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Patented Nov. ll, I902.
J.'H. STEVENS &‘C. H. T-HURBER.
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PYROXYLIN? ARTICLE.
LApplication ?led July 1a, 1902.)
(No Model.)
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Pafen’céd No'v.vll, I902.
J. H. STEVENS & C; H. THURBER.
PYBOXYLINL ARTICLE.
(Application ?led July 18, 1902.)
(No Model.)
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A¥TORNEY ‘
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UNITED STATES
PATENT ' OFFICE.
JOHN H. STEVENS, OF SOUTH ‘ORANGE, AND CHARLES H. THURBER, OF
EAST ORANGE, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNORS TO THE OELLULOID COM
PANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY.
PYROXYLIN ARTICLE.
SPECIFICATION forming- part of Letters Patent N 0. 713,168, dated November 11, 1902.
Application ?led July 18, 1902. Serial No. 116,023. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
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Be it known that we, J OHN H. STEVENS, re
a soft or uncured state and roughly form it
into a ball of about the weight desired in the
siding at South Orange, and CHARLES H. ?nished product.
We then preferably sea
THURBER, residing at East Orange, county son. this soft ball—that is, allow the solvents
of Essex, and State of New Jersey, citizens
of the United States, have invented certain
new and useful Improvements in Pyroxylin
Articles, of which the following is a speci?-'
cation.
Our principal object is the production of a
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golf—ball of the proper weight, color, and elas
ticity.
I
We manufacture our articles from any suit
to evaporate—until it has an outer skin or 55
rind of fairly hard material of about one~eighth
of an inch or more in thickness, while the
interior or core of the ball still remains in a
soft condition. The ball is then looked in a
die or chamber, the interior‘ of which may be
roughened or be made in any suitable pat
tern, and the die is heated by any suitable
means, but preferably in an atmosphere of
able pyroxylin compound, the best and best steam and preferably in such manner that the
known being the material called “ celluloid.” heating is rapid and uniform. The effect of 65
Various attempts have been made to make
golf-balls from celluloid and similar com
this treatment is to vaporize, and therefore ex
pand, the liquid solvents in the interior of the
pounds owing to the inherent objections to ball,and by this means create an internal pres
golf-balls made from gutta-percha and simi
20
sure which swells the mass of material, so that
lar substances. These objections to gutta vit ?lls and takes the impression of the die and
percha are due to the naturally dark color of at the same time creates a porous interior in
such balls, which limits their whiteness to‘the the ball or other article. The seasoned rind or
paint on their surface, and also to a natural
shell on the exterior of the ball prevents the
softness, which causes them to become marred escape of most of the solvent and the forma
or dented bya blow. Celluloid can be made
in a permanent and brilliant solid white or
tion of blisters on the surface.
Plastic cel 75
luloid should be used, which does not de
pend on the liquid solvent for its moldable
in different colors, and this imparts an addi
tional value to our invention, for in place of properties.
the dull white gutta-percha ball now com
monly used we enable the player to substi
tute colors which will give an individual
character to the di?erent balls in play; but
while attempts have been made, as stated, to
use celluloid and similar compounds for golf
35 balls it has been found that the speci?c grav
ity of a solid pyroxylin ball is too great, as it
The pyroxyliu compound con
taining camphor is best, since it will readily
soften and swell under heat and the expan
sive pressure of its internal gases, no mat
ter how hard the outer shell or rind of the‘
ball is dried. The period of drying and forma
tion of this hard exterior shell can be varied
according to the softness of the material or
the amount of liquid solvent it is desired to
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interferes with its carrying properties and retain and utilize in the interior of the ball.
presents too wide a variation from the lighter; ‘As the non-shrinkable condition of the ball
weight balls to which players have become is improved by this preliminary hardening, it
accustomed. In order to overcome this ob? should becarried as far as possible without
jection, attempts have been made to combine interfering with the subsequent expansion of
celluloid with other substances—such as rub the liquid solvents contained in the interior
ber, sawdust, &c.—but so far as we are'aware ' of the ball. It will be also understood that
no one has ever made golf-balls which are by holding the ball under heat for a suf?
45 wholly made of celluloid or similar pyroxylin cient length of time a large part of the ex 95
compounds, and it is the object of our inven panded solvent will gradually ?nd its way
tion to make such a ball. As a result of our through the celluloid and escape by means
experiments We ?nd that this can be accom of vents in the die, because celluloid under
plished in the following manner: We take pressure will permit the passage of a mod
50 celluloid or a similar pyroxylin compound in erate amount of solvent without blistering.
2
viaies
After taking the ball from the die it is still
further seasoned by exposure to the atmos
It will be understood that the particular
form of apparatus illustrated is not an essen
tial part of our invention and may be varied
phere. In cases where the operator through
lack of judgment in the preliminary forma to suit the different articles without depart 65
tion of the outer hardened shell cannot be ing from the spirit of our invention.
depended on to make a ball which will re
main round after leaving the die we recom
mend the formation of a ball a tri?e larger
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than the size required, as such ball can be
thereafter turned or molded to the right size
after it is seasoned.
By means of our invention we are enabled
to control the speci?c gravity of the ball, so
that we can make it light enough to ?oat on
water or as heavy or heavier than the popu
lar gutta-percha ball.
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Our invention is illustrated vin the accom
panying drawings, in which—
We are aware that hollow articles-such as
doll-heads, parasol-handles, &c.——have here
tofore been made of celluloid by “blowing
up” a celluloid tube ’ with steam; but we
are not aware that any one has heretofore
utilized the expansive power of the solvent or
solvents in the interior of the mass of col
luloid to form a playing-ball or other article,
nor are we aware that such expansive power 75
has been controlled and put to practical use
by con?ning its forces to the interior of the
mass through the preliminary hardening of
the surface in the formation of a hard outer
shell.
In regard to the kind of celluloid or pyroxy
Figure 1 is a perspective View of the article
with its exterior seasoned surface before it is
introduced into the die. Fig. 2 is a plan view lin compound employed we prefer the mate
of'the article when placed in the die. Fig. rial of medium elasticity and one in which
3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the ar the liquid solvents are easily volatilized by
ticle and die after the article has been placed heat. Sulfuric ether is an ideal solvent for 85
25 in the die and before heat has been applied. the purposes, as it volatilizes at comparatively
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the low temperatures; but in practice we prefer
die and article after heat has been applied to to use wood-spirit, as it is cheaper and is also
expand the interior solvents contained in the more readily controlled.
Although the outer shell is preferably made 9O
article. Fig. 5 is a horizontal section of the
article and die on the line Y Z of Fig. 4. Fig. non-porous and without blisters, it may hap
6 is a perspective view of the ?nished article. pen that there may be some porosity therein
Similar letters of reference relate to similar and some blisters thereon without departing
from the spirit of our invention.
parts throughout the several views.
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Referring to the ?gures, A, Figs. 1, 2, and
35 3, represents the article with its outer shell
seasoned and its interior in a green or un
seasoned condition.
B, Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5, represents the exte
Although the production of a golf-ball has 95
been the chief object of our experiments, our
invention is not con?ned to the production
of such balls, as other articles—-—such as doll
heads, parasol-handles, &c.—maybe made by
rior casing, which contains the two parts of the same process, in which it is desired to I00
produce a hard compact outer shell or sur
40 the die C and D, respectively.
F, Figs. 3 and 4, represents the cap or col face with a less dense and more porous in
lar secured to the outer casing after the ar terior. We therefore include such articles
ticle has been placed in the die and by which within our invention.
the two parts of the die are held rigidly in
We do not in the present application claim 105
4-5 place before being placed in a steam-heated the process of producing these articles, as
gun or chamber, in which the heat (prefer such process forms the subject - matter of
ably steam heat) is supplied to the die with another application ?led simultaneously here
with, Serial No. 116,024; but
E, Fig. 6, is the ?nished article.
What we do claim in the present applica
g, Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5, is the channel or tion, and desire to secure by Letters Patent,
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guide in the outer casing for retaining the 1s-—
its contents.
pins 19 and p’ on the two parts of the die, re
spectively, and thus hold them without dis
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An article formed of a pyroxylin com
pound, such as “ celluloid ” orsimilarpyroxy
placement.
lin compound, having a substantially solid
Figs. 4 and 5 show the interior of the arti
cle A after the pores or spaces P have been
formed in its interior by the expansion of the
gases, W representing the walls between these
pores or spaces, and S representing the outer
hardened porous exterior or shell, Figs. 4
and 5.
outer shell and a porous interior, substan
tially as described.
JOHN H. STEVENS.
CHARLES H. THURBER.
Witnesses:
JAMES M. STEWART,
J. E. HINDON HYDE.
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