December 2014. It does not include data from one YOT due to
technical problems with their electronic case management system.
27
YOTs work with a small number of young people who are aged over 17 and are still
finishing their disposal.
26
Trends in the number of young people in the YJS, 2010/11 to 2013/14
According to data held on YJMIS, there were 41,569 young people who
received a substantive outcome in 2013/14. This is a reduction of 16 per cent
since 2012/13 and a reduction of 51 per cent since 2010/11. The trends
shown on the PNC and the YJMIS are very similar. The reductions shown in
the PNC data were 20 per cent and 52 per cent respectively. There is a two
per cent difference in the number of young people with substantive outcomes
on YJMIS and the number with offences on PNC.
The reduction in the number of young people convicted of an offence in
2013/14 was largely driven by the fall in first time entrants to the Youth Justice
System, which fell by 51 per cent from 45,968 in 2010/11 to 22,393 in 2013/14
(according to PNC data).
While the number of young people convicted has reduced year-on-year, the
average number of previous offences per young person has increased.
The number of young people in the re-offending cohort has gone down in
every year since 2007/08, with particular reductions among those with no
previous offences and those receiving out of court disposals. As result of this,
the young people in the criminal justice system are more challenging to work
with. This is reflected by the year on year rise in the average number of
previous offences for each young person since 2006/07.
In 2002 there were 136,401 young people in the re-offending cohort, in
2012/13 the size of the re-offending cohort had fallen 61 per cent to 52,648.
The average number of previous offences per young person in the cohort has
risen every year since 2006/07, from 1.59 to 2.57 in 2012/13, a 62 per cent
increase. This suggests that YOTs are working with a smaller but more prolific
cohort.
Chart 3.1: Trends in the number of young people convicted of an
offence: comparing data from YOTs and the PNC
125,000
YJMIS
100,000
75,000
41,569
42,596
49,222
53,337
66,430
25,000
71,480
85,300
89,366
106,969
50,000
114,420
Number of young people
PNC
0
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
27
Demographics of young people in the Youth Justice System, 2013/14
There were 41,569 young people who received a substantive outcome in
2013/14 and 81 per cent of the young people were male.
There were 9,179 young people aged 10-14 28 receiving a substantive
outcome in 2013/14, a reduction of 20 per cent from the 11,442 in 2012/13.
Young people aged 10-14 accounted for 22 per cent of the young people
sentenced in 2013/14, compared with 23 per cent in 2012/13.
The number of young females aged 10-14 receiving a substantive outcome
was 2,052 in 2013/14, a reduction of 24 per cent from 2012/13. The number
of young males aged 10-14 was 7,124 in 2013/14, a reduction of 18 per cent
from 2012/13. The reduction in those aged 15 years and over 29 was lower,
with a 16 per cent reduction for females and a 14 per cent reduction for
males.
Young people from a White ethnic background 30 accounted for 75 per cent of
all young people in 2013/14. Those from a Black ethnic background
accounted for eight per cent and those from an Asian ethnic background for
five per cent. Young people from a Mixed ethnic background also accounted
for five per cent. The Other ethnic background group made up one per cent.
These proportions have been fairly stable since 2006/07. However, the
number of young people recorded as ‘unknown’ ethnicity increased from less
than three per cent from 2012/13 to seven per cent in 2013/14. The increase
in the ‘unknowns’, is due to a technical fault with one type of electronic case
management system used by YOTs and this is currently being fixed.
Chart 3.2: Age and gender of young people convicted of an offence,
2013/14
16,000
Female
Male
Number of young people
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17+
Age in years
28
Age is taken at the point a young person receives a substantive outcome, not the age they
were when they committed the offence.
29
YOTs work with a small number of young people who are aged over 17 who are finishing
their sentences under YOT supervision.
30
Ethnicity data is self reported.
28
Table 3.1: Age and ethnicity of young people convicted of an offence,
2013/14 31
31
Percentage totals may not add up to 100% due to rounding.
29
Chapter 4: Proven offences by young people
This chapter covers proven offences 32 by young people in 2013/14 33 . It
includes information on the types of offences committed by young people that
resulted in a conviction in 2013/14 and over time. The data has been taken
from the Youth Justice Board’s (YJB) Youth Justice Management Information
System (YJMIS). The offence breakdown differs from the main offence
types 34 used by the MoJ.
Key findings

There were 90,769 offences for which a young person was convicted in
2013/14, down by eight per cent from 2012/13.

The number of proven offences associated with young people has
reduced by 68 per cent since 2003/04.

The main offence types for which young people were convicted in
2013/14 were; violence against the person (22 per cent), theft and
handling (18 per cent) and criminal damage (11 per cent).
Types of proven offences by young people in 2013/14
In 2013/14, there were 90,769 proven offences by young people that resulted
in a formal disposal (either in or out of court).
The main offence types for young people in 2013/14 were:

Violence against the person (including common assault) (22 per cent);

Theft and handling (18 per cent);

Criminal damage (11 per cent).
There were 1,653 sexual offences for which a young person was convicted
in 2013/14, this accounted for two per cent of all offences.
32
A proven offence is defined as an offence which results in the offender receiving a
reprimand, warning, caution or conviction.
33
This is based on data extracted from YJMIS taken in December 2014. Data from one YOT
is missing due to technical problems with their electronic case management system.
34
These main offence groups differ from those used by the MoJ, for example the offence of
common assault is classed as a summary offence by the MoJ, whilst the YJB class it as
violence against the person. Burglary includes domestic and non-domestic burglary. Further
details on ‘other’ offences can be found in the supplementary volumes.
30
Chart 4.1: Proven offences by young people, 2013/14
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
Robbery
Breach of Statutory Order
Burglary
Motoring Offences
Offence Type
Public Order
Drugs
Criminal Damage
Other
Theft and Handling
Violence Against Person
Number of Proven Offences
25,000
* Burglary includes domestic and non-domestic burglary
Demography of young people with proven offences, 2013/14
In 2013/14, the majority (78 per cent) of proven offences were committed by
young people aged over 15 and over 35 , with 31 per cent being aged 17 or
more. Only 22 per cent of proven offences were committed by young people
aged 10-14 years.

There were 71,028 proven offences committed by young people aged
15 and over (of which, 27,946 committed by those aged 17 or more),
and a further 19,741 committed by those aged 10-14.

Males accounted for 83 per cent of proven offences by young people in
2013/14. This proportion has risen slightly from 81 per cent in 2010/11.
The proportion of proven offences committed by females was 17 per
cent in 2013/14; this proportion has fluctuated between 16 and 22 per
cent for the last decade.
Young people from a White ethnic background accounted for 76 per cent of
the proven offences by young people. This proportion fluctuated between 76
and 85 per cent for the last decade.
35
YOTs work with a small number of young people who are aged over 17 who are finishing
their sentences under YOT supervision.
31
Proven offences by young people over time, 2003/04 to 2013/14
The number of proven offences by young people has fallen by 68 per cent
between 2003/04 and 2013/14. The number of proven offences fell by eight
per cent in the last year, from 98,837 in 2012/13 to 90,769 in 2013/14.
The largest percentage falls in proven offences between 2010/11 and 2013/14
have been in the offences of: public order offences fell by 60 per cent, breach
of statutory order offences by 55 per cent and motoring offences fell by 54 per
cent. Drugs offences fell by 34 per cent between 2010/11 and 2013/14.
Chart 4.2: Reduction in proven offences by young people between
2010/11 to 2013/14
0%
Drugs
Robbery
Violence against the
person
Burglary*
Other
Criminal damage
Theft and handling stolen
goods
-30%
Motoring offences
-20%
Breach of statutory order
Public order
-10%
-34%
-37%
-40%
-50%
-48%
-55%
-54%
-47%
-46%
-46%
-52%
-60%
-60%
-70%
32
Chapter 5: Young People Sentenced
This chapter covers young people proceeded against, found guilty at courts
and sentenced for proven offences in 2013/14. The data has mostly been
taken from the MoJ’s Court Proceedings Database (CPD). For more
information please see:
www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-justice-statistics-quarterly
This chapter also covers information on parenting orders from the CPD and
information about the requirements associated with Youth Rehabilitation
Orders (YROs) taken from the YJB’s Youth Justice Management Information
System (YJMIS) - see the Glossary for more details.
Key findings

In 2013/14 there were 45,891 young people proceeded against at
magistrates’ courts, a fall of 21 per cent on the number in 2012/13 and
following the downward trend seen since 2002/03.

33,916 young people were found guilty at courts in 2013/14.

In 2013/14, there were 33,902 young people (aged 10-17) sentenced
at criminal courts in England and Wales. The total number of young
people sentenced fell by 23 per cent from 43,903 in 2012/13.

The number of young people sentenced to immediate custody fell by
21 per cent, from 2,815 in 2012/13 to 2,226 in 2013/14. The number of
young people having this type of sentence has fallen by 65 per cent
since 2003/04, when 6,288 young people were sentenced to immediate
custody.
Young people proceeded against
In 2013/14, there were 45,891 young people proceeded against at
magistrates courts. Of these, 26,138 (57 per cent) were for indictable
offences, 17,053 (37 per cent) were for summary non motoring offences and
2,700 (six per cent) were for summary motoring offences.
In 2013/14, 33,916 young people were found guilty at courts, with 73 per cent
of these being males aged 15-17. Of all young people found guilty, the most
common offences were:

Summary non-motoring (accounting for 36 per cent of all offences);

Theft offences (23 per cent);

Drug offences (9 per cent).
33
Young people sentenced
In 2013/14, there was a total of 33,902 young people sentenced for all types
of offences. When examined by type of sentence:

2,226 young people were sentenced to immediate custodial sentences,
with most (87 per cent) of these being Detention and Training Orders
(DTOs).

22,675 young people were sentenced to community sentences,
including 9,767 Youth Rehabilitation Orders (YROs).

9,001 young people were sentenced to other types of sentences (these
include discharges, fines and otherwise dealt with disposals. See the
separately published Glossary for more details).
Trends in the number of young people sentenced, 2003/04 to 2013/14

The total number of young people sentenced at court has fallen by 23
per cent from 43,903 in 2012/13 to 33,902 in 2013/14.

Since 2003/04 the total number of young people sentenced at court
has fallen by 64 per cent, from 94,533 in 2003/04 to 33,902 in 2013/14.

The number of young people sentenced to immediate custody fell by
21 per cent from 2,815 in 2012/13 to 2,226 in 2013/14. The number of
young people receiving this type of sentence has fallen by 65 per cent
since 2003/04, when there were 6,288 young people sentenced to
immediate custody.

The number of young people sentenced to community sentences fell
by 23 per cent from 29,557 in 2012/13 to 22,675 in 2013/14. The
number of young people receiving these types of sentences has fallen
by 59 per cent since 2003/04, when 55,405 young people were
sentenced to community sentences.

Within the offenders sentenced to community sentences, the number of
young people given YROs fell by 29 per cent between 2012/13 and
2013/14, from 13,694 to 9,767. The number of young people being
sentenced to a Referral Order has gone down by 18 per cent in the last
year from 15,294 in 2012/13 to 12,606 in 2013/14.
34
Chart 5.1: Trends in the number of young people sentenced, 2003/04 to
2013/14
Immediate custody
Community sentences
Other sentences
100,000
90,000
Young people sentenced
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
2013/14
2012/13
2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
2005/06
2004/05
2003/04
Number of young people sentenced for indictable offences 36 over time,
2003/04 to 2013/14
There were 33,902 young people sentenced for all offences in 2013/14, of
these 19,608 (58 per cent) were for indictable offences. The figure of 19,608
in 2013/14 represented a reduction of 58 per cent since 2003/04 and a 24 per
cent reduction since 2012/13. Males accounted for 89 37 per cent of all young
people sentenced for indictable offences. This proportion has fluctuated
between 85 and 89 per cent (where the gender is known) in the last decade.
36
Criminal offences are divided into three main offence groups:

Indictable proceedings cover the more serious offences such as violent and sexual offences
and robbery. Initial proceedings are heard at magistrates’ courts but they then may be passed
on to the Crown Court, either for sentencing, or for a full trial with a judge and jury. This group
includes both ‘indictable only’ offences, which can only be tried on indictment in the Crown
Court by a judge and jury and ‘triable-either-way’ offences, which are triable either summarily in
a magistrates’ court or on indictment in the Crown Court;

Summary proceedings which cover less serious offences, are almost always handled entirely in
the magistrates’ courts when dealt with in court, with the majority completed at the first hearing.
They are split into two categories:
o Summary non-motoring proceedings, such as TV license evasion and less serious
criminal damage; and
o
37
Summary motoring proceedings, such as speeding and driving whilst disqualified.
Based on where gender is known.
35
Youth Rehabilitation Orders
This section covers details of the requirements associated with Youth
Rehabilitation Orders (YROs) recorded by Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) for
2013/14, in the YOTs case management system. These data are a further
breakdown of the types and number of requirements taken from the YJB’s
Youth Justice Management Information System (YJMIS).
The YRO is a generic community sentence for young people. It was designed
to simplify sentencing, while improving the flexibility of interventions available
to address individual needs and risks. There are 18 different types of
requirements 38 that can be attached to a YRO, so it is possible for one young
person to have multiple requirements. For further details of the type of
requirements available, please see the Glossary.
In 2013/14, 9,767 young people were given YROs by the courts according to
data from the MoJ (see Table 5.3 of the supplementary tables). This is a 29
per cent reduction on the number given in 2012/13.
Please note that a large number of YROs (4,605) recorded in YJMIS did not
have any requirement data attached to them. This represents 39 per cent of
all YROs. All YROs given should have requirements attached. An
investigation into this issue indicated that most of the missing requirements
have been recorded on the YOTs’ case management system but that there is
a technical problem with one of these systems that means that the
requirements data are not feeding through to the YJMIS. The YJB are working
with the provider of the system to resolve this 39 .
In 2013/14 according to YJMIS, 18,031 requirements were recorded on 8,507
young people (more details are given in Table 5.6 of the supplementary
tables).

The most commonly used single requirement type was a Supervision
requirement. It was used in 35 per cent of the YRO requirements.

Other common requirements included; ‘Activity’ (17 per cent of
requirements), ‘Curfew’ (15 per cent), ‘Electronic Monitoring’ (12 per
cent), ‘Programme’ (six per cent), ‘Unpaid Work’ (six per cent) and
‘Attendance Centre Orders’ (three per cent).

A quarter of YROs given had only one requirement attached to them,
with 30 per cent having two requirements attached. Only six per cent of
YROs had five or more requirements attached.
38
To enhance data presentation, requirement types that have been used less than 100 times
are grouped under the heading ‘All other’. Please see the Glossary for more details.
39
In 2013/14, data was available for all but one YOT. This YOT was unable to send in their
data due to technical problems.
36
Parenting Orders
A court may impose an order on a parent when their son or daughter aged
10–17 years is convicted of an offence; is subject to an Anti-Social Behaviour
Order; where a Child Safety Order is made; or where a parent has been
convicted of failing to make sure that the young person attends school. These
data come from the Court Proceedings Database held by MoJ.
In 2013/14 there were 245 people sentenced to parenting orders given by the
courts. The number fell by 44 per cent, from 436 in 2012/13. Since 2010/11
the number of people sentenced to parenting orders has fallen by 64 per cent
(from 686 to 245).
37
Chapter 6: Use of remand for young people
This chapter covers information on the use of remand for young people in the
Youth Justice System. Data for this chapter is gathered from a number of
sources and covers:
1. Types of remand 40 given to young people as reported by YOTs from
the YJB’s Youth Justice Management Information System (YJMIS); 41
2. Characteristics of the population in custody on remand from YJB’s
eAsset system (see data sources for information);
3. Outcomes for young people following custodial remand from the Court
Proceedings Database.
Key findings
 There were 20,953 remand episodes 42 given by the courts for young
people in 2013/14, down by eight per cent on 2012/13. Remand
decisions that involved young people being bailed (conditional or
unconditional bail) accounted for 85 per cent of all sentencing
occasions where there was a substantive remand (remand episodes).
 There were a further six per cent of remand episodes where a young
person was remanded in the community, including remand to local
authority accommodation.
 Nine per cent of remand episodes involved young people being
remanded to custody (1,930 remand episodes).
 The average population in custody on remand in 2013/14 was 260
young people, accounting for 21 per cent of the average custodial
population, compared with 26 per cent in 2010/11 when the average
population in custody on remand was 528.
 While the overall number of young people in custody has fallen by 21
per cent between 2012/13 and 2013/14, the number on remand has
fallen by 23 per cent.
 For those young people remanded to custody in 2013/14, 62 per cent
were not given a custodial outcome following their remand. Of these,
25 per cent were acquitted and 37 per cent were given other court
convictions.
40
Including conditional and unconditional bail, community remand and remand to custody.
41
Based on data extracted from YJMIS taken in December 2014. Data from three YOTs is
missing due to technical problems with their case management systems.
42
The total number of sentencing occasions with substantive remand.
38
Types of remand given to young people, 2013/14
When the court makes the decision to remand a young person they have a
number of options, including custodial remands, community remands
including remand to local authority accommodation or a range of bail options
(see the Glossary for more details on remand types).
There were 41,331 sentencing occasions of which 20,378 that had no
substantive remand type and 20,953 sentencing occasions with a substantive
remand.
In 2013/14 there were 20,953 court sentencing occasions where young
people were given a type of substantive remand as part of the court process.
This could be bail, remand in the community or in custody. This is a reduction
of eight per cent from the 22,752 sentencing occasions in 2012/13. Of the
20,953 occasions in 2013/14 where young people were given a type of
remand:

1,930 were custodial remand episodes, up by two per cent from
2012/13;

1,256 were community remand episodes (with an intervention), down
by three per cent from 2012/13;

17,767 were bail remand episodes (conditional and unconditional),
down by nine per cent since 2012/13.
Chart 6.1: Type of remand decisions for young people, 2013/14
9%
6%
Bail Remands
Community remands
with intervention
Custodial remands
85%
Characteristics of the population in custody on remand, 2013/14
This data comes from the eAsset database which consists of data from the
youth secure estate. For more information on the general youth population in
custody see Chapter 7.
39
There was an average of 260 young people in custody on remand at any one
time in 2013/14. The majority (68 per cent) were remanded to custody in a
Young Offender Institution (YOI).
Young people held on remand accounted for 21 per cent of the average
custody population in 2013/14, compared with 22 per cent in 2012/13. While
the overall number of young people in custody has fallen by 21 per cent
between 2012/13 and 2013/14, the number on remand has fallen by 23 per
cent.
Most young people in custody on remand were there for serious offences,
including; 35 per cent for robbery, 26 per cent for violence against the person
offences and 14 per cent for burglary offences. The average time spent on
remand was 51 days in 2013/14; which was an increase from 45 days
compared with 2012/13 (Chapter 7).
Of the average population in custody on remand in 2013/14:

Over half (51 per cent) were aged 17;

97 per cent were male;

51 per cent were White and 28 per cent were Black.
Outcomes for young people following custodial remand, 2013/14
Not all young people placed in custodial remand were subsequently given a
custodial sentence. Data from the MoJ’s Court Proceedings Database shows
the outcomes for young people remanded into custody.
For those young people given custodial remand in 2013/14, 62 per cent were
not given a custodial outcome following their remand. Of these, 25 per cent
were acquitted and 37 per cent were given other court convictions (30 per
cent community sentences and 8 per cent other sentences). The percentage
of young people not given a custodial sentence following a custodial remand
has increased from 59 per cent in 2010/11 to 62 per cent in 2013/14 and
decreased from 65 per cent in 2012/13.
40
Chart 6.2: Outcomes following custodial remand, 2013/14
8%
Immediate Custody
25%
38%
Community Sentence
Acquitted
Other sentence
30%
In 2013/14, 40 per cent of Black young people and 42 per cent of Asian young
people on custodial remand received a custodial sentence and 36 per cent of
White young people and 36 per cent of Mixed young people went on receive a
custodial sentence.
Chart 6.3 Outcomes for young people on custodial remand 43 , by
ethnicity as a percentage of total, 2013/14
Immediate custody
Non custodial outcome
100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%
White
Black
Asian
Mixed
Other
Not
Recorded
Total
43
(1) Including those remanded in custody at any stage of proceedings at magistrates' courts
or at the Crown Court who may also have been given bail at some stage of those
proceedings.
41
Chapter 7: Young people in custody
This chapter provides data on the population of young people in the youth
secure estate during 2013/14. The custody data are from the YJB's eAsset
database, which consists of data from the youth secure estate (Young
Offender Institutions [YOIs], Secure Children’s Homes [SCHs] and Secure
Training Centres [STCs]). The YJB changed from the Secure Accommodation
Clearing House System (SACHS) data to the eAsset database from March
2012. Data prior to April 2012 are from the SACHS database. For provisional
data after March 2014 please see the Youth Custody Statistics:
www.gov.uk/government/publications/youth-custody-data
Please note that although the YJB is only responsible for placing 10-17 year
olds, young people aged over 17 remain in the youth secure estate if they
only have a short period of their sentence left to serve, to avoid disrupting
their regimes. Unless stated otherwise, the data presented here are for the
under 18 population only.
All female YOIs were decommissioned in July and August 2013, therefore any
17 and 18 year old females that remain in the youth secure estate will be held
in STCs or SCHs.
Key findings

The average population in custody (under 18) in 2013/14 was 1,216,
down by 21 per cent from an average of 1,544 in 2012/13.

The average population in custody (under 18) has fallen by 56 per cent
from 2,771 in 2003/04.

The average population in 2013/14 (including 18 year olds held in
custody in the youth secure estate) was 1,318. This is a 23 per cent
reduction on the 2012/13 figure of 1,708.
Chart 7.1: Average custody population from 2003/04 to 2013/14
Average No. young people in custody
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
2013/14
2012/13
2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
2005/06
2004/05
2003/04
Custody Population (under 18)
Custody Population (inc 18)
42
Legal basis for detention for young people in custody, 2013/14
Over half (57 per cent) of the average population of young people (under 18)
in custody in 2013/14 were serving a Detention and Training Order (DTO). A
further 21 per cent were held on remand. The remaining 22 per cent were
serving long-term sentences (see Glossary for more details).
Offences resulting in young people going into custody, 2013/14
Most young people held in custody in 2013/14 were there for serious
offences, including:

32 per cent for robbery offences:

25 per cent for violence against the person offences:

17 per cent for burglary (domestic and non-domestic) offences.
The proportion of young people in custody for robbery has risen from 23 per
cent of the population to 32 per cent of the population between 2010/11 and
2013/14. Over the same time period, the proportion of young people in
custody for violence against the person offences has increased from 24 per
cent to 25 per cent of the average population. Breach of Statutory Order has
reduced from 16 per cent in 2010/11, to two per cent in 2013/14.
Chart 7.2: Average population in custody (under 18) by primary offence
group, 2009/10 to 2013/14
Number of young people aged under 18 in
custody
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2009/10
Breach of statutory order
Robbery
Other
2010/11
2011/12
Year
Domestic burglary
Sexual offences
2012/13
2013/14
Drugs
Violence against the person
43
Chart 7.3: Custody population (under 18) by primary offence group,
2009/10 to 2013/14, average proportions
Breach of statutory order
Domestic burglary
Drugs
Robbery
Sexual offences
Violence against the person
Other
100%
90%
15%
13%
16%
14%
13%
25%
24%
21%
23%
25%
5%
5%
4%
5%
6%
23%
27%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
24%
30%
5%
20%
13%
10%
5%
14%
31%
32%
4%
14%
4%
5%
16%
13%
16%
14%
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
0%
16%
7%
2012/13
2%
2013/14
Demographics of young people in custody, 2013/14

In 2013/14, 95 per cent of the young people (under 18) held in custody
estate were male. Most (96 per cent) of the young people (under 18)
held in custody were aged 15-17 years.

In 2013/14, 60 per cent of the young people held in custody were from
a White ethnic background. Young people from a Black ethnic
background accounted for 22 per cent of young people in custody. This
compares to 75 per cent and eight per cent of the young people
convicted of an offence in that year respectively (Chapter 3).

In 2013/14, 18 per cent of young people from a White ethnic
background in custody were held on remand, compared with 26 per
cent of young people from a Black ethnic background and Mixed ethnic
background and 24 per cent from an Asian background.
Location for young people (under 18) held in custody, 2013/14

In 2013/14, most (68 per cent) young people (under 18) held in custody
were in YOIs, 22 per cent were in STCs and the remaining 11 per cent
in SCHs. See Glossary for more information.

It is not always possible to place young people in establishments close
to their homes as placement decisions are determined by a number of
factors, including the risks and needs of individual young people and
available capacity at establishments. In 2013/14, 31 per cent of young
people in custody were from London. The one London establishment
accommodated 15 per cent of the total custodial population 44 .
44
Feltham is the only London establishment, and holds young people aged 15-17 sentenced
or Remanded to Youth Detention Accommodation.
44
Chart 7.4: Custody population (under 18) by region of origin and
region of establishment, 2013/14
Average custody population (u18)
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Yorkshire
West
Midlands
Wales
South West
South East
North West
North East
London
Eastern
East
Midlands
Region of Origin
Region of Establishment
Time in days spent in custody for young people (under 18)
Overall the average length of time spent in custody increased from 85 days in
2012/13 to 90 days in 2013/14. For DTOs, it decreased from 115 days to 109
days, for remand it increased from 45 days to 51 days and for longer
sentences it increased by from 302 days to 409 days.
Chart 7.5: Average time in days spent in the youth secure estate by legal
basis of detention, 2009/10 to 2013/14
Overall average
Section
90/91/226/226B/228
Remand
DTO
0
50
100
2009/10
150
200
2010/11
250
2011/12
300
2012/13
350
2013/14
400
450
days
Operating the secure estate effectively
In order for the system to operate effectively, efficiently and at an acceptable
level of risk, the YJB commissions places on the basis that the estate should
operate at a 93 per cent occupancy rate. In 2013/14 there was an average
occupancy rate of 77 per cent (i.e. there were an average of 1,318 of the
45
1,719 available beds occupied at any one time). It is important to obtain a
significant degree of assurance that any planned reductions in commissioned
beds are sustainable over the medium to long term. Consequently there will
always be a time-lag in decommissioning activity following decreases in
demand. This approach has ensured that decommissioning activity has never
been followed by the need for any subsequent re-commissioning and
disruption to the overall estate has been minimised. The secure estate for
young people is particularly complex and the overall population figures
comprise a number of sub populations that need further in depth analysis and
impact assessment before decommissioning takes place.
46
Chapter 8: Behaviour management in the secure
estate
This chapter covers information on behaviour management in the youth
secure estate. The data covers the financial years 2010/11 to 2013/14. From
2010/11 to 2013/14 the overall population in custody fell (Chapter 7), which
means it is important to look at the change in the rate i.e. the number of
incidents per 100 young people in the population, as well as the raw numbers.
Please note that slight changes in small figures can result in large percentage
changes.
Key findings

There were 5,714 incidents of restrictive physical intervention (RPIs)
used in the youth secure estate in 2013/14, down by 21 per cent from
2010/11 and by 12 per cent from 2012/13.

In 2013/14, the number of RPIs per 100 young people increased
compared with both 2010/11 and 2012/13 (from 20.5 in 2010/11 and
from 23.8 in 2012/13 to 28.4 in 2013/14).

There were 1,318 incidents of self harm, down by seven per cent from
2010/11 and down by eight per cent on 2012/13.

In 2013/14, the number of self harm incidents per 100 young people
increased compared with both 2010/11 and 2012/13 (from 4.1 in
2010/11 and 5.2 in 2012/13 to 6.6 in 2013/14).

There were 2,932 assaults by young people in custody, down by 18 per
cent since 2010/11 but up by seven per cent since 2012/13.

In 2013/14, the number of assaults per 100 young people increased
compared with both 2010/11 and 2012/13 (from 10.1 in 2010/11 and
10.1 in 2012/13 to 14.6 in 2013/14).

There were 2,392 occasions where single separation was used in
Secure Children’s Homes (SCHs) or Secure Training Centres (STCs),
down by 46 per cent since 2010/11 and by 12 per cent since 2012/13.

In 2013/14, the number of single separation incidents per 100 young
people in custody decreased compared with both 2010/11 and 2012/13
(from 64.5 in 2010/11 and 42.7 in 2012/13 to 38.9 in 2013/14).
47
Behaviour management in the youth secure estate
“Behaviour management” refers to the processes and policies by which youth
secure establishments promote positive behaviour and manage challenging
and difficult behaviour amongst young people. This section covers the use of
restrictive physical interventions (RPI) on young people, incidents of self
harm, assaults and the use of single separation involving young people in
custody. The data covers 2010/11 to 2013/14. The data here includes some
18 year olds who are kept in the youth secure estate. The data provided gives
totals and some demographic breakdowns.
RPIs should only be used on young people as a last resort, for example to
prevent them causing harm to themselves or others. For each type of incident,
the total number of actual incidents in the year, the monthly average and the
total number of young people involved are presented. We cannot provide a
distribution of incidents per young people (i.e. how many people were only
involved in any one incident) due to the way the data are collected.
Chart 8.1: Trend in the number of behaviour management incidents,
2009/10 to 2013/14
9,000
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
8,000
Number of incidents
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
RPIs
Self harm incidents
Assaults
Single separation
(STC/SCH only)
Use of Restrictive Physical Intervention (RPI), 2013/14
There were 5,714 incidents of RPI used in the youth secure estate in 2013/14,
down by 21 per cent from 2010/11 and down by 12 per cent since 2012/13.
The number of RPIs per 100 young people increased by 39 per cent from
2010/11 to 2013/14 (20.5 RPIs per 100 young people to 28.4 in 2013/14) and
there was an increase of 19 per cent compared with 2012/13 (from 23.8 RPIs
per 100 young people to 28.4 in 2013/14).
There was an average of 476 RPIs per month in 2013/14, involving an
average of 319 young people. The number of RPIs per 100 young people in
custody in the year was higher for the younger age group (10-14) and females
than their counterparts.
In 2013/14 there were 120 RPIs involving injury to young people, nearly all
(98 per cent) of these were minor injuries. There were 23 per cent fewer
injuries to young people following an RPI than in 2012/13.
48
Chart 8.2a: Monthly average number of RPIs for young people in
custody, 2009/10 to 2013/14
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
700
Number of incidents
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Aged 10 - 14 Aged 15 - 18
Male
Female
BAME
White
Chart 8.2b: Rate of RPIs per 100 young people in custody, 2009/10 to
2013/14
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
Rate of RPIs per 100 young people
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Aged 10 - 14 Aged 15 - 18
Male
Female
BAME
White
49
Self harm by young people in custody, 2013/14
Self harm in custody is defined as any act by which a young person
deliberately harms themselves irrespective of the method, intent or severity of
the injury. There were 1,318 incidents of self harm in 2013/14, down by seven
per cent since 2010/11 and down by eight per cent since 2012/13.
The number of self harm incidents per 100 young people increased by 62 per
cent in 2013/14 compared with 2010/11 (4.1 incidents per 100 young people
to 6.6 incidents per 100 young people in 2013/14), and an increase of 25 per
cent between 2012/13 and 2013/14 (from 5.2 to 6.6 incidents of self harm per
100 young people).
There was an average of 110 incidents of self harm per month in 2013/14,
involving an average of 64 young people. The rate of self harm incidents per
100 young people in custody was higher for females than their male
counterparts and for white young people compared to BAME young people.
Chart 8.3a: Monthly average number of self harm incidents for young
people in custody, 2009/10 to 2013/14
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
180
Number of incidents
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Aged 10 - 14 Aged 15 - 18
Male
Female
BAME
White
Chart 8.3b: Rate of self harm per 100 young people in custody, 2009/10
to 2013/14
Rate of self harm incidents per 100
young people
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Aged 10 - 14 Aged 15 - 18
Male
Female
BAME
White
50
Assaults involving young people in custody, 2013/14
Assaults are defined as “the intentional use of unnecessary force that results
in physical contact with the victim”. Physical contact can be by any part of the
assailant’s body or bodily fluid or the use or display of any weapon or missile.
It is not necessary for the victim to suffer injury of any kind. Assaults of a
sexual nature are included.
There were 2,932 assaults involving young people in custody in 2013/14,
down by 18 per cent since 2010/11 and up by seven per cent since 2012/13.
There was an average of 244 assaults per month in 2013/14 involving an
average of 209 young people as perpetrators.
The number of assaults per 100 young people in custody increased by 44 per
cent between 2010/11 and 2013/14 (10.1 assaults per 100 young people
compared to 14.6 in 2013/14) and again by 44 per cent compared with
2012/13 (10.1 assaults per 100 young people in 2012/13 compared with 14.6
in 2013/14).
The number of assaults per 100 young people in custody was higher for the
younger group (10-14 year olds) and for females.
Chart 8.4a: Monthly average number of assaults involving young people
in custody, 2009/10 to 2013/14
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
Number of incidents
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Aged 10 - 14
Aged 15 - 18
Male
Female
BAME
White
Chart 8.4b: Rate of assault per 100 young people in custody, 2009/10 to
2013/14
Rate of assaults per 100 young
people
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Aged 10 - 14
Aged 15 - 18
Male
Female
BAME
White
51
Single separation in STCs and SCHs, 2013/14
Single separation refers to the confining of a young person in their bedroom,
to another room or area as a means of control and without the young person’s
permission or agreement, without a member of staff being present and with
the door locked in order to prevent exit. The data are only collected for Secure
Training Centres and Secure Children’s Homes and private YOIs.
There were 2,392 occasions where single separation was used in 2013/14,
down by 46 per cent from 2010/11 and by 12 per cent since 2012/13. In
2013/14 there was an average of 199 incidents of single separation per month
used in Secure Children’s Homes and Secure Training Centres. This
compares to an average of 372 incidents of single separation used per month
in 2010/11.
The number of single separation incidents per 100 young people in custody
decreased by 40 per cent from 2010/11 to 2013/14 (from 64.5 incidents per
100 young people in 2010/11 to 38.9 in 2013/14) and there was a decrease of
nine per cent compared with 2012/13 (from 42.7 incidents per 100 young
people compared with 38.9 in 2013/14).
The proportion of young people who are placed in single separation while in
custody differs by age, with higher rates for the younger group (10-14) and
females. There is little difference in single separation by ethnicity.
Data collection under Minimising and Managing Physical Restraint
(MMPR)
MMPR is a behaviour management and restraint system that has been
developed specifically for staff working with young people in STCs and under18 YOIs.
All secure establishments currently report restraint incidents against the
definition of RPI and this will continue. However, under MMPR,
establishments are also required to report more detailed data on all uses of
force, irrespective of whether they meet the RPI definition or not. This
includes the use of MMPR techniques and any use of force that is not an
MMPR technique.
Rainsbrook was the first secure establishment to use MMPR, and began
doing so from 4th March 2013; data collection under the MMPR system
started from this date. The government recently published comprehensive
MMPR data to cover the period March 2013 to March 2014. This contained
figures from the two STCs, Rainsbrook and Oakhill, and the two under-18
YOIs, Wetherby and Hindley, that started using MMPR during this period. As
the data is limited to the first thirteen months’ use of MMPR at Rainsbrook,
and shorter periods from the other three establishments, there are limitations
to identifying any definitive patterns or trends. As more data is collected over
a longer period of time, from a greater number of establishments, firmer
evidence will emerge.
52
For further information on MMPR and the release of the first 13 months use of
MMPR at Rainsbrook and Oakhill Secure Training Centres and Wetherby and
Hindley Young Offender Institutions (March 2013 – March 2014) please see:
www.gov.uk/government/statistics/mmpr-data-march-2013-to-march-2014
53
Chapter 9: Proven re-offending by young people,
2012/13 cohort
This section provides key statistics on proven re-offending in England and
Wales. It gives proven re-offending figures for young people who were
released from custody, received a non-custodial conviction at court, or
received a caution, reprimand or warning between 1st April 2012 and 31st
March 2013. Proven re-offending is defined as any offence committed in a
one year follow-up period and receiving a court conviction, caution, reprimand
or warning in the one year follow up. Following this one year period, a further
six months is allowed for cases to progress through the courts.
This chapter focuses on re-offending by young people in 2012/13, compared
with 2011/12 and 2002 as a long term comparator. A more detailed
publication covering adult and youth re-offending is available here:
www.gov.uk/government/collections/proven-reoffending-statistics
Key findings

In the 12 months ending March 2013 there were 52,648 young people
who were given a reprimand or warning, convicted at court (excluding
immediate custodial sentences) or released from custody.

Of the 52,648 young people in the cohort, 18,998 committed a proven
re-offence within a year. This gives a one-year re-offending rate (binary
rate) of 36.1 per cent.

The young people who re-offended committed an average of three
offences each – 56,779 offences in total. The average number of reoffences per offender (frequency rate) was 1.08.

The rate of re-offending by young people rose by 0.6 percentage points
compared with 2011/12, and by 2.7 percentage point compared with
2002.

The average number of re-offences per offender (frequency rate) rose
by 5.4 per cent compared with 2011/12, and fell by 1.9 per cent
compared with 2002.

A quarter (25 per cent) of these re-offences were committed by young
people with no previous offences, and 19 per cent were by young
people with 11 or more previous offences.

The number of young people in the re-offending cohort has gone down
every year since 2007/08. There has been a reduction of 25 per cent
compared with 2011/12, and 61 per cent reduction compared with
2002.
54
Chart 9.1: Binary rate (proportion who re-offend) for young people, 2002
to 2012/13
Proportion of young people who re-offend (%)
40
35
30
25
20
33.4
33.6
32.4
32.8
33.3
2002
2006/07
2007/08
2008/09
2009/10
15
35.8
35.5
36.1
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
10
5
0
Chart 9.2: Average number of re-offences per young person (frequency
rate), 2002 to 2012/13
Average number of re-offences per offender
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
1.10
0.96
0.40
0.89
0.90
0.93
2007/08
2008/09
2009/10
1.03
1.02
1.08
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
0.20
0.00
2002
2006/07
55
Chart 9.3: Number of young people in the cohort, 2002 to 2012/13
Number of young people in the cohort
210,000
180,000
150,000
120,000
90,000
60,000
173,588
165,179
139,732
136,401
113,584
88,357
30,000
70,504
52,648
0
2002
2006/07
2007/08
2008/09
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
Changes to the re-offending cohort over time
In 2002 136,401 young people formed the re-offending cohort, in 2012/13 the
size of the re-offending cohort had fallen by 61 per cent to 52,648.
Alongside this, the average number of previous offences per offender in the
cohort has risen every year since 2006/07, from 1.59 to 2.57 in 2012/13, an
increase of 62 per cent. This suggests that Youth Offending Teams are
working with a smaller, but generally more prolific cohort.
Re-offending by demography, 2012/13

The re-offending rate for young people aged 15-17 increased to 36.4
per cent compared with the previous year’s rate of 35.8 per cent. The
10-14 year olds re-offending rate increased to 35.2 per cent compared
with the previous year’s rate of 34.5 per cent.

The average number of re-offences per young person was the same
for both 10-14 and 15-17 year olds, with an average of 1.08 reoffences.

The re-offending rate for young males increased by a 0.2 percentage
point to 38.6 per cent. The re-offending rate for young females
increased by 1.2 percentage points to 26.2 per cent.
56
Re-offending by offence, disposal and criminal history, 2012/13
There are differences when looking at re-offending by young people in terms
of their index offence (the offence for which they entered the cohort) and their
criminal history.

As expected, the rate of re-offending increases with the number of
previous offences. Those with no previous offences had a re-offending
rate of 23.0 per cent, compared with those with 11 or more previous
offences who had a re-offending rate of 75.6 per cent.

Those young people who received a reprimand or warning for their
index disposal had a proven re-offending rate of 26.4 per cent, those
that received a first-tier disposal had a re-offending rate of 42.5 per
cent, and those given a Youth Rehabilitation Order (YRO) had a reoffending rate of 63.5 per cent. Those released from custody had a reoffending rate of 67.9 per cent.

Re-offending rates differ based on the index offence of the young
person, with those entering the cohort for sexual offences having a reoffending rate of 15.0 per cent, compared with those with robbery
offences which have a 41.5 per cent re-offending rate.
57
Chapter 10: Criminal Histories of Young People
This chapter presents information on the criminal histories of young people in
the Youth Justice System. A young person is counted as having a criminal
history if their Police National Computer (PNC) record shows that, at the time
of receiving a caution or conviction, they had previously committed one or
more offences that had resulted in one of these sanctions. This PNC data
excludes a range of summary offences so the figures presented here focus on
the criminal histories of young people sentenced for indictable offences only.
This chapter covers information up to 2013/14. For the latest MoJ publication
please see:
www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-justice-statistics-quarterly
Key findings

In 2013/14, 82 per cent of young people sentenced for indictable
offences had previous cautions or convictions.

In 2013/14, 18 per cent of those young people sentenced at court for
indictable offences were first time entrants to the Youth Justice
System.

The proportion of young people sentenced to custody who were first
time offenders was eight per cent in 2013/14. This proportion has
fluctuated between five and eight per cent since 2003/04.

In 2013/14, 65 per cent of young people cautioned for indictable
offences had no previous cautions or convictions.
Criminal history of young people in the Youth Justice System
In 2013/14, there were 36,210 young people sentenced or cautioned for
indictable offences. Of these, 20,437 were sentenced and 15,773 were
cautioned. There has been a downward trend since 2007/08 in the numbers
sentenced for indictable offences or cautioned.
Examined by type of disposal, 73 per cent of those with no previous cautions
or convictions received a caution, whilst those with 11 or more previous
cautions or convictions tended to receive a community sentence or immediate
custody.
Criminal histories of young people sentenced for indictable offences
Of the 20,437 young people sentenced for indictable offences in 2013/14, 82
per cent had previous convictions or cautions, a fall from the 85 per cent of
2012/13. The proportion of young people sentenced for an indictable offence
who have a previous criminal history, has been reducing since 2007/08 where
90 per cent of young people sentenced for indictable offences had a previous
criminal history.
58
In 2013/14, 18 per cent of the young people sentenced for indictable offences
had no previous convictions or cautions. This was 15 per cent in 2012/13 and
the proportion has increased since 2007/08 when it was 10 per cent.
In 2013/14, four per cent of young people sentenced for an indictable offence
had 15 or more previous offences. This figure has risen from two per cent in
2003/04, but saw a decrease from the previous year for the first time.
The proportion of young people sentenced to custody who were first time
entrants to the Youth Justice System was eight per cent in 2013/14. This
proportion has fluctuated between five and eight per cent in the last decade.
These trends may be partly due to fewer young people entering the Youth
Justice System, shown by the drop in FTEs (Chapter 2). This means that
YOTs are dealing with fewer young people (Chapter 3), but they are more
serious in terms of their previous offending (Chapter 9).
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
/1
4
20
13
/1
3
20
12
/1
2
20
11
/1
1
20
10
/1
0
20
09
/0
9
20
08
/0
8
20
07
/0
7
20
06
/0
6
20
05
/0
5
20
04
/0
4
0
20
03
Young people sentenced by previous
criminal history
Chart 10.1: Numbers of young people sentenced by criminal history,
2003/04 to 2013/14
Year
First time offenders
1-2 previous convictions/cautions
3-6 previous convictions/cautions
7-10 previous convictions/cautions
11-14 previous convictions/cautions
15 or more previous convictions/cautions
59
Chart 10.2: Proportion of young people sentenced by criminal history,
2003/04, 2010/11 and 2013/14
First time offenders
1-2 previous convictions/cautions
3-6 previous convictions/cautions
7-10 previous convictions/cautions
11-14 previous convictions/cautions
15 or more previous convictions/cautions
100%
90%
2.1
4.2
10.9
4.4
5.3
4.4
4.8
11.5
10.9
80%
70%
34.0
34.3
60%
31.4
50%
40%
30%
36.8
30.2
32.3
20%
10%
11.9
12.3
2003/04
2010/11
18.4
0%
2013/14
Criminal histories of young people cautioned for indictable offences
In 2013/14, 65 per cent of young people who received a caution for an
indictable offence had no previous offences. Six per cent of young people
given a caution in 2013/14 had three or more previous cautions or
convictions.
60
Chapter 11: Comparisons with the adult system
This chapter provides a comparison with young people (10-17 years), young
adults (where available, which covers 18-20 years) and adults (21 years and
over) in the Criminal Justice System (CJS) in England and Wales. This
chapter includes comparisons of; first time entrants, offences and disposals,
criminal history, knife possession sentencing, population in custody and reoffending.
Key findings

Young people (aged 10-17) accounted for 13 per cent of first time
entrants to the criminal justice system in 2013/14. Adults (18 and over)
accounted for 87 per cent.

Young people sentenced for indictable offences accounted for seven
per cent of the total court sentences in 2013/14. Young adults (18-20)
accounted for nine per cent and the remaining 84 per cent were adults
(aged 21 and over).

Young people in custody accounted for one per cent of the total
custody population in June 2014.

In 2012/13 the proportion of people who re-offended was highest for
young people aged 10-17, with a re-offending rate of 36.1 per cent.
Young adults (18-20) had a re-offending rate of 30.0 per cent, while
adults (21 and over) had a rate of 24.2 per cent.

Young people accounted for 26 per cent (68 offences) of the total
offences involving threatening with a knife or offensive weapon in
2013/14.
First Time Entrants to the Criminal Justice System in England and
Wales, 2013/14

Young people (10-17 year olds) accounted for 13 per cent of first time
entrants to the criminal justice system in 2013/14. Adults (18 years and
over) accounted for 87 per cent.

In 2003/04, young people accounted for 31 per cent of first time
entrants to the criminal justice system. This proportion was broadly
stable until 2008/09 when it started to fall year on year to its present
level of 13 per cent.
61
Offences, disposals and knife possession sentencing in the Criminal
Justice System in England and Wales, 2013/14

Young people (10-17 year olds) sentenced for all offences accounted
for three per cent of the total people sentenced in 2013/14.

Young people (10-17) sentenced for indictable offences accounted for
seven per cent of the total people sentenced in 2013/14 with 19,608
court sentences, compared to nine per cent for young adults (18-20)
and 84 per cent for adults (21+).

Young people accounted for 26 per cent (68 offences) of the total
number of offences involving threatening with a knife or offensive
weapon in 2013/14.

Young people accounted for 16 per cent (2,480 offenders) of the total
number of offenders convicted or cautioned for a possession of a knife
or offensive weapon offence in 2013/14.

The number of young people convicted or cautioned for a possession
of a knife or offensive weapon offence decreased by five percent,
compared to a three per cent reduction for adults.
Chart 11.1: People sentenced for indictable offences by age, 2003/04 to
2013/14
Number of People
Thousands
Young people (under 18)
Young Adults (18-20)
Adults (21 and over)
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2013/14
2012/13
2011/12
2010/11
2009/10
2008/09
2007/08
2006/07
2005/06
2004/05
2003/04
62
Population in custody, 2004 to 2014

Young people (10-17) in custody accounted for one per cent of the total
prison population in June 2014. This proportion has fallen from four per
cent in June 2004.

The population in custody in the youth estate (under 18) was 1,101 45 at
the end of June 2014, compared to 5,701 young adults (18-20) and
79,067 adults (21 and over) in prison.

In the last year, the total population in custody increased by two per
cent. There was a three per cent increase in the adult (21 and over)
custody population, a nine per cent decrease in the young adult (18 –
20) custody population and 11 per cent decrease in the under 18
custody population.
Chart 11.2: Population in custody by age on 30th June 2004 to 2014
Adults (21 and over)
Young adults (18-20)
Young people (10-17)
100
90
70
Thousands
Total population in custody
80
60
50
40
30
20
10
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
Population in custody as of 30th June
45
Sourced from Offender Management Quarterly Statistics
www.gov.uk/government/collections/offender-management-statistics-quarterly
63
Re-offending in England and Wales, 2012/13

In 2012/13 the proportion of people who re-offended was highest for
young people aged 10-17, with a re-offending (binary) rate of 36.1 per
cent. Young adults (18-20) had a re-offending rate of 30.0 per cent,
while adults (21+) had a rate of 24.2 per cent.

Compared with 2011/12, rates for young people increased by 0.6
percentage points, young adults decreased by 0.6 percentage points
and adults (21+) have gone down by 0.13 percentage points..

In 2012/13, the average number of re-offences per offender (frequency
rate) was highest for young people aged 10-17 with an average of 1.08
offences per offender. The figures were 0.83 for young adults and 0.74
for adults.

Compared with 2011/12, frequency rates for young people increased
by five per cent, young adults increased by 0.2 per cent and adults
(21+) increased by 2.8 per cent.

The average number of re-offences per re-offender was highest for
adults with an average of 3.06 re-offences per re-offender. The figures
were 2.99 for young people and 2.75 for young adults. Rates for all the
three groups have gone up compared with 2011/12.
Chart 11.3: Proportion of people who re-offend, 2002 and 2006/07 to
2012/13
40.0
Proportion of offenders who re-offend (%)
Young people (10-17)
Young adults (18-20)
Adults (21 and over)
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
1
10.0
5.0
0.0
2002
2006/07
2007/08
2008/09 2009/10
2010/11
2011/12 2012/13
64
Customer Service Commitment
The Youth Justice Board and the Ministry of Justice will publish timely,
relevant, high quality statistics in line with the Code of Practice for Official and
National Statistics. Our commitment to the customers of our statistics is:

To publish our statistics on the time and date pre-announced;

To publish all statistics in line with the Code of Practice for Official
Statistics and the Ministry of Justice’s Statistical Policies and
Procedures;

To be transparent when we are unable to meet any of these
commitments;

To give open and easy-to-use routes to allow customers to supply us
with their views and opinions;

To respond quickly and accurately to questions and enquiries from our
customers;

To consult with customers on developments and changes to our
statistics methodologies; publications or publication processes;

To consult annually with both internal and external customers on our
statistical work plan;

To ensure independent scrutiny of the work plan;

To respond in a timely manner to any complaints from customers.
Customer Engagement Policy
Customers for this publication can be categorised as being from the following
groups:

Ministers and policy makers within YJB and Ministry of Justice;

Policy makers within Government;

Youth Court District Judges and sentencers;

Youth Offending Teams;

Providers of services to Young People;

Secure establishments;
65

Academics;

Expert external special interest and pressure groups ;

Media and commentators;

The public.
We recognise that these customers will have different needs. Examples of the
use of the information include: forecasting of future numbers of places in
secure establishments and occupancy levels; identifying specific groups of
young people for whom to provide services; support for the development of
specific policies (for example, Transforming Youth Custody) and comparison
of local progress on re-offending rates.
User Consultation
The UK Statistics Authority has assessed the Youth Justice Statistics Annual
Report and it has been designated official national statistics.
To this end, we are consulting a wide range of stakeholders through a future
YJB Stakeholder’s Survey on how well the Youth Justice Statistics Annual
Report fulfils their needs. We would like to hear how you use the report and
whether you think there's anything we could improve.
Please answer the following, emailing your responses to the YJB at
[email protected] by 30 September 2015.
1. Do you use the Youth Justice Statistics Annual Report (text and Excel
tables)?
2. Which of these statistics do you use, and for what purposes? Please
be as specific as possible. For example, if you use the statistics to
provide briefings and further analysis to others, it would be helpful to
know what the end use is.
3. Have you any comments on the quality of the information or methods
of analysis?
4. What further information would you like?
5. Do you have any comments on the presentation of the report?
You may also want to respond to the wider Ministry of Justice consultation on
statistical reports.
66
Links to other resources
Arrest statistics
www.gov.uk/government/statistics/police-powers-and-procedures-englandand-wales-2012-to-2013
Data on arrests for notifiable offences are included within this annual Home
Office statistical release.
Anti-Social Behaviour statistics
www.gov.uk/government/collections/antisocial-behaviour
The latest annual bulletin (published in October 2014) presents the number of
anti-social behaviour orders issued in the period 1 April 1999 to 31 December
2013 and breached in the period 1 June 2000 to 31 December 2013.
Crime in England and Wales statistics
www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Crime+in+England+and+Wal
es
This quarterly bulletin presents key statistics on crime in England and Wales
taken from statistics from two different sources: the Crime Survey for England
and Wales (CSEW, previously known as the British Crime Survey), and police
recorded crime. The publication also includes statistics on the victimisation
and experiences of crime from young people aged 10-15.
Criminal Justice Statistics
www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-justice-statistics-quarterly
This quarterly bulletin presents key statistics on activity in the Criminal Justice
System (CJS) for England and Wales. The data provides users with
information about proven offending and its outcomes in England and Wales. It
contains statistics for adults and young people on; offences, out of court
disposals, court disposals and offending histories (including first time entrants
and previous disposals).
Criminal Court Statistics
www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-court-statistics
This quarterly bulletin presents National Statistics on activities in magistrates’
courts and Crown Courts in England and Wales. The figures give a summary
overview of the volume of cases dealt with by these courts over time, with
statistics also broken down for the main types of case involved.
Also published are detailed breakdowns of the headline court caseload and
timeliness statistics, broken down by court or Local Justice Area.
67
Re-offending of juveniles
www.gov.uk/government/collections/proven-reoffending-statistics
This report provides key statistics on proven re-offending in England and
Wales. It gives proven re-offending figures for offenders who were released
from custody, received a non-custodial conviction at court, received a caution,
reprimand, warning or tested positive for opiates or cocaine between April
2012 and March 2013.
Knife Possession Sentencing
www.gov.uk/government/collections/knife-possession-sentencing-quarterly
This quarterly report contains key statistics describing trends in cautioning
and sentencing, probation supervision and the prison population for offences
involving the possession of a knife or offensive weapon in England and
Wales.
Young people in custody
www.gov.uk/government/publications/youth-custody-data
This monthly report covers information on the population in custody within the
youth secure estate. The data provides users with the breakdown of the
population in custody each month as well as trend data from 2005/06 onwards
(at a detailed level).
68
Explanatory notes
Data sources and quality
Most of the figures in this report have been drawn from administrative IT
systems, which, as with any large scale recording system, are subject to
possible errors with data entry and processing and may be subject to change
over time. Steps are taken to improve the completeness and accuracy of this
information each year.
Other figures have been taken from official published statistics, which may be
National Statistics. Further details on the sources of information are given in
Annex F.
'National Statistics' is the national standard for official statistics. The 'National
Statistics' Quality Mark indicates that the statistics have been produced in
accordance with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics. The Code of
Practice requires the statistics to be produced, managed and disseminated to
high professional standards. The statistics must be well-explained and meet
users' needs. The 'National Statistics' standard has statutory backing.
1. Data from the Ministry of Justice
Some of the data in this report has been taken from previously published
statistical bulletins published by the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) and other
government departments. In these cases links to original publication are
provided. Please see these publications for comments on the quality of this
data. Data relating to court proceedings and outcomes in the last quarter of
2013/14 is provisional.
For more information about the databases used and definitions used in the
Criminal Justice System please see:
www.gov.uk/government/statistics/criminal-justice-system-quarterly-statisticsjune-2014
2. Data from the Youth Justice Board
Some of the data in this publication come from Youth Offending Teams
(YOTs) and do not come from the police or courts. As such, the data given in
this publication may differ from that presented in other Ministry of Justice
publications. The 2013/14 data have been taken from the Youth Justice
Board’s Youth Justice Management Information System (YJMIS). This system
contains summary and case level data on young people convicted of an
offence. Prior to 2009/10, only summary level data was submitted to the YJB.
In 2013/14 there were 158 YOTs in England and Wales. The Youth Justice
Board received complete data returns from all but 3 YOTs in that year.
These YOTs were unable to send data due to technical problems with their
case management systems.
69
One of the YOTs was unable to send data relating to proven offences and
characteristics of young people and all three were unable to send data
relating to the use of remands and YRO requirements.
Considerable effort has gone into improving the quality of the data in the
YJMIS over the last few years. Revised data recording guidance and updates
to the technology has led to more complete and accurate datasets. This work
continued in 2014/15.
Despite these efforts, two datasets had quality issues in 2013/14; both
created by one of the YOT case management systems. The issues are that
the ethnicity of young people and the requirements for the Youth
Rehabilitation Orders (YROs) were not pulling through to the YJMIS despite
being recorded on the YOTs case management system. Thus there were
more young people recorded as having an ‘unknown’ ethnicity and a large
number of YROs that did not have requirements recorded for them. The YJB
is working with the case management system supplier to rectify these
problems and will publish them once they are resolved.
The 2013/14 data on young people in the secure estate comes from the YJB’s
eAsset database and data on young people in the secure estate prior to
2012/13 comes from the YJB’s Secure Accommodation Clearing House
System (SACHS) database. The quality of the information recorded on these
databases is generally assumed to be relatively high as they are the
operational systems that place young people in custody. A number of key
fields are used for which completion is mandatory when booking a young
person into custody. However, both sources are subject to possible errors
when entering data as well as changes over time being operational databases
that are regularly updated. Different checks on the data help improve and
maintain the quality:





Ongoing improvements to data entry validation reduce the risk of
incorrect recording;
Identification of duplicate records improves the reliability of the stored
information;
Visual checks on single variables as well as different variable
groupings are carried out to ensure only permitted combinations result;
Data trends are also examined to assist with quality assuring the data;
Different data sources are used to ensure the figures are sensible and
sound.
Unexpected differences are investigated which can result in unit data being
interrogated to pinpoint the anomaly. Missing and inconsistent information is
checked with individual establishments. The YJB have been working on a
project to improve the quality of historic and current information held on the
eAsset system, through making amendments to the IT system itself and
increased levels of checks of information on the system with data providers.
The Behaviour Management data are taken from monthly data returns from
establishments to the YJB. In some cases the total figures for age, gender
and ethnicity may not add up to the same figures due to recording issues.
These small variations will not make any difference to the overall rates. To
70
improve the quality, the data was subject to a validation exercise with
establishments prior to publication.
The Minimising and Managing Physical Restraint (MMPR) system has been
introduced and is being rolled out amongst secure establishments in England
and Wales. For the period March 2013 to March 2014, four establishments
have been using the technique and information has been collected from them
on a monthly basis. Details of the number of incidents were published in the
ad hoc statistical report which can be found at:
www.gov.uk/government/statistics/mmpr-data-march-2013-to-march-2014
3. Data from the Office of National Statistics
The Crime Survey for England and Wales is a nationally-representative
survey of individuals aged 16 years and over living in private households in
England and Wales. The Crime Survey for England and Wales includes
questions that allow us to look at the perceptions of older teenagers and
adults with regard to the Youth Justice System (YJS). The main Crime Survey
for England and Wales publication can be found at:
www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/method-quality/specific/crime-statisticsmethodology/guide-to-finding-crime-statistics/crime-survey-for-england-andwales--csew-/index.html
Un-weighted base: All Crime Survey for England and Wales percentages and
rates presented in the tables are based on data weighted to compensate for
differential non response. Tables show the un-weighted base which
represents the number of people/households interviewed in the specified
group.
Percentages: Row or column percentages may not add to 100 per cent due to
rounding.
Most Crime Survey for England and Wales tables present cell percentages
where the figures refer to the percentage of people/households who have the
attribute being discussed and the complementary percentage, to add to 100
per cent, is not shown.
A percentage may be quoted in the text for a single category that is
identifiable in the tables only by summing two or more component
percentages. In order to avoid rounding errors, the percentage has been
recalculated for the single category and therefore may differ by one
percentage point from the sum of the percentages derived from the tables.
‘No answers’ (missing values): All Crime Survey for England and Wales
analysis excludes don’t know/refusals unless otherwise specified.
4. Data from the Home Office
Data on arrests are taken from the Home Office statistical release ‘Police
Powers and Procedures England and Wales 2012/13’. Data for 2013/14 are
not yet available and will be published in the April 2015.
71
The figures presented in ‘Police Powers and Procedures for 2012/13’ were
correct at the time of publication, and may include revisions submitted by
forces for the years covered by, and received since the publication of the
previous year’s edition.
Figures for 2005/06 are estimated due to unavailable data from some police
forces. As a result, figures are presented rounded to the nearest hundred.
Press enquiries about the arrests data should be made to the Home Office’s
press office on 020 7035 3535.
All other enquiries about the arrests data should be made directly to Home
Office Statistics via: [email protected]
Symbols and conventions
The units of measurement in this publication are offenders, offences and
disposals; these are given as full numbers where available. The percentages
are rounded to the nearest number or one decimal place. The following
symbols have been used throughout the tables in this bulletin:
..
= Nil / Zero
= Not available
*
= small values (less than five cases)
Revisions policy
Data are received from YOTs and the secure estate on a rolling basis which
may lead to slight changes to published figures. Revisions are only made
when there is a significant change or when an error was identified in the
original data.
For the revisions policy for data taken from other sources see their respective
publications.
72
Contacts
Press enquiries should be directed to the Ministry of Justice press office:
Tel: 020 3334 3536
Email: [email protected]
Other enquiries about these statistics should be directed to:
Steve Ellerd-Elliott
Ministry of Justice
Justice Statistics Analytical Services
7th Floor
102 Petty France
London
SW1H 9AJ
Tracie Kilbey
Youth Justice Board
102 Petty France
London SW1H 9AJ
Tel: 020 3334 6775
General enquiries about the statistical work of the Ministry of Justice can be emailed to: [email protected]
General information about the official statistics system of the UK is available
from: www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/
For enquires direct to the YJB please email: [email protected]
Spreadsheet files of the tables contained in this document are also available
for download with this publication.
© Crown copyright
Produced by the Ministry of Justice
Alternative formats are available on request from [email protected]
73
Annex A: Performance Outcomes in the YJS, 2013/14
This annex covers information on the performance outcomes for the Youth
Justice System (YJS). During 2013/14, England and Wales had three
indicators; two Impact Indicators on first time entrants to the YJS and reoffending for young people, and a Transparency Indicator on the use of
custody. There were a further three Welsh Youth Justice indicators around
young people’s access to suitable accommodation, their engagement in
education, training and employment (ETE) and their access to substance
misuse services.
England and Wales Impact Indicators, 2013/14
First Time Entrants: First time entrants (FTEs) to the criminal justice system
are classified as young people aged 10-17 years, resident in England and
Wales, who received their first reprimand, warning, caution or conviction,
based on data recorded by the police on the PNC 46 (See chapter 2).
 There were 22,393 first time entrants to the Youth Justice System in
England and Wales in 2013/14.
 The number of FTEs has fallen by 80 per cent from the peak of
110,757 in 2006/07. The number of FTEs fell by 20 per cent between
2012/13 and 2013/14.
Re-offending by young people: A proven re-offence is defined as a new
offence committed within the one-year follow up period of being released from
custody or given a caution/conviction, which is proved by another formal
disposal 47 (See chapter 9).
 Results from the 2012/13 cohort show that the rate of re-offending for
young people was 36.1 per cent. This is an increase of 0.6 percentage
points since 2011/12.
 The average number of re-offences per offender (frequency rate) was
1.08 in 2012/13, up from 1.02 re-offences per offender in 2011/12.
 The average number of re-offences per re-offender was 2.99 in
2012/13, up from 2.88 re-offences per re-offender in 2011/12.
46
For further information on this dataset please visit:
www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-justice-statistics-quarterly
47
For further information on this dataset please visit:
www.gov.uk/government/collections/proven-reoffending-statistics
74
England and Wales Transparency Indicator, 2013/14
Use of custody:
The Transparency Indicator on the use of custody is measured as the number
of custodial sentences per 1,000 young people (aged 10-17) in the population.
This data is taken from the YJB’s Youth Justice Management Information
System (YJMIS).
For information on young people in custody see Chapter 7.
 Data from YJMIS shows that there were 0.53 custodial sentences per
1,000 young people in 2013/14, compared with 0.61 in 2012/13 and
0.85 in 2011/12.
 The custody rate has been stable for the last decade accounting for
between six and eight per cent of all disposals. This is against a
background of a reduction in the number of young people coming
before the courts, and those receiving custody.
75
Welsh Youth Justice Indicators
Engagement in education, training and employment (ETE) for young people in
the Youth Justice System: The measure looks at the change in the average
number of hours of ETE per week young people complete at the start and at
the end of their disposal.
 In Wales during 2013/14, young people had an average of 14.6 hours
of ETE per week at the beginning of their disposals and an average of
15.8 at the end of their disposals. This represented an eight per cent
increase in the average number of hours they completed.
 In comparison, in Wales during 2012/13, young people had an average
of 14.8 hours of ETE per week at the beginning of their disposals and
an average of 16.0 at the end of their disposals. This represented a 7.6
per cent increase in the average number of hours they completed.
Chart A.1: Average number of hours of suitable ETE per week, Wales
2013/14
Average number of hours of suitable ETE per week
Of school age
Above school age
Between age groups
Total
20.0
18.0
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
18.2
6.0
18.4
17.4
8.0
14.6
18.1
15.8
13.8
11.9
4.0
2.0
0.0
Average number of ETE hours at the start of Average number of ETE hours at the end of
disposal
disposal
76
Access to substance misuse services for young people in the Youth Justice
System: Covers the timeliness of assessments for young people with potential
substance misuse needs in Wales. Initial assessments should be conducted
within five working days of a referral, and interventions should be started
within ten working days of their assessment.
 In 2013/14, 90.4 per cent of assessments were conducted within five
working days of referral, which is a three percentage point increase
compared with 2012/13.
 The proportion of young people with substance misuse needs that
started interventions within 10 working days of their assessment was
96.6 per cent in 2013/14, a 3.7 percentage point increase on the 92.9
per cent in 2012/13.
Chart A.2: Substance misuse assessment for young people in Wales,
2008/09 to 2013/14
conducted within 5 days of referral
leading to an intervention within 10 days
100%
Substance misuse assessments
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
86%
95%
96%
86%
87%
94%
87%
93%
90%
97%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
Access to suitable accommodation for young people in the Youth Justice
System:
This indicator measures the change in the percentage of young people who
were in suitable accommodation at the end of their order, compared to the
number at the start.
The percentage of young people who were in suitable accommodation at the
start of their order 48 in 2013/14 was 95.6 per cent. This decreased slightly to
93.8 per cent at the end of their disposal.
48
Relevant orders in this case are referrals, reparations, YROs and custodial sentences.
77
For young people on a custodial disposal, 83.3 per cent were assessed as
having suitable accommodation prior to their disposal. At the end of their
disposals 87.7 per cent were assessed as having suitable accommodation.
By comparison, in 2012/13 the percentage of young people who were in
suitable accommodation at the start of their order was 94.5 per cent. This
decreased slightly to 93.3 per cent at the end of their disposal.
Furthermore in 2012/13, for young people on a custodial disposal, 80.7 per
cent were assessed as having suitable accommodation prior to their disposal.
At the end of their disposals 87.6 per cent were assessed as having suitable
accommodation.
78
Annex B: Resources in Youth Offending Teams
Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) work with young people who are in the Youth
Justice System or who are on programmes that serve to prevent young
people offending for the first time or behaving anti-socially. Most of the YOT
caseload comprises young people aged 10-17 years; however some 18 year
olds who start their disposals before their 18th birthday may also still be
engaged with the YOT. The information supplied for 2013/14 was up to date
as of 16th December 2014.
YOTs are multi-agency teams made up of representatives from police,
probation, education, health and social services, and specialist workers, such
as accommodation officers and substance misuse workers.
YOTs are mostly coterminous with local authorities in England and Wales;
however there are some exceptions where a single YOT covers two or more
local authorities. At the end of March 2014, there were 158 YOTs; 140 in
England and 18 in Wales. The composition of YOTs is changing over time;
these numbers have changed since 2011/12 and may change again in the
future.
From 2011/12 the YOT grant from the YJB was one single grant with no ringfenced amounts for designated strands of work.
The funding figures below are based on data submitted to the YJB from Youth
Offending Teams, with the exception of the YJB grant which is taken from the
YJB’s own figures.
Overall YOT funding over time
Between 2012/13 and 2013/14 there was a reduction in the overall level of
funding available to YOTs from £322m to £302m, a reduction of six per cent.
This is the lowest level of funding YOTs received since 2006/07 and since the
peak in 2010/11 corresponds to a reduction of over 19 per cent in overall YOT
funding. The changes in funding to YOTs since 2012/13 were made up as
follows:

The YJB Grant reduced by 15 per cent;

Police reduced by two per cent;

Probation reduced by five per cent;

Health services increased by nine per cent;

Local Authorities (including education and social services) reduced by
three per cent;
79

Welsh Government increased by six per cent.
Chart B.1: Total YOT funding over time, 2009/10 to 2013/14
Youth Justice Board total grant
Police
Probation
Health
Local Authority
Welsh Government
400
YOT funding (£m)
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
Financial year
Partnership funding of YOTs
The Youth Justice Board grant on average makes up about a third (31 per
cent) of funding to YOTs, although this figure varies by YOT. The remaining
funding comes from Partnership Agencies who work with the YOT to support
young people in, or at risk of joining, the Youth Justice System.
In terms of partnership funding Local Authority services contributed the most
to YOT funding, providing three quarters (75 per cent) of the total supplied by
statutory agencies other than the YJB. The police provided 10 per cent,
probation and health seven per cent each. The Welsh Government provided
additional funding to YOTs in Wales, accounting for almost 14 per cent of all
funding to YOTs in Wales.
80
Chart B.2: Partnership funding of YOTs, 2013/14
Probation, 7%
Welsh
Government, 1%
Health, 7%
Police, 10%
Local Authority,
75%
YOT workforce
As of 30th June 2013, a total of 14,292 people were recorded as working for
YOTs in some capacity. This is a reduction of eight per cent on the staffing
levels in YOTs in 2012/13. These figures include volunteers, part-time and
temporary staff and so are not measures of the full-time equivalent workforce.
YOTs vary in size from less than 20 members of staff to over 500. This
section presents information on the total number of staff across all YOTs,
broken down by contract status, gender and ethnicity.
From 30th June 2012 the data recording methodology was changed for
staffing figures by contract status. In previous years, headcount was used
both for numbers broken down by contract status and broken down by gender
and ethnicity. Starting in June 2012, the figures broken down by contract type
were recorded as full-time equivalents and as a result, the totals recorded
under contract type from 30th June 2012 onwards are not comparable to
previous years. The totals broken down by contract status are also not
comparable to those recorded under gender and ethnicity as these are still
recorded as headcount.
From the data submitted, the full-time equivalent numbers at 30th June 2013
were 5,497 practitioners (17 per cent working part-time), 838 operational
managers and 222 strategic managers. The corresponding figures for
sessional workers and volunteers were 708 and 672 respectively.
Over two-thirds (69 per cent) of the staff were female and 78 per cent classed
themselves as being from a White ethnic background. Overall the staffing
headcount in all YOTs has reduced by eight per cent between 2012/13 and
2013/14.
Comparison with the full-time equivalent figures for 2012/13 shows that while
the staffing levels in YOTs have fallen for all categories, the proportions of
81
staff in each category have remained approximately the same. The only
changes are a slight decrease in the proportion of part-time practitioners and
volunteers and a slight increase in the proportion of sessional workers and
students/trainees.
Chart B.3: YOT workforce, as of 30th June 2013
50%
49%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
12%
10%
9%
5%
8%
7%
2%
1%
es
rs
r
in
e
tr a
ts
/
en
St
ud
St
ra
t
eg
ic
Vo
m
an
lu
n
ag
e
te
e
al
ss
io
n
lm
an
na
ra
tio
O
pe
m
e
rtti
Se
er
s
ag
er
s
io
n
pr
ac
tit
st
ra
m
in
i
Ad
Pa
Fu
llt
im
e
pr
ac
tit
i
on
tiv
e
er
s
0%
82
Annex C: Levels of crime experienced by young
people
The Crime Survey for England and Wales (formerly British Crime Survey)
asks people aged 16 and over living in households in England and Wales
about their experiences of crime in the last 12 months. These experiences are
used to estimate levels of crime in England and Wales. There were an
estimated 7.3 million instances of crime against households and resident
adults (aged 16 and over) in England and Wales for the year ending March
2014. This represents a 14 per cent decrease compared with the previous
year’s survey and is the lowest estimate since the survey began in 1981.
Key findings from the survey are available in the main publication at:
www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/crime-stats/crime-statistics/period-ending-march2014/stb-crime-stats.html
In 2009, the Crime Survey for England and Wales was extended to young
people aged 10-15. The primary objective of extending the survey was to
provide estimates of the levels of crime experienced by young people and
their risk of victimisation.
In addition to questions about experience of crime, the survey also gathers
information on a number of crime-related topics such as experience and
attitudes towards the police, personal safety, being in public spaces and
access to leisure facilities. As the questions asked of 10-15 year olds are
quite different, there is no comparison made here with perceptions about the
Youth Justice System.
In the year ending March 2014, there were an estimated 810,000 49 crimes
experienced by young people aged 10-15 years. Of these:

55 per cent were categorised as violent crimes (445,000);

40 per cent were thefts of personal property (322,000);

Five per cent were criminal damage to personal property (43,000).
49
The ‘Preferred measure’ takes into account factors identified as important in determining
the severity of an incidence (such as level of injury, value of item stolen or damaged,
relationship with the perpetrator) while the ‘Broad measure’ counts all incidents which would
be legally defined as crimes and therefore may include low-level incidents between young
people.
83
Table C1 shows the estimated number of incidents and the estimated
percentage of young people aged 10-15 who experienced crime. An
estimated 12 per cent of 10-15 year olds were victims of crime in the year
ending March 2014. Of these six per cent had been a victim of violent crime
and six per cent had been a victim of personal theft.
Table C1: Offences experienced by young people aged 10-15 in the
Crime Survey for England and Wales, from 2009/10 to 2013/14.
Measure
2009/10
2010/11
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
Number of
incidents
(thousands)
1,056
918
1,066
817
810
Percentage
who were
victims of
one
incident or
more
14.6%
11.6%
15.1%
12.2%
12.1%
Number of
young
people
aged 10-15
in the
sample
3,762
3,849
3,930
2,879
2,933
Source: Crime Survey for England and Wales, ONS
Of the estimated 445,000 violent incidents experienced by young people aged
10-15, two thirds resulted in injury to the young person. Six per cent of young
people aged 10-15 had experienced violent crime in the last year; and five per
cent had experienced violence with injury. Less than one per cent of young
people aged 10-15 were victims of robbery in the last year.
There were an estimated 322,000 incidents of theft and 43,000 incidents of
damage of personal property experienced by young people aged 10-15 in the
year ending March 2014. Around 70 per cent of the thefts were classified as
other theft of personal property (225,000 incidents) which includes thefts of
property left unattended. Six per cent of young people aged 10-15 had
experienced an incident of personal theft in the last year, with other theft of
personal property most commonly experienced (four per cent).
84
Annex D: International comparisons
The Youth Justice System in England and Wales covers young people aged
10-17. When young people become 18 they are treated as adults. The most
basic defining characteristic that distinguishes Youth Justice Systems around
the world is the ages of young people that they work with. A report previously
published by the YJB (Hazel, 2008) showed that there is an incredible amount
of variation in these ages across jurisdictions and that there are many other
factors including policies, methods of assessments and interventions that
make it very complex to compare different Youth Justice Systems.
This annex focuses on the age ranges that defined Youth Justice Systems in
different countries, at the time that the Hazel (2008) study was undertaken.
There may have been subsequent changes to Youth Justice Systems in some
jurisdictions, which are not reflected in this report.
Age of criminal responsibility is the point at which the young person can be
legally prosecuted for a crime. It is the age at which the young person is
considered capable of understanding what they did wrong, and are dealt with
accordingly through the criminal justice system.
Most European countries set their ages of criminal responsibility at between
14 and 16 years, although France comes in just under at 13 years. The three
major exceptions are Switzerland and Cyprus at seven years, and the
countries of the UK (Scotland at eight years, and Northern Ireland and
England and Wales at 10 years).
The age at which the criminal justice system processes offenders as adults is
known as the age of criminal majority. This is the point when the offenders no
longer have any protection from the juvenile system in terms of process, no
longer receive different sentences from adults, and they serve any sentences
with adults.
While there is no standard age of criminal majority around the world, many
criminal justice systems, including England and Wales, have their age of
majority at 18 years old. This is also the age at which the UN Convention on
the Rights of the Child (1989), and its protection of children, fails to apply any
more.
Further information on the findings of the report previously published by the
YJB (Hazel, 2008) can be found at;
yjbpublications.justice.gov.uk/en-gb/Resources/Downloads/Cross_national_final.pdf
85
Annex E: Average Time from Offence to Completion
The criminal court timeliness measure is an estimated average of the time
criminal cases spend in the Criminal Justice System, across both magistrates’
and Crown tiers of criminal court
The statistics measure the overall duration in days from offence to completion
in the criminal courts, including intermediate stages in that process. ‘Offence
to completion’ refers to the time taken between the date an offence is
committed and date of verdict/acquittal of the defendant’s case, in either the
magistrates’ courts or the Crown Court. For defendants whose case is sent to
the Crown Court, these statistics measure the entire duration from offence to
completion in the Crown Court, including the time the case was initially dealt
with in the magistrates’ courts before being passed to the Crown Court.
In 2013/14, for all completed criminal cases 50 , the average number of days
from the time that the offence took place until the case was completed (and a
final decision was made) was 111 days. This is an increase on the 108 figure
in the previous year and continues an upward trend.
There were increases in the average amount of time from the offence to the
time that the young person was charged at the police station, and also from
the charge to the first listing of the case in a Magistrate’s Court.
Table E.3 in the supplementary volumes show the average and median
waiting times from offence to completion, for youth arrest 51 completed criminal
cases. For these cases, in 2013/14, the average time from offence to
completion was 89 days. This is an increase from the average of 84 days in
2012/13.
The average time from offence to completion (89 days) consists of the
following processes:




Offence to arrest - average of 12 days;
Arrest to charge - average of 19 days;
Charge to first listing - average of 17 days;
First listing to completion - average of 41 days.
There is variability in the waiting times by offence group. Sexual offences and
fraud offences have the longest average times from offence to completion
(328 and 211 days respectively).
When examined by ethnic appearance, those who are Black, Asian or Other
have a higher average time from offence to completion than for those who are
White (mainly at the first listing to completion stage).
50
In Magistrates and at Crown Courts.
51
Where a youth panel sat and the date of arrest is known.
86
Annex F: Sources used for each chapter
The table below shows which data sources are used for each chapter of the
report and the quality of the data.
Name
Police National
Computer (PNC)
Penalty notices
for disorder
(PNDs)
Owner
NPIA /
MoJ
MoJ
Description
Quality
Status
Source /
Other
publications
Use in YJ
Stats
2013/14
Information regarding the proven reoffending behaviour of offenders and
criminal histories of offenders has been
compiled using the Ministry of Justice’s
extract from the Police National
Computer (PNC). The quality of the
information recorded on the PNC is
generally assumed to be relatively high
as it is an operational system on which
the police depend, but analysis can
reveal errors that are typical when
handling administrative datasets of this
scale.
NS
1
Chapters 2,
3, 4, 9,
10,11 and
Annex A
Since 2004, when PNDs were piloted,
until 2012, data were received from the
individual police forces on a monthly
basis.
NS
1
Chapter 1
A new IT system PentiP was rolled out
to police forces during 2012, as a single
replacement for their existing databases,
one use of which is to capture data on
PNDs.
th
From 8 April 2013, PNDs are not
available to young people.
Youth Cautions
MoJ
From April 2011 all cautions data are
collected from the Police National
Computer, the records are validated for
accuracy and completeness and
amended as necessary. Additionally any
apparent cautions given for serious
offences, such as rape, are investigated
thoroughly with forces. All cautions data
prior to April 2011 were collected directly
from police forces and have been
through the same validation process.
From 2009/2010 the reporting of
conditional cautions was made
mandatory, including those given to
juveniles aged 16 and 17. This meant
from 1st April 2009 all returns distinguish
conditional cautions from other caution
type interventions. In addition Youth
Conditional Cautions (YCC), for
juveniles aged 16 or 17, were introduced
from 1 April 2009.
NS
1
Chapter 1
and 11
Courts
MoJ
Statistics on prosecutions, convictions
and sentencing are either derived from
the LIBRA case management system,
which holds the magistrates’ courts
records, or the Crown Court’s CREST
system which holds the trial and
sentencing data. The data includes
offences where there has been no police
involvement, such as those prosecutions
instigated by government departments,
private organisations and individuals.
From July 1995 all Crown Court data on
trials and sentences has been received
directly from the Court Service's CREST
computer system and from November
2008 all magistrates’ courts data has
NS
1
Chapters 5
and 11
87
been provided by the LIBRA case
management system. All data is subject
to a variety of validation checks prior to
publication
YJMIS
YJB
This system contains summary and case
level data on young people convicted of
an offence. Prior to 2009/10 only
summary level data was submitted to the
YJB via Youth Offending Teams. Data is
submitted on a quarterly basis.
Admin
System
2
Chapters 3,
4, 5, 6,
Annex A
and Annex
B. Used for
the local
level data.
eAsset / SACHS
YJB
Data for 2012/13 onwards for under 18
year olds for secure children’s homes
(SCHs), secure training centres (STCs),
and young offender institutions (YOIs)
comes from the YJB's eAsset database.
Data for 18 year old females in SCHs
and STCs also comes from eAsset and
data for 18 year old males in YOIs
comes from NOMS. Data is based on
monthly snapshots of the youth secure
estate, taken on the last Friday of the
month or first Friday of the following
month, depending on which is nearer to
the actual month end. Data prior to
2012/13 comes from the YJB’s Secure
Accommodation Clearing House System
(SACHS) database.
Admin
System
3
Chapters 6,
7 and 11
Behaviour
management
YJB
The Behaviour Management data are
taken from monthly data returns from
establishments to the YJB. In some
cases the total figures for age, gender
and ethnicity may not add up to the
same figures due to recording issues.
These small variations will not make any
difference to the overall rates.
Admin
System
N/A
Chapter 8
Deaths in custody
YJB
Data on deaths in custody (YOIs, STCs
and SCHs) is based on information
reported to the YJB.
Admin
System
N/A
Executive
Summary
Managing and
Minimising
Physical Restraint
YJB
MMPR is a behaviour management and
restraint system that has been
developed specifically for staff working
with young people in STCs and under-18
YOIs. All secure establishments
currently report restraint incidents
against the definition of RPI and this will
continue. However, under MMPR,
establishments are also required to
report more detailed data on all uses of
force, irrespective of whether they meet
the RPI definition or not. This includes
the use of MMPR techniques and any
use of force that is not an MMPR
technique.
Admin
system
12
Chapter 8
Arrests
Home
Office
The arrests figures relate to arrests for
notifiable offences only, which form the
basis of recorded crime statistics. The
data presented are drawn from returns
from the 43 local police forces in
England and Wales, and cover trends in
arrest rates in England and Wales from
2002/03 to 2012/13, as well as
breakdowns by offence group, gender
and self-defined ethnicity.
Figures on arrests reported to the Home
Office reflect police activity and should
not be used to infer levels of crime
committed by offenders, or their specific
characteristics.
NS
4
Chapter 1
88
ASBOs
MoJ
These statistics are based on ASBOs
issued after application by a relevant
body (Including local authorities, police,
registered social landlords, housing
action trusts, British Transport Police,
Transport for London) to magistrates'
courts (acting in their civil capacity) or to
county courts and ASBOs issued
following conviction for a criminal
offence either by magistrates' courts
(acting in their criminal capacity) or the
Crown Court.
OS
5
Chapter 1
Crime Survey for
England and
Wales
ONS
The Crime Survey for England and
Wales, previously the British Crime
Survey (BCS), is one of the largest
social research surveys conducted in
England and Wales. It asks people
resident in households about their
experiences of crime in face-to-face
interviews.
NS
6
Chapter 12
and Annex
C
Mid year
estimates
ONS
NS
7
Chapter 1,
Annex B
Re-offending
MoJ
NS
8
Chapter 9
Adults in custody
MoJ
NS
9
Chapter 11
Average number
of days from
offence to
completion
MoJ
Mid 2013 population estimates are
available at national level by single year
of age and sex and sub nationally (local
authority/health area) by five year age
group and sex. These include additional
selected age groups and broad
components of population change. The
population estimates reflect the local
authority administrative boundaries that
were in place on 30th June of the
reference year of the tables.
Key statistics on proven re-offending in
England and Wales. It gives proven reoffending figures for offenders who were
released from custody, received a noncustodial conviction at court, received a
caution, reprimand, warning or tested
positive for opiates or cocaine between
April 2012 and March 2013. Proven reoffending is defined as any offence
committed in a one year follow-up period
and receiving a court conviction, caution,
reprimand or warning in the one year
follow-up. Following this one year period,
a further six month waiting period is
allowed for cases to progress through
the courts.
Key statistics relating to offenders who
are in prison or under Probation Service
supervision. It covers flows into these
services (receptions into prison or
probation starts) and flows out
(discharges from prison or probation
terminations) as well as the caseload of
both services at specific points in time.
The criminal court timeliness measure is
an estimated average of the time
criminal cases spend in the CJS, across
both magistrates’ and Crown tiers of
criminal court. These statistics are
sourced from the administrative data
systems used in the magistrates’ courts
and Crown Court, and are produced by
linking records (the Libra Management
Information Timeliness Analysis Report
and CREST linked court data, HMCTS)..
Records are linked based on a
combination of variables including given
name, middle name, family name, date
of birth, sex, postcode, a committal date,
and two identifiers: the Arrest/Summons
Number (ASN) and Pre-Trials Issue
Unique Reference Number (PTIURN
NS
10
Executive
Summary,
Annex E
89
Other publications;
1. www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-justice-statistics-quarterly
2. www.gov.uk/government/collections/youth-justice-statistics
3. www.gov.uk/government/publications/youth-custody-data
4. www.gov.uk/government/collections/police-powers-and-proceduresengland-and-wales
5. www.gov.uk/government/collections/antisocial-behaviour
6.
www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Crime+in+England+and+Wal
es
7. www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/pop-estimate/population-estimates-for-uk-england-and-wales--scotland-and-northern-ireland/2013/rft---mid-2013-ukpopulation-estimates.zip
8. www.gov.uk/government/collections/proven-reoffending-statistics
9. www.gov.uk/government/collections/prisons-and-probation-statistics
10. www.gov.uk/government/collections/criminal-court-statistics and
www.gov.uk/government/collections/court-statistics-quarterly
11. www.gov.uk/government/statistics/mmpr-data-march-2013-to-march-2014
NS denotes National Statistics publications
OS denotes Official Statistics publications
Admin System denotes information is derived from an administrative system.
90