Chaperoning mitochondrial biogenesis.

The Biology of
Edited by
Richard I. Morimoto
Northwestern University
Alfred Tissieres
University of Geneva
Costa Georgopoulos
University of Geneva
Progress and Perspectives on the Biology
of Heat Shock Proteins and Molecular Chaperones, 1
R . I . M o r i m o t o , A . T i s s i e r e s , a n d C. G e o r g o p o u l o s
Cytosolic hsp70s of Saccharomyces
Roles in
Protein Synthesis, Protein Translocation, Proteolysis,
and Regulation, 31
E . A . C r a i g , B . K . B a x t e r , J . Becker,
J. H a l l a d a y , a n d
T. Z i e g e l h o f f e r
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis, 53
T. L a n g e r a n d W. N e u p e r t
Heat Shock Cognate Proteins and Polypeptide Translocation
Across the Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane, 85
J . L . B r o d s k y a n d R.
Structure, Function, and Regulation of the Endoplasmic
Reticulum Chaperone, BiP, 111
M . - J . G e t h i n g S. B l o n d - E l g u i n d i , K . M o r i , a n d
J.F. Sambrook
Heat Shock 70-kD Proteins and Lysosomal Proteolysis, 137
J.F. D i c e , F. A g a r r a b e r e s , M . K i r v e n - B r o o k s , L.J. Terlecky
Stress-70 Proteins and Their Interaction with
Nucleotides, 153
D . B . M c K a y , S.M. W i l b a n k s , K . M . F l a h e r t y , J . - H . H a ,
M.C. O'Brien, a n d L . L . Shirvanee
Interactions of Vertebrate hsc70 and hsp70 with Unfolded
Proteins and Peptides, 179
L . E . H i g h t o w e r , S.E. Sadis,
and I.M. Takenaka
Properties of the Heat Shock Proteins of Escherichia
the Autoregulation of the Heat Shock Response, 209
C. G e o r g o p o u l o s , K . L i b e r e k , M . Z y l i c z , a n d D . A n g
Molecular Chaperone Functions of hsp70 and hsp60 in
Protein Folding, 251
J. F r y d m a n a n d F . - U . H a r t l
The Basis of Recognition of Nonnative Structure by the
Chaperone SecB, 285
L . L . R a n d a l l , T.B. T o p p i n g , a n d S.J.S.
The Structure, Function, and Genetics of the Chaperonin
Containing TCP-1
(CCT) in Eukaryotic Cytosol, 299
K.R. Willison and H. Kubota
Modulation of Steroid Receptor Signal Transduction by Heat
Shock Proteins, 313
S.P. Bohen
and K.R.
Expression and Function of the Low-molecular-weight Heat
Shock Proteins, 335
A.-P. Arrigo andJ. Landry
Structure and Regulation of Heat Shock Gene
Promoters, 375
M . F e r n a n d e s , T. O ' B r i e n , a n d J . F . L i s
Structure and Regulation of Heat Shock Transcription
Factor, 395
C. W u , J . C l o s , G. G i o r g i , R . I . H a r o u n , S.-J. K i m ,
S.K. R a b i n d r a n , J.T. Westwood,
J . W i s n i e w s k i , a n d G. Y i m
Regulation of Heat Shock Gene Transcription by a Family of
Heat Shock Factors, 417
R . I . M o r i m o t o , D . A . J u r i v i c h , P . E . K r o e g e r , S.K. M a t h u r ,
S.P. M u r p h y , A . N a k a i , K . S a r g e , K . A b r a v a y a , a n d L . T .
Heat Shock Proteins and Stress Tolerance, 457
D . A . P a r s e l l a n d S. L i n d q u i s t
Heat Shock Proteins as Antigens in Immunity against
Infection and Seif, 495
Kaufmann and B.
Expression and Function of Stress Proteins in the Ischemic
Heart, 533
I . J . B e n j a m i n a n d RS. W i l l i a m s
Postischemic Stress Response in Brain, 553
T.S. N o w a k , J r . a n d H . Ahe
Heat Shock Protein Gene Expression in Response to
Physiologie Stress and Aging, 577
N . J . H o l b r o o k a n d R. U d e l s m a n
Index, 595
Chaperoning Mitochondrial
Thomas Langer and Walter Neupert
Institut für Physiologische Chemie
München, Germany
Maintenance o f T r a n s l o c a t i o n C o m p e t e n c e in t h e C y t o s o l
A. Conformation of Mitochondrial Proteins during Membrane Translocation
B. Function of Cytosolic Chaperone Proteins
C. Cytosolic Factors with Targeting Function for Mitochondria
Protein T r a n s l o c a t i o n A c r o s s M i t o c h o n d r i a l M e m b r a n e s
A. mt-hsp70-dependent Membrane Translocation
B. Requirement for ATP in the Matrix
C. Matrix ATP Requirement for Import of Intermembrane Space Proteins
D. mt-hsp70-mediated Unfolding of Precursor Proteins
E. mt-hsp70-independent Translocation Across the Outer Membrane of
Folding and A s s e m b l y of M i t o c h o n d r i a l Proteins
A. hsp60-dependent Assembly of Matrix-Iocalized and Inner Membrane Proteins
B. Role of hsp60 for Sorting Proteins to the Intermembrane Space
C. hsp60-mediated Folding of Monomeric Proteins in the Matrix
D. Sequential Action of mt-hsp70 and hsp60 in the Mitochondrial Matrix
E. Identification of the Mitochondrial DnaJ Homolog Mdj1
The parallel development of powerful in vitro Systems and of genetic approaches has allowed considerable progress in understanding the mechanisms of protein transport into various cellular compartments. It is becoming ever more evident that transport processes across different cellular membranes are based on similar principles. Polypeptide chains appear to traverse lipid bilayers through proteinaeeous pores. Translocation
requires a "translocation-competent," rather unfolded conformation. A s a
consequence, proteins must be partially unfolded or kept in an unfolded
conformation prior to the translocation event and must refold after Crossing the lipid membrane bilayer. In recent years, increasing evidence was
obtained that both represent assisted processes. Molecular chaperones, in
many cases originally identified as heat shock proteins, modulate the
folding State of Polypeptide chains in different cellular compartments.
T h e Biology
of H e a t Shock
and M o l e c u l a r
© 1 9 9 4 Colc Spring Harbor Uboratory Press 0-87969-427-0/94 $5 + .00
T. Langer and W. Neupert
Mitochondria, which contain heat shock proteins of the hsp70 and
hsp60 family, proved to be a useful model System to study the function
of chaperone proteins in protein translocation and folding. Although
mitochondria contain their own D N A and independent Systems for
replication and protein synthesis, only a few subunits of the oxidative
phosphorylation System and, in some organisms, components mediating
splicing and translation of mitochondrial m R N A are encoded by the
mitochondrial genome (Grivell 1989). About 95% of the total mass of
mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. They are synthesized
on cytosolic polyribosomes, many of them as precursor molecules with
amino-terminal presequences containing the targeting information. Import can occur posttranslationally followed by sorting to the various subcompartments of mitochondria, the outer and inner membranes, the intermembrane, and the matrix space.
In recent years, an increasing number of components have been identified that are involved in the import and sorting of mitochondrial
proteins (for reviews, see G l i c k and Schatz 1991; Segui-Real et al. 1992;
Hannavy et al. 1993; Kiebler et al. 1993). In this chapter, we focus on the
function of molecular chaperones in import and folding of mitochondrial
proteins. In particular, we discuss their roles in maintaining a translocation-competent conformation of mitochondrial precursor molecules
in the cytosol, in mediating the translocation process across mitochondrial membranes, and in the folding of matrix-localized proteins.
A. C o n f o r m a t i o n of Mitochondrial Proteins d u r i n g
Membrane T r a n s l o c a t i o n
It is now generally agreed that proteins must attain a loosely folded conformation to traverse biological membranes, although with some
organelles, in particular peroxisomes and glyoxysomes, the need for unfolding has not been proven. Studies of mitochondrial protein import
provided direct experimental evidence for the requirement of a
"translocation-competent" conformation of precursor proteins during the
translocation process, which differs from the completely folded, native
State: (1) Tight folding into a stable tertiary structure, e.g., induced by the
presence of Substrate analogs or cofactors, was found to prevent the i m port of precursor proteins into mitochondria (Eilers and Schatz 1986;
Chen and Douglas 1987; Rassow et al. 1989; Wienhues et al. 1991).
Removal of the ligand restored import competence of the precursor
protein. Conversely, destabilization of the native conformation by point
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
mutations results in a more efficient import into mitochondria (Chen and
Douglas 1988; Vestweber and Schatz 1988). (2) A nonnative conformation of precursor proteins during the translocation process is suggested
by the identification of translocation intermediates spanning the inner
and outer membranes (Schleyer and Neupert 1985). The two mitochondrial membranes form a barrier of about 10-12 nm as measured by electron microscopy. Using a set of fusion proteins consisting of aminoterminal parts of cytochrome b of various lengths and dihydrofolate
reductase ( D H F R ) , Rassow et al. (1990) showed that about 50 amino
acid residues are sufficient to span both mitochondrial membranes. This
excludes that precursor proteins traverse membranes in their native conformation and suggests an extended or ß-sheet structure of the spanning
portion of a Polypeptide chain, rather than an a-helical structure.
U p to now, physicochemical data have not been available that describe directly the conformation of translocation competent, mitochondrial precursor proteins. However, in view of the rapid collapse of proteins
into a compact conformation after dilution from denaturant in vitro ( K i m
and Baldwin 1990), a completely unfolded conformation of mitochondrial precursor proteins prior to membrane translocation seems to be very
unlikely. Proteins were proposed to traverse membranes in a "moltenglobule -like conformation characterized by the presence of secondary
structural elements and a flexible, disordered tertiary structure (Bychkova et al. 1988). A t this point, it should be noted that molecular
chaperones, whose function in maintaining translocation competence is
discussed in the following section, were found to stabilize unfolded
proteins in a compact conformation without ordered tertiary structure
(Martin et al. 1991b; Langer et al. 1992b).
B. Function of Cytosolic Chaperone Proteins
A nonnative conformation of precursor proteins during membrane translocation implies that their folding must be modulated in the cytosol (Fig.
1). Precursor proteins to be transported across membranes could fold to
the native State and become unfolded during membrane translocation
(Pfanner et al. 1990; Skerjanc et al. 1990) or their folding is prevented in
the cytosol. One obvious possibility would be that the amino-terminal
presequence modulates the folding State of precursor molecules. After
translocation, specific proteases within mitochondria cleave off the
presequence, which would then allow folding to the native structure.
However, the presequence is not sufficient to confer prolonged translocation competence. After dilution of mitochondrial precursor proteins from
dena.urant into in vitro import assays, translocation competence is usual-
T. Langer and W. Neupert
mt-hsp70 dependent
import into m i t o c h o n d r i a
F i g u r e 1 Possible mechanisms of maintenance of translocation competence of
precursor proteins in the cytosol. ( S S A ) Ssalp/Ssa2p; ( Y D J ) Y d j l p ; ( X ) N E M sensitive factor; (mt-hsp70) mitochondrial hsp70.
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
ly rapidly lost. In contrast, it was shown that precursor proteins are kept
transport-competent for long periods in the cytosol, in many cases
depending on the presence of A T P (Pfanner et al. 1987, 1990). Indeed, in
recent years, several ATP-dependent cytosolic factors have been identified that stabilize various precursor proteins in the cytosol, preventing
their folding or aggregation. A s discussed in a later section, however,
(partial) folding of precursor proteins in the absence of these factors does
not necessarily abolish translocation competence. Rather, unfolding in
some cases can be promoted by the mitochondrial import machinery, in
particular hsp70 (mt-hsp70), in the matrix (Fig. 1; see Section III.D).
Studies in yeast revealed that molecular chaperones of the hsp70 family help to maintain a translocation-competent conformation of mitochondrial precursor proteins as well as proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplasts, and the nucleus (Chirico et al. 1988;
Deshaies et al. 1988; Murakami et al. 1988; Waegemann et al. 1990;
Dingwall and Laskey 1992). It is well established that hsp70 proteins interact with unfolded Polypeptide chains in an ATP-dependent manner.
A m o n g the six cytosolic hsp70 proteins identified in yeast, evidence for a
role in maintaining transport competence exists for S s a l p and Ssa2p. A
yeast strain, in which the SSA1, SSA2, and SSA4 genes are deleted, could
be rescued by expression of SSA1 from a galactose-regulated promoter
(Deshaies et al. 1988). Genetic depletion of S s a l p resulted in the accumulation of precursor forms of the mitochondrial inner membrane
protein F}ß and of a-factor in the cytosol, suggesting a common step in
posttranslational protein transport across different membranes. The
stimulating effect of Ssalp/Ssa2p on import of prepro-a-factor into m i crosomes was also demonstrated biochemically in in vitro transport Systems (Chirico et al. 1988). The identification of the temperature-sensitive
yeast mutant mas3,
which maps to the yeast heat shock factor (HSF),
provides further evidence for a function of heat shock proteins in protein
transport (Smith and Yaffe 1991). At the nonpermissive temperature, in
the absence of an induction of SSA1, the rate of posttranslationally i m ported mitochondrial precursor proteins was decreased drastically. Interestingly, overexpression of S s a l p alone did not relieve this phenotype,
indicating that additional heat shock proteins are functioning during eariy
Steps of mitochondrial protein import (Smith and Yaffe 1991).
Although a direct physical interaction of Ssalp/Ssa2p with prepro-afactor was recently demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation (Chirico
1992), so far, no stable binary complexes were isolated between cytosolic hsp70 and mitochondrial precursor proteins. Therefore, a detailed
description of the mode of action of hsp70 in the cytosol is still not available. Precursor proteins were described to be part of a 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 - k D
T. Langer and W. Neupert
protein complex, which contains cytosolic hsp70 (Sheffield et al. 1990).
ATP-dependent dissociation of the complex could be prevented by N ethylmaleimide ( N E M ) treatment of the cytosol. The N E M insensitivity
of hsp70 proteins suggests the presence of an additional, NEM-sensitive
subunit of the complex. Although this component has not yet been identified, eukaryotic homologs of the E s c h e r i c h i a c o l i heat shock proteins
DnaJ and G r p E are attractive candidates. DnaJ and G r p E interact functionally with the E . c o l i hsp70 homolog D n a K (Liberek et al. 1991) and
modulate its ATP-dependent interaction with unfolded Polypeptide
chains (Zylicz et al. 1989; Liberek et al. 1991; Langer et al. 1992b). Indeed, a number of homologs of DnaJ were recently identified localized in
various compartments of a eukaryotic cell (Kurihara and Silver 1992;
Caplan et al. 1993).
The Y D J 1 gene (also called M A S 5 ) was identified by Screening a
yeast expression library with a polyclonal antiserum raised against a partially purified nuclear fraction (Caplan and Douglas 1991) and independently by Screening for yeast mutants displaying a defect in mitochondrial protein import (Atencio and Yaffe 1992). Subsequent biochemical
analysis clearly demonstrated that Y d j l p is required for efficient posttranslational protein import into mitochondria (Caplan et al. 1992a). In
temperature-sensitive yeast mutant strains at the nonpermissive temperature, precursor proteins of the a , ß, and y subunits of the F A T P a s e and
of citrate synthase accumulate in the cytosol. The dependence of import
on intact Y d j l p is obviously more strict at higher temperature. Only
minor import defects were observed in a mas5 deletion mutant at 2 3 ° C ,
whereas cells were not viable at 3 7 ° C Interestingly, Y d j l p is farnesylated in vivo, which is essential for the function of the protein at high
temperatures (Caplan et al. 1992b). Upon shift of the temperature to
3 7 ° C , the protein was partially relocalized to the membrane fraction dependent on the presence of the farnesyl lipid moicty. However, although
enriched at the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane,
Y d j l p was not found in the outer membrane of mitochondria. A specific
targeting function of the farnesyl group of Y d j l p during protein transport
is therefore still speculative.
does Y d j l p affect mitochondrial precursor proteins in the
cytosol? The prokaryotic homolog DnaJ slightly stimulates the A T P a s e
activity of D n a K (Liberek et al. 1991). This effect is far more pronounced in the presence of another heat shock protein, G r p E . Therefore,
it is likely that Y d j l p exerts its effects in collaboration with hsp70
proteins in the cytosol. Indeed, purified Y d j l p functionally interacts with
S s a l p , as it stimulates the ATPase activity of S s a l p up to ninefold (Cyr
et al. 1992). Under these conditions, a permanently unfolded Polypeptide
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
chain, carboxymethylated a-lactalbumin, was released from Ssalp/Ssa2p
in vitro. It remains to be determined whether Y d j l p is indeed part of the
described cytosolic complex of about 200-250 k D containing S s a l p /
Ssa2p and mitochondrial precursor proteins (Sheffield et al. 1990). B e cause Y d j l p , as DnaJ, is found to be insensitive to N E M (D. C y r , pers.
comm.; T . Langer, unpubl.), the complex should contain additonal components). Although not identified in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells up to
now, a protein homologous to the E . c o l i G r p E protein is a likely candidate.
C. C y t o s o l i c Factors with Targeting Function f o r M i t o c h o n d r i a
In view of the involvement of Ssalp/Ssa2p and Y d j l p in the import of
proteins into both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, interaction
of these molecular chaperones with the presequences, if it exists, apparently does not contribute to the specificity of targeting. However,
chaperone proteins may stabilize precursor proteins in a conformation
that allows interaction of the presequence with specific receptor proteins
at the outer surface of mitochondria. Indeed, cytosolic targeting factors
seem not to be absolutely required, as efficient import of a chemically
pure preprotein into isolated yeast mitochondria was described to occur
(Becker et al. 1992). The specific recognition of transport-competent
precursor proteins by receptor proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane is apparently sufficient for correct targeting in vitro. Nevertheless,
cytosolic factors that bind specifically to mitochondrial presequences appear to exist, and several such factors have been identified in mammalian
A presequence-binding factor ( P B F ) was purified from rabbit reticulocyte lysate (Murakami and M o r i 1990). Whereas no interaction was
observed with mature Ornithine transcarbamoyltransferase ( O T C ) , the
precursor form was efficiently bound by P B F (Murakami et al. 1992).
P B F is a homo-oligomeric protein of 50-kD subunits, with an S Q value
of 5.5S. Depletion of rabbit reticulocyte lysate from P B F prevented i m port of O T C , aspartate aminotransferase, and malate dehydrogenase into
mitochondria. Readdition of purified P B F fully restored import. In contrast, import of 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase, which lacks a cleavable presequence, did not depend on P B F . The mode of P B F action has not been
understood up to now. Direct evidence for a chaperone-like role of P B F
is so far lacking. It has been suggested that P B F might modulate the conformation of precursor proteins synergistically, with hsp70 proteins conferring additional mitochondrion-specific targeting information to the
complex (Murakami et al. 1992).
T. Langer and W. Neupert
Another cytosolic factor that stimulates mitochondrial protein import
was isolated from rat liver (Ono and Tuboi 1988, 1990; Hachiya et al.
1993). This factor, termed mitochondrial-import-stimulating factor
( M S F ) , is composed of two subunits of 30 and 32 k D . In contrast to P B F ,
M S F exhibits strong A T P a s e activity in the presence of a transportincompetent precursor protein (Hachiya et al. 1993). A T P hydrolysis was
reported to result in depolymerization of an in-vitro-synthesized mitochondrial precursor protein. Therefore, M S F may represent a novel
chaperone protein specific for mitochondrial precursor proteins with a
dual function: On the one hand, it may recognize presequences and confer translocation competence to precursor proteins; on the other hand, it
may target precursor proteins to mitochondria. Interestingly, the two activities were affected differently by N E M treatment (Hachiya et al.
1993). Whereas no effect of the alkylating agent was observed on presequence binding and the ATPase activity of M S F , the stimulating effect of
M S F on mitochondrial import was abolished, suggesting impairment of
the release from M S F . N E M exhibited a similar effect on a cytosolic
complex containing hsp70 and a mitochondrial precursor protein (Murakami et al. 1988; Sheffield et al. 1990). However, in contrast to P B F ,
Stimulation of import by M S F did not depend on cytosolic hsp70.
The relative importance of M S F , P B F , or hsp70 for mitochondrial
protein import in vivo remains to be determined. It might well be that a
diverse set of factors interact with various parts of a precursor protein,
resulting in stabilization of a transport-competent conformation and efficient targeting to mitochondria.
Translocation-competent precursor proteins are specifically recognized
by receptor proteins at the outer surface of mitochondria, which are part
of a protein complex in the outer membrane. This receptor complex consisting of at least six different proteins mediates binding and insertion
into the translocation pore in the outer membrane of mitochondria (for
review, see Kiebler et al. 1993). The targeting sequences are then thought
to make contact with components of the inner membrane. Translocation
of the presequence across the inner membrane into the matrix strictly
depends on an energized inner membrane (Gasser et al. 1982; Schleyer
and Neupert 1982). The electrical potential (Alp) may exert an electrophoretic effect on the positively charged presequence or influence the
conformation of an inner membrane component in a manner such that
translocation is triggered. This hypothesis is supported by the finding
that differences in the positive Charge of presequences are reflected in a
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
different sensitivity of import for the uncoupler carbonyl Cyanide mchlorophenylhydrazone ( C C C P ) (Martin et al. 1991a). Further translocation into the matrix does not require an energized inner membrane, but it
does require the hydrolysis of A T P . The role of A T P for mitochondrial
protein import was a matter of debate for a long time, mainly because
A T P depletion experiments with isolated mitochondria were performed
under various conditions, resulting in different A T P levels both outside
and inside mitochondria. T w o ATP-dependent Steps of mitochondrial
protein import are now well characterized. (1) In the cytosol, A T P is required to maintain a transport-competent conformation of precursor
proteins, as discussed above. (2) The translocation of Polypeptide chains
across the inner mitochondrial membrane is mediated by a matrix-localized hsp70 protein (mt-hsp70) in an ATP-dependent manner.
mt-hsp70-dependent Membrane T r a n s l o c a t i o n
First evidence for a function of mt-hsp70 in the translocation process was
obtained upon characterization of the yeast mutant sscl-2,
which contains a temperature-sensitive allele of the mt-hsp70 gene SSC1 (Kang et
al. 1990; Ostermann et al. 1990). A t the nonpermissive temperature,
precursor proteins of F}ß, hsp60, and S s c l p (mt-hsp70) itself accumulated in the cytosol in vivo. Consistently, import was impaired in in vitro
Systems. The mutation in the SSC1 gene affected import of proteins of
the inner membrane (e.g., the Rieske-Fe/S-protein and the A D P / A T P carrier), the intermembrane space (e.g., cytochrome C j ) , and the matrix
(e.g., the ß subunit of the F A T P a s e ) . A t nonpermissive temperature in
the sscl-2
mutant, these proteins accumulated at the surface of mitochondria, as assessed by their accessibility to externaily added protease. H o w ever, the amino-terminal presequences reached the matrix space and
were cleaved off by the matrix-processing peptidase. Obviously, the accumulated translocation intermediates were spanning both mitochondrial
membranes, indicating that mt-hsp70 acts already during membrane
translocation. Indeed, a precursor protein partly translocated into the
matrix could be cross-linked to mt-hsp70 (Scherer et al. 1990). In addition, electron microscopic studies revealed a localization of mt-hsp70
near the inner membrane (Carbajal et al. 1993).
On the basis of these results, a model for the translocation of proteins
across mitochondrial membranes mediated by mt-hsp70 was proposed
(Fig. 2) (Neupert et al. 1990; Neupert and Pfanner 1993). This model
predicts cycles of binding of mt-hsp70 to an incoming precursor to provide the driving force for the translocation across the membrane.
Spontaneous "breathing" of the Polypeptide on the outside would be suf-
mt, hsp70J
0 M
, M
F i g u r e 2 Model of mt-hsp70-mediated membrane translocation of mitochondrial precursor proteins. A functional interaction of
proteins homologous to E . c o l i DnaJ and GrpE is conceivable but remains to be demonstrated. (Mt-hsp70) Mitochondrial hsp70;
(MPP) matrix processing peptidase; (OM) outer mitochondrial membrane; (IM) inner mitochondrial membrane.
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
ficient to allow the passage of limited Segments of the precursor through
the translocation pores in the outer and inner membranes. According to
this view, binding of mt-hsp70 to incoming Segments of the precursor
protein shifts the equilibrium of folded and unfolded State on the outside
by trapping the unfolded precursor in a stepwise fashion on the t r a n s side
of the two mitochondrial membranes. The model would also imply that
breakdown of folded domains on the outside is a cooperative effect.
After initial unfolding Steps, only little energy input is necessary, since
then free energy stabilizing the folded conformation is no longer existing
as a force preventing complete unfolding. The free energies that further
stabilize a folded conformation upon binding of a ligand are usually in
the ränge of a few kcal/mole, thus relatively small. Still, they are sufficient to block import efficiently (Eilers and Schatz 1986; Chen and
Douglas 1987; Rassow et al. 1989; Wienhues et al. 1991). This would
support the view that advantage is taken of the spontaneous reversible
unfolding on the outside by the mt-hsp70-binding System inside. O b viously, the hsp70-binding/ATP hydrolysis System cannot work when
spontaneous unfolding outside is strongly impaired by binding of a
B. Requirement for ATP in the Matrix
To test some predictions of this model, the energetics of membrane translocation was studied in more detail. mt-hsp70 mediates at least one i m portant ATP-dependent Step in the mitochondrial matrix during translocation. Therefore, the requirement of A T P in the matrix most likely
reflects the function of mt-hsp70. A T P concentrations can be modulated
in the matrix under various import conditions (Hwang and Schatz 1989;
Stuart et al. 1994). In the absence of Substrates for the respiratory chain
and by inhibition of the A T P synthase and the A D P / A T P carrier, A T P
levels in the matrix can be decreased drastically in vitro. Reduction of
the A T P concentration from normal levels of about 1.4 mM to 280 \m did
not impair the translocation of matrix-localized proteins or proteins finally localized in the intermembrane Space (Stuart et al. 1994). However, at
A T P concentrations of about 150 JIM, import of matrix-localized proteins
like the ß subunit of the F A T P a s e or the S u 9 ( l - 6 9 ) - D H F R fusion
protein was affected. The A T P available to mt-hsp70 under these conditions is extremely low since a considerable amount of total A T P in the
matrix is bound to mitochondrial proteins, in particular to F r A T P a s e
with affinities in the nanomolar ränge (Cross and Nalin 1981). Although
the binding constant for A T P of mt-hsp70 has not been determined so
far, it is expected to be in the micromolar ränge. D n a K , the E . c o l i hsp70
T. Langer and W. Neupert
homolog, has an A T P - b i n d i n g constant of about 20 (LIM (Liberek et al.
1991). Therefore, most likely under conditions of extreme A T P depletion, mt-hsp70 in the matrix becomes inactive.
Interestingly, at these extremely low matrix A T P levels, processing of
precursor proteins was very inefficient and import-competent proteins
accumulated at the surface of the mitochondria (Cyr et al. 1993). The Observation of inefficient processing of precursor proteins in the presence
of Alp indicates that the presequence can reach the matrix. However, the
membrane potential is not sufficient to translocate presequences across
the inner membrane in a stable manner. In addition to Aip, A T P is required in the matrix. Precursor proteins, accumulated outside the inner
membrane of mitochondria in the presence of Aip, but absence of matrix
A T P , could be chased into the matrix by adding A T P . Most likely, the
ATP-dependent interaction of mt-hsp70 with the incoming Polypeptide
chain arrests the presequence on the matrix side of the inner membrane
in a topology that allows cleavage by the matrix-processing peptidase
(MPP) (Cyr et al. 1993). The Observation of only inefficient processing
at low A T P concentrations suggests that already the binding of aminoterminal Segments of the precursor protein to mt-hsp70 requires the
presence of A T P . Indeed, after import in ATP-depleted mitochondria,
partly translocated S u 9 ( l - 6 9 ) - D H F R could only be coimmunoprecipitated with mt-hsp70 shortly after readdition of A T P (Manning-Krieg et
al. 1991). Consistent results were obtained when two temperaturesensitive alleles of mt-hsp70, sscl-2
and sscl-3,
were analyzed (Kang et
al. 1990; Gambill et al. 1993). In the temperature-sensitive mutant
sscl2, carrying a mutation in the putative peptide-binding domain, precursor
proteins are bound to mt-hsp70 and processed efficiently at normal A T P
levels. However, the release of bound Polypeptides is impaired. O n the
other hand, in the temperature-sensitive mutant sscl-3,
carrying a point
mutation near the A T P - b i n d i n g site, which may prevent binding of A T P
to mt-hsp70, binding and efficient processing were not observed.
Taken together, these results indicate that ATP-dependent mt-hsp70
binding is sufficient to arrest the presequence in a stable manner on the
matrix side of the inner membrane and allow efficient processing. C o m plete translocation of matrix-localized proteins into the matrix, however,
requires several cycles of ATP-dependent binding and release from mthsp70. Even after unfolding of precursor proteins in vitro, import of
matrix-targeted precursor proteins did not occur under conditions of extreme A T P depletion or at nonpermissive temperature in sscl-3
mitochondria (Gambill et al. 1993; Stuart et al. 1994). Interestingly, under these conditions, efficient in vitro import of Polypeptides into the
matrix was observed in the sscl-2
mutant, in which binding of precursor
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
proteins to mt-hsp70 is still possible. This suggests that already the A T P dependent binding of (several) mt-hsp70 by itself to newly imported
amino-terminal Segments of precursor proteins may be sufficient to drive
the translocation, independent of the hydrolysis of A T P .
C. Matrix ATP Requirement f o r Import of Intermembrane
Space Proteins
Import of several proteins localized to the intermembrane space was also
found to depend on mt-hsp70 and matrix A T P . Whereas cytochrome b
accumulates as a translocation intermediate spanning both mitochondrial
membranes in the sscl-2
mutant under nonpermissive temperature, no
processing was observed in the sscl-3
mutant or after A T P depletion of
the matrix (Voos et al. 1993; Stuart et al. 1994). A stepwise reduction of
A T P levels in the mitochondrial matrix during import revealed a lessstringent A T P requirement for sorting of proteins to the intermembrane
Space compared to matrix-localized proteins. The hydrophobic part of the
bipartite presequences in intermembrane space proteins that contain the
sorting information relieves the requirement for the import for matrix
ATP/mt-hsp70 (Voos et al. 1993; Stuart et al. 1994). A fusion protein
containing the complete presequence of cytochrome b fused to mouse
D H F R is transported to the intermembrane space even at very low matrix
A T P levels or in the absence of functional mt-hsp70. In contrast, after
deletion of the hydrophobic part of the presequence, which results in
missorting of the otherwise identical precursor protein into the matrix,
import is strictly dependent on the presence of A T P . Similar observations
were made studying the import of cytochrome C j (Stuart et al. 1994). The
efficient, mt-hsp70-independent processing of intermembrane space
proteins in the matrix indicates that in this case, stable translocation of
the presequence across the inner membrane is achieved by binding to another, not yet identified, protein that may interact with the hydrophobic
part of the bipartite presequence.
The less-stringent dependence of intermembrane Space proteins on
mt-hsp70 does not allow a differentiation between the models presently
proposed for the sorting of intermembrane Space proteins, namely, the
stop-transfer model and the conservative sorting model (Hartl and
Neupert 1990; Glick et al. 1992). However, the efficient sorting at low
matrix A T P levels of preproteins, loosely folded prior to import and
destined to the intermembrane space, indicates that the precursor protein
may be present in the matrix only with parts of the entire length at a
given time. In frame of the conservative sorting model, this suggests that
the Polypeptide chain is exported to the intermembrane space in a co-
T. Langer and W. Neupert
translocational manner as proposed earlier ( K o l l et al. 1992). This mechanism could provide the energy for the movement of the Polypeptide
chain from the matrix to the intermembrane space.
mt-hsp70-mediated U n f o l d i n g of Precursor Proteins
ATP-dependent binding to mt-hsp70 drives the vectorial movement of a
precursor protein across mitochondrial membranes into the matrix.
Several lines of evidence indicate that binding of mt-hsp70 to newly imported Segments of precursor proteins can indirectly promote the unfolding of domains at the outer surface of mitochondria, another key element
of the model for its function in membrane translocation (Fig. 2): (1) The
block of complete import of several precursors into sscl-2
at nonpermissive temperature can be circumvented by urea denaturation
of precursor proteins prior to import (Karig et al. 1990; G a m b i l l et al.
1993). (2) In contrast to various fusion proteins containing the presequence of cytochrome b , import and sorting of cytochrome b itself to
the intermembrane space require matrix A T P and mt-hsp70 (Voos et al.
1993; Stuart et al. 1994). Cytochrome b , a lactate dehydrogenase, contains a tightly folded heme-binding domain (cytochrome-£> -like) followed by a flavin-containing domain. Upon protease treatment of the
precursor, the cytochrome b domain is found to form a proteaseresistant fragment prior to import ( B . Glick; R. Stuart; both pers. comm.).
A precursor protein, in which this domain was deleted, did not depend on
matrix A T P and mt-hsp70 in its import (Stuart et al. 1994). Consistently,
to reach the intermembrane space, fusion proteins containing aminoterminal parts of cytochrome b of various lengths and D H F R only required matrix A T P if the cytochrome b domain was intact. A s shown in
mitochondria, urea denaturation of the precursor protein prior to
import circumvented the necessity of A T P in the matrix for the translocation process.
A n unfolding reaction on the outside of the mitochondrion mediated
by mt-hsp70 implies that folding of precursor proteins in the cytosol does
not necessarily prevent efficient import (Fig. 1). Rather, import of folded
(partially) proteins depends strictly on the action of mt-hsp70, which
promotes unfolding outside. This is consistent with a mechanism by
which unfolding at the mitochondrial surface occurs essentially in a
spontaneous reaction. A s a consequence, cytosolic chaperones may not
even be required to maintain a translocation-competent conformation of
certain precursor proteins, one such example being cytochrome b . H o w ever, after stabilization of the folded structure by adding Substrate
analogs or ligands, e.g., methotrexate for D H F R fusion proteins or heme
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
to a heme-binding domain, the energy provided by binding to mt-hsp70
(followed by ATP-dependent release) seems not to be sufficient to facilitate the unfolding. Under these conditions, translocation intermediates
spanning across inner and outer membranes accumulate. From this
scenario, it can be predicted that after removal of the ligand, e.g.,
methotrexate in the case of D H F R fusion proteins, the import of the
translocation intermediates requires matrix A T P and mt-hsp70.
Taken together, several key predictions of the current view of the mthsp70-mediated membrane translocation process (Fig. 2) received experimental Support. mt-hsp70 function could be studied either by A T P
depletion of the matrix, preventing binding to mt-hsp70, or by characterizing temperature-sensitive mutants with a defect in binding ( s s c l - 3 ) or
in release of Polypeptides ( s s c l - 2 ) . These approaches unraveled several
functions of mt-hsp70: Presequences are stabilized in the matrix by A T P dependent binding to mt-hsp70. The vectorial movement of the complete
Polypeptide chain across the two mitochondrial membranes requires
several cycles of ATP-dependent binding and release from mt-hsp70.
These interactions not only provide the energy for the translocation process itself, but can also promote unfolding of precursor proteins outside
of mitochondria by shifting the equilibrium of folding to the unfolded
mt-hsp70-independent T r a n s l o c a t i o n A c r o s s the Outer
Membrane of M i t o c h o n d r i a
Whereas the complete transport of Polypeptide chains across the
mitochondrial inner membrane requires mt-hsp70 and the membrane
potential, several precursor proteins can be translocated across the outer
mitochondrial membrane in a manner independent of mt-hsp70.
Cytochrome c, a soluble protein of the intermembrane Space, follows a
quite exceptional import pathway (for review, see Stuart and Neupert
L i l l et al. 1992b). Efficient import does not require receptor
proteins at the surface of mitochondria or the hydrolysis of A T P . Attachment of the heme group in the intermembrane Space, catalyzed by
cytochrome c heme lyase ( C C H L ) , and subsequent folding are thought to
drive membrane translocation (Nicholson et al. 1988). C C H L , on the
other hand, is transported via the receptor complex in the outer membrane into the intermembrane Space seemingly independent from an external energy source ( L i l l et al. 1992a). Neither A T P depletion nor
destruction of the membrane potential across the inner membrane
reduced the import efficiency. It is so far not clear how the energy is provided for the vectorial movement of C C H L across the lipid bilayer. Fold-
T. Langer and W. Neupert
ing of C C H L or binding to a yet unidentified factor in the intermembrane
space could drive the import reaction. Similarly, as in the matrix, a
chaperone-like protein might be involved in these processes. However,
the observed import of C C H L into isolated outer membrane vesicles
argues against the requirement of a soluble factor in the intermembrane
space (Mayer et al. 1993). Matrix-localized proteins cannot be imported
into these vesicles, most likely because a driving force is missing that in
intact mitochondria is provided by the simultaneous, mt-hsp70-dependent translocation across the inner membrane.
After membrane translocation, newly imported Polypeptides have to attain their native conformation at their site of function. In many cases, this
seems to be an assisted process. A n increasing number of genes are being
characterized whose functions are required for the assembly of protein
complexes in the inner membrane, e.g., the F | F - A T P a s e , the ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, and cytochrome c oxidase (for
review, see Grivell 1989; Ackermann and Tzagoloff 1990; Luis et al.
1990; Buchwald et al. 1991). In many cases, the function of the products
of these genes seems to be restricted to assisting assembly of a particular
protein complex, i.e., they may function as "private" chaperones. In contrast, the molecular chaperone hsp60, localized in the matrix, was shown
to mediate folding and assembly of many mitochondrial proteins (Cheng
et al. 1989; Martin et al. 1992; Hallberg et al. 1993).
hsp60 belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins, termed
chaperonins (cpn60) (Hemmingsen et al. 1988), that occur in prokaryotes
(Hendrix 1979; Hohn et al. 1979) and eukaryotes, where it is present in
mitochondria ( M c M u l l i n and Hallberg 1987, 1988; Jindal et al. 1989;
Mizzen et al. 1989; Picketts et al. 1989) and in chloroplasts (Barraclough
and Ellis 1980; Martel et al. 1990). hsp60 is encoded by an essential gene
whose transcription is increased two- to threefold lipon temperature shift
to 3 9 ° C (Reading et al. 1989). Under these conditions, the protein
represents about 0.3% of total cell protein. A s other chaperonins, hsp60
is a homo-oligomeric protein composed of 14 subunits with a molecular
mass of 60 k D . These subunits are arranged in two-stacked heptameric
rings, thereby forming the characteristic barrel-like structure (Hutchinson
et al. 1989). hsp60 exhibits an ATPase activity that is modulated by a
cochaperonin (cpnlO) homologous to G r o E S in E . c o l i (Goloubinoff et
al. 1989a). Although so far only identified in mammalian and plant
mitochondria (Lubben et al. 1990; Hartman et al. 1992a,b), the ubiquitous occurrence of G r o E S homologs is very likely. Mitochondrial c p n l O
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
proteins consist of seven identical 10-kD subunits that form a ring-like
hsp60-dependent A s s e m b l y of Matrix-localized
Inner Membrane Proteins
The yeast H S P 6 0 gene was originally identified in the mutant m i f 4 that
lacked enzymatic activity of imported mitochondrial proteins (Cheng et
al. 1989). A t the same time, hsp60 was found in the yeast genome and its
D N A sequence was determined (Johnson et al. 1989; Reading et al.
1989). Subsequent biochemical characterization of the temperaturesensitive mutant mif4 provided direct evidence for the involvement of
hsp60 in the assembly of mitochondrial proteins (Cheng et al. 1989). Import of a number of precursor proteins localized in the matrix or the inner
membrane was analyzed and found not to be affected at nonpermissive
temperature in vivo. However, assembly of the ß subunit of the F j ATPase or of Ornithine transcarbamoylase and the maturation of the
Rieske-Fe/S-protein were impaired. Under these conditions, a large number of matrix proteins, including Mif4p (hsp60), were found as aggregates in the membrane pellet after extraction of mitochondria. This
points to a general role of hsp60 in the assembly of mitochondrial matrix
proteins. Recently, these observations were further confirmed by genetic
depletion of hsp60 (Hallberg et al. 1993). Yeast strains with a disrupted
H S P 6 0 gene were rescued by expression of the wild-type gene from a
galactose-inducible promoter. Growth of cells on glucose-containing medium resulted in depletion of hsp60. A s in m i / 4 mitochondria, proteins
were imported normally but remained insoluble. Interestingly, as with
other matrix proteins, hsp60 is required for its own assembly (Cheng et
al. 1990; Hallberg et al. 1993). In addition, hsp60 also seems to be required for the assembly of some mitochondrially encoded proteins. In
plant mitochondria, the newly synthesized a subunit of the F A T P a s e
was found to be associated with hsp60 (Prasad et al. 1990). Taken together, these results demonstrate the requirement of the hsp60 complex
for the biogenesis of mitochondrial matrix proteins. However, it was not
possible on the basis of these studies to distinguish whether hsp60 affects
folding or oligomerization of newly imported proteins.
Role of hsp60 for Sorting Proteins to the
Intermembrane Space
A function of hsp60 for sorting of proteins to the intermembrane Space is
currently a matter of debate. A t nonpermissive temperature, accumula-
T. Langer and W. Neupert
tion of the intermediate form of cytochrome b was observed in the mif4
strain in vivo (Cheng et al. 1989). Consistently, cytochrome b or hybrid
proteins containing various amino-terminal parts of cytochrome b fused
to D H F R were found in association with hsp60 in in vitro experiments
( K o l l et al. 1992). The association with hsp60 was taken as an additional
evidence for the conservative sorting model which predicts that
cytochrome b traverses the matrix on its sorting pathway to the intermembrane space. A s demonstrated in vitro using the purified E . c o l i
hsp60 homolog G r o E L , A T P hydrolysis resulted in efficient release of
the bound protein only if the hydrophobic part of the bipartite presequence of cytochrome b was deleted ( K o l l et al. 1992). This was interpretated to suggest an antifolding effect of hsp60 on intermembrane
Space proteins with a bipartite presequence. The hydrophobic part of the
presequence may promote a prolonged association with hsp60 that keeps
the import intermediate in a conformation competent for re-export.
Recently, however, these results were challenged. A different phenotype was described for import of cytochrome b and cytochrome c^ into
the intermembrane space of mitochondria isolated from the m i f 4 strain
(Glick et al. 1992). In addition, both proteins were found to be imported
with unchanged efficiency after genetic depletion of hsp60 (Hallberg et
al. 1993). Although the latter result suggests that hsp60 may not be essential for correct sorting of cytochrome b and cytochrome C j into the
intermembrane space, a kinetic effect of hsp60 was not excluded. hsp60
may stabilize intermediates in an export-competent conformation especially under conditions that favor import into the matrix over re-export
into the intermembrane Space. This might explain the accumulation of
the intermediate form of cytochrome b that was synthesized and i m ported into mitochondria after almost complete depletion of hsp60
(Hallberg et al. 1993).
hsp60-mediated Folding of M o n o m e r i c Proteins
in t h e Matrix
The demonstration of an impaired assembly of several newly imported
proteins in the m i f 4 mutant strain at nonpermissive temperature raised the
intriguing question of whether folding of monomeric proteins is mediated by molecular chaperones in vivo. A n assisted folding reaction might
be required to cope with the high protein concentration in the mitochondrial matrix, which may be as high as 500 mg/ml (Schwerzmann et al.
1986), and thus favor aggregation of newly imported or synthesized
Polypeptides. A hybrid protein containing D H F R fused to a mitochondrial targeting domain (amino acids 1-69 of subunit 9 of the A T P synthase;
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
S u 9 [ l - 6 9 ] - D H F R ) was used to study folding of proteins within mitochondria (Ostermann et al. 1989). In the native conformation, D H F R exhibits an intrinsic protease resistance, allowing assessment of the folding
State of the protein. In N e u r o s p o r a c r a s s a , folding of the D H F R was
found to occur with a half-time of about 2 minutes (Ostermann et al.
1989). In contrast, spontaneous refolding of purified D H F R from
denaturant in vitro takes place at a considerably faster rate (Touchette et
ai. 1986). Together with the observed A T P dependence of the folding
reaction in mitochondria, these results pointed to a role of hsp60 in
mediating the folding of D H F R after import. Indeed, a stable complex of
newly imported, unfolded D H F R with hsp60 was isolated from a mitochondrial matrix extract at reduced A T P levels (Ostermann et al. 1989).
Addition of A T P resulted in folding of the D H F R in a protease-resistant
conformation. Besides hsp60, an additional factor in the matrix was required for efficient folding, most likely a protein homologous to £ . c o l i
G r o E S , in the meantime identified in mitochondria of various organisms
(Lubben et al. 1990; Hartman et al. 1992a,b). Additional evidence for an
hsp60 function in folding of D H F R was obtained by importing a fusion
protein, p O T C - D H F R , into m i j 4 mitochondria in vivo (Martin et al.
1992). D H F R could only be extracted in a soluble, enzymatically active
conformation at 23°C, whereas at the nonpermissive temperature, most
of the protein was recovered in the membrane pellet. Therefore, despite
the ability of D H F R to refold in vitro spontaneously after dilution from
denaturant, in vivo folding is mediated by hsp60. This is also suggested
by the slower kinetics of D H F R folding observed in vivo.
These studies established the role of hsp60 in mediating the folding of
newly imported, monomeric proteins. The general function of hsp60 is
underlined by the Observation that under stress conditions (e.g., high
temperature), hsp60 prevents the denaturation of a large number of
preexisting mitochondrial proteins as well (Martin et al. 1992). After i m port into mitochondria in vivo, D H F R , a thermolabile protein, was inactivated at 3 7 ° C in the absence of functional hsp60 but was stabilized in
an enzymatically active conformation in the presence of hsp60. A n A T P dependent association with hsp60 was only detected at high temperature,
conditions that result in denaturation of D H F R . This suggests that under
stress conditions in vivo, proteins are stabilized by ATP-dependent association with hsp60. Interestingly, in vivo, mt-hsp70 is not able to compensate for hsp60 in maintaining D H F R enzymatically active at 3 7 ° C .
A detailed characterization of the folding activity of chaperonins, including mitochondrial hsp60, was performed by reconstitution of the
folding reaction in vitro using purified components. These studies
revealed principles of chaperonin action as reviewed elsewhere (Gething
T. Langer and W. Neupert
and Sambrook 1992; Hendrick and Hartl 1993). Chaperonins of different
origins, such as mitochondrial hsp60 and E . c o l i G r o E L , can Substitute
for each other in in vitro folding assays, although with reduced efficiency
(Goloubinoff et al. 1989b). This demonstrates the existence of a conserved, ATP-dependent mechanism of chaperonin action. The reduced
efficiency of the folding reaction observed when using heterologous
components may reflect the parallel evolution of the cochaperonin.
D. Sequential A c t i o n of mt-hsp70 and hsp60 in
the Mitochondrial Matrix
In addition to hsp60, folding of newly imported proteins in the mitochondrial matrix requires functional mt-hsp70 (Fig. 3). A s discussed in an
earlier section, mt-hsp70 promotes the translocation of Polypeptide
chains across mitochondrial membranes by cycles c f ATP-dependent
binding to the incoming protein. In the yeast mutant sscl-2
at the nonpermissive temperature, the block of import could be circumvented by urea
denaturation of precursor proteins (Kang et al. 1990; Gambill et al.
1993). Under these conditions, a fusion protein containing D H F R
( S u 9 [ l - 6 9 ] - D H F R ) was imported completely into the matrix. However,
D H F R remained bound to mt-hsp70 in an unfolded conformation as
demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and by assessing its protease
sensitivity after lysis of mitochondria. Obviously, protein folding requires the ATP-dependent release of newly imported proteins from mthsp70 and most likely transfer to hsp60. A sequential interaction of mthsp70 and hsp60 with newly imported matrix proteins was already suggested by the Observation that in contrast to mt-hsp70, functional inactivation of hsp60 did not affect the import reaction (Cheng et al. 1989).
Indeed, upon import in vitro, the precursor of ß - M P P , a subunit of the
dimeric matrix processing peptidase of yeast, could be coimmunoprecipitated with mt-hsp70 and hsp60 successively (Manning-Krieg et al. 1991).
A T P hydrolysis promotes release from mt-hsp70 and binding to hsp60.
In addition, newly imported hsp60 was found in a transient complex with
mt-hsp70 prior to its assembly (Manning-Krieg et al. 1991). Interestingly, in hsp60-depleted mitochondria, newly imported hsp60 remained associated with mt-hsp70 even in the presence of A T P (Hallberg et al.
1993). Because of the lack of preexisting hsp60 oligomers, which are required for assembly (Cheng et al. 1990), hsp60 subunits remain bound to
The Cooperation of mt-hsp70 and hsp60 in mediating folding of
proteins localized in the mitochondrial matrix raises the intriguing question of how the ATP-dependent transfer of a Polypeptide chain from mt-
F i g u r e 3 Hypothetical model of the role of mitochondrial chaperone proteins in protein folding in the mitochondrial matrix. The
direct functional interaction of M d j l p and of Y g e l p (see Section I V . D and E ) with mt-hsp70 in this process remains to be
demonstrated. (Mt-hsp70) Mitochondrial hsp70; ( M D J ) mitochondrial DnaJ homolog M d j l p ; ( Y G E ) mitochondrial G r p E - h o m o l o g
Y g e l p ; ( O M ) outer mitochondrial membrane; ( I M ) inner mitochondrial membrane.
T. Langer and W. Neupert
hsp70 to hsp60 is regulated. Reconstitution experiments with purified
components allowed further insights into the mechanism of chaperonemediated protein folding (Langer et al. 1992b). The homologous proteins
from E . c o l i , D n a K and G r o E L , were used in these studies that share
58% ( D n a K and S s c l ) and 54% ( G r o E L and hsp60) sequence identity
with their mitochondrial counterparts (Craig et al. 1989; Reading et al.
1989). The transfer of a protein from D n a K to G r o E L was found to be
tightly regulated. The ATP-dependent interaction of an unfolded
Polypeptide chain with D n a K is modulated by two other heat shock
proteins of E . c o l i , DnaJ and G r p E (Liberek et al. 1991; Langer et al.
1992b). Binding of DnaJ, which can act as a molecular chaperone on its
own, increases the affinity of D n a K for an unfolded protein (Zylicz et al.
1989; Wickner et al. 1991; Langer et al. 1992b). A complex between
D n a K and DnaJ is formed that is stabilized by A T P hydrolysis by DnaK.
G r p E mediates the A D P release from D n a K , resulting in a decreased Substrate affinity of D n a K . Under these conditions, an efficient transfer of
the protein to G r o E L is observed. Subsequently, folding of the Polypeptide chain occurs in association with G r o E L in an ATP-dependent manner, most likely within the central cavity of the G r o E L cylinder (Martin
et al. 1991b; Langer et al. 1992a; Braig et al. 1993). The sequential interaction of the molecular chaperones, D n a K and G r o E L , seems to be
directed by their binding specificity (Langer et al. 1992b). Whereas
D n a K , like various eukaryotic hsp70 proteins (Palleros et al. 1991), exhibits high Substrate affinity for Polypeptides that are in an unfolded conformation lacking secondary structures, a Polypeptide chain in the process of folding to its native State is stabilized by G r o E L in a collapsed
State characterized by a disordered tertiary structure (Martin et al.
The successive interaction of D n a K and G r o E L with a Polypeptide
chain during its folding in vitro may mimic the Situation prevailing in
mitochondria. Participation in mitochondria of proteins with a function
similar to that of E . c o l i DnaJ and G r p E is an attractive possibility. Indeed, a protein homologous to E . c o l i G r p E was recently identified
( Y g e l p ; E . Craig, pers. comm.) that was localized to the mitochondrial
matrix. In agreement with the predicted function, the protein is encoded
by an essential gene (E. Craig, pers. comm.). On the other hand, a general importance of DnaK-DnaJ-like interactions in eukaryotes is suggested
by the identification of proteins homologous to E . c o l i DnaJ in various
compartments of a eukaryotic cell; part of them has already been shown
to interact functionally with hsp70 proteins (Kurihara and Silver 1992;
Caplan et al. 1993). In Saccharomyces
c e r e v i s i a e , SCJ1 (37% sequence
identity to DnaJ) was identified as a gene whose overexpression results
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
in missorting of a nucleus-targeted cytochrome Cj fusion protein to mitochondria (Blumberg and Silver 1991). However, a mitochondrial localization of S c j l p by cellular subfractionation has not been demonstrated.
Identification of the Mitochondrial DnaJ H o m o l o g Mdj1
Recently, during D N A sequencing of an S. c e r e v i s i a e X clone library, another gene was identified that turned out to encode a mitochondrial DnaJ
homolog and was therefore termed M d j l p (mitochondrial DnaJ) ( N .
Rowley et al., in prep.). The M D J 1 gene exhibits striking similarity with
already known DnaJ homologs. The gene encodes a protein of 511
residues that is 33% identical to E . c o l i DnaJ over the entire length.
Moreover, the characteristic sequence motifs found in DnaJ homologs
are also present in the M D J 1 gene. The "J region" of M d j l p is 50%
identical to that in E . c o l i DnaJ and 54% identical to that in Y d j l p , which
is located in the cytosol of S. c e r e v i s i a e . In addition, M D J 1 contains a
glycine-rich region as well as a four times repeated cysteine-containing
motif in the central part of M d j l p , both motifs being characteristic for
members of the DnaJ family. In contrast to other known DnaJ homologs,
an amino-terminal extension is found in M d j l p that is rieh in basic amino
acids, a characteristic feature of mitochondrial presequences. Indeed,
M d j l p is synthesized as a larger presursor protein and imported into isolated mitochondria followed by cleavage of the presequence. The protein
was localized to the mitochondrial matrix, more precisely to the inner
side of the inner membrane.
To analyze the function of M d j l p within mitochondria, a gene disruption was carried out ( A m d j l ) . A s with other DnaJ homologs, M d j l p is
not essential for viability. Disruption of the M D J I gene resulted in a
p e t i t e phenotype in yeast. Whereas normal growth on fermentable carbon
sources at 3 0 ° C was observed, cells were inviable at 3 7 ° C and unable to
grow on nonfermentable carbon sources at any temperature. Growth at
3 7 ° C could be restored by transformation of the disruptant strain with the
complete M D J 1 gene.
Interestingly, M D J 1 is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial
D N A . N o mitochondrial D N A was found in the disruptant strain. In view
of the known funetions of other DnaJ homologs, in particular their functional interaction with hsp70 proteins, an impaired protein import or
folding may aecount for this effect. Alternatively, the observed p ° phenotype may reflect a function of M d j l p in mitochondrial D N A replication or in translation, which is required for maintaining mitochondrial
D N A . T o obtain further evidence for the role of M d j l p in mitochondrial
biogenesis, protein import and folding within mitochondria were studied.
T. Langer and W. Neupert
In contrast to an inactivation of mt-hsp70, disruption of M D J 1 did not affect protein import into different mitochondrial
Matrix-localized proteins (e.g., ß subunit of the F j - A T P a s e ) , proteins located in the intermembrane space (e.g., cytochrome b ) , as well as
proteins of the inner (e.g., A D P / A T P - c a r r i e r ) and outer membranes (e.g.,
M O M 3 8 ) were imported in the absence of M d j l p with the same efficiencies and kinetics as those observed in wild type. In contrast, M d j l p
seems to participate in the folding of both newly imported and preexisting proteins within mitochondria. After import of D H F R fusion proteins
into mitochondria, protease-resistant folded D H F R was formed even in
the absence of M d j l p , however, with reduced efficiency. In the A m d j l
strain, insoluble D H F R was in the pellet fraction after low-speed centrifugation, most likely representing aggregated protein. This indicates a
role of M d j l p in folding of newly imported proteins and, in addition, in
folding of preexisting proteins. Completely imported D H F R exhibited a
decreased heat stability at 3 7 ° C in A m d j l , suggesting a role of M d j l p in
stabilization of preexisting mitochondrial proteins against heat denaturation.
Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of M d j l p
for the formation of respiratory-competent mitochondria. Further experiments are required to demonstrate a functional interaction with S s c l p in
mediating import and folding of proteins. Such a Cooperation would also
point to a protein homologous to E . c o l i G r p E recently identified in yeast
(as discussed above). It may seem surprising that deletion of M D J 1 affects folding of mitochondrial proteins, but not membrane translocation,
in view of the participation mt-hsp70 in both processes. Studies of the
function of E . c o l i D n a K demonstrated that D n a K binds extended
Polypeptide chains with high affinity, whereas a stable complex with
compact folding intermediates can only be detected in the presence of
DnaJ (Langer et al. 1992b). Therefore, different conformational states of
precursor proteins during membrane translocation and during subsequent
folding may account for the different effects of M D J 1 deletion. The observed requirement of M d j l p for maintenance of mitochondrial D N A
may suggest a role of M d j l p in mitochondrial D N A replication or
protein synthesis, comparable to DnaJ in the replication of viral D N A in
E . c o l i (Georgopoulos et al. 1990) or S i s l p in initiation of translation in
S. c e r e v i s i a e (Zhong and Arndt, 1993).
Molecular chaperones are known to fulfill essential functions during
biogenesis of mitochondria. Although general functions are recognized,
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
in many cases, a detailed analysis of the mode of action of the various
chaperones is still awaited. This holds particularly true for their role in
maintaining a translocation-competent conformation in the cytosol.
Questions addressing the composition of cytosolic complexes that contain mitochondrial precursor proteins, the coordination of various
chaperone proteins in the cytosol, or the interplay with targeting factors
specific for mitochondrial presequences need to be answered.
Future studies should also allow further insights into the function of
chaperone proteins within mitochondria. Although a sequential action of
mt-hsp70 and hsp60 has been described, the general importance of this
pathway is still a matter of debate. The analysis of M d j l p mutants may
provide further clues as to how the Cooperation is regulated. Moreover,
mitochondrial chaperone proteins may also participate in processes other
than protein import and folding, such as D N A replication, D N A recombination, protein synthesis, and degradation. Again, mitochondria may
turn out to represent a useful model System to discover novel functions of
molecular chaperones.
Ackermann, S. and A . Tzagoloff. 1990. ATP10, a yeast nuclear gene required for the assembly of the mitochondrial F , - F
complex. J. B i o l . C h e m . 265: 9952-9995.
Atencio, D.P. and M.P. Yaffe. 1992.
M A S 5 , a yeast homolog of DnaJ involved in
mitochondrial protein import. M o l . C e l l . B i o l . 12: 283-291.
Barraclough, R. and R.J. Ellis. 1980. Protein synthesis in chloroplasts. IX: Assembly of
newly-synthesized large subunits into ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase in isolated intact pea chloroplasts. B i o c h e m . Biophys.
A c t a 608: 19-31.
Becker, K., B. Guiard, J. Rassow, T. Söllner, and K. Pfanner. 1992. Targeting of a chemically pure preprotein to mitochondria does not require the addition of a cytosolic signal
recognition factor../. B i o l . C h e m . 267: 5637-5643.
Blumberg, H. and P.A. Silver. 1991. A homologue of the bacterial heat-shock gene DnaJ
that alters protein sorting in yeast. N a t u r e 349: 627-630.
Braig, K., J. Hainfeld, M . Simon, F. Furuya, and A . L . Horwich. 1993. Polypeptide bound
to the chaperonin groEL binds within a central cavity. P r o c . N a t l . Acad.
Sei. 90:
Buchwald, P., G . Krummeck, and G . Rödel. 1991. Immunological identification of yeast
S C O l protein as a component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. M o l . G e n .
Bychkova, V . , R.H.
Pain, and O.B. Ptitsyn. 1988. The "molten globule" State is involved
in the translocation of proteins across membranes? F E B S L e u . 238: 231-234.
Caplan, A . J . and M . G .
Douglas. 1991. Characterization of YDJ1:
A yeast homologue of
the bacterial dnaJ protein. J. C e l l B i o l . 114: 609-621.
Caplan, A . , D . M . Cyr, and M . G . Douglas. 1992a. Y D J l p facilitates Polypeptide translocation across different intracellular membranes by a conserved mechanism. C e l l 71:
1 143-1155.
. 1993. Eukaryotic homologues of E s c h e r i c h i a coli
DnaJ: A diverse protein fam-
T. Langer and W. Neupert
ily that functions with HSP70 stress proteins. M o l . B i o l . C e l l 4: 555-563.
Caplan, A . , J. Tsai, P J . Casey, and M.G.
Douglas. 1992b. Farnesylation of Y D J l p is re-
quired for function at elevated growth temperatures in Saccharomyces
B i o l . C h e m . 267: 18890-18895.
Carbajal, E . , J.-F.
Beaulieu, L . M .
Nicole, and R.M.
Tanguay. 1993. Intramitochondrial
iocalization of the main 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein in D r o s o p h i l a cells. E x p .
C e l l Res. 207: 300-309.
Chen, W.-J.
and M . Douglas. 1987. The role of protein structure in the mitochondrial im-
port pathway: Unfolding of mitochondrially bound precursors is required for membrane
translocation./. B i o l . C h e m . 262: 15605-15609.
. 1988. A n Fj-ATPase ß-subunit precursor lacking an internal tetramer-forming
domain is imported into mitochondria in the absence of A T P . J. B i o l . C h e m . 263:
Cheng, M.Y.,
Hartl, and A . L .
Horwich. 1990. The mitochondrial chaperonin hsp60
is required for its own assembly. N a t u r e 348: 455-458.
Cheng, M . Y . , F . - U . Hartl, J. Martin, R . A . Pollock, F. Kalousek, W. Neupert, E . M .
Hallberg, R . L . Hallberg, and A . L . Horwich. 1989. Mitochondrial heat-shock protein
hsp60 is essential for assembly of proteins imported into yeast mitochondria. N a t u r e
Chirico, W . 1992.
Dissociation of complexes between 70 kDa stress proteins and
presecretory proteins is facilitated by a cytosolic factor. Biochem.
Res. C o m -
m u n . 189: 1150-1156.
Chirico, W., M . Waters, and G . Blobel. 1988. 70K heat-shock related proteins stimulated
protein translocation into microsomes. N a t u r e 332: 805-810.
Craig, E . A . , J. Kramer, J. Shilling, W . M . Werner, S. Holmes, S.J. Kosic, and C M .
Nicolet. 1989. SSC1, an essential member of the yeast HSP70 multigene family, encodes a mitochondrial protein. M o l . C e l l . B i o l . 9: 3000-3008.
Cross, R. and C M . Nalin. 1981. Adenine nucleotide binding sites on beef heart F j ATPase. J. B i o l C h e m . 257: 2874-2881.
D., X . L u , and M . G .
Douglas. 1992. Regulation of Hsp70 function by a eukaryotic
DnaJ homolog. 7. B i o l C h e m . 267: 20927-20931.
D., R . A . Stuart, and W. Neupert. 1993. A matrix-ATP requirement for presequence
inner membrane
of mitochondria. J. B i o l .
Dingwall, C and R. Laskey. 1992. The nuclear membrane. Science
258: 942-947.
Deshaies, R., B. Koch, M . Werner-Washburne, E. Craig, and R. Schekman. 1988. A subfamily of stress proteins facilitates translocation of secretory and mitochondrial precursor Polypeptides. N a t u r e 332: 800-805.
Eilers, M . and G . Schatz. 1986. Binding of a specific ligand inhibits import of a purified
precursor protein into mitochondria. N a t u r e 322: 228-232.
Gambill, B., W. Voos, P.J. Kang, B. Miao, T. Langer, E.A.
Craig, and K . Pfanner. 1993.
dual role for mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 in membrane translocation of
preproteins. J. C e l l B i o l 123: 9-26.
Gasser, S., G . Daum, and G . Schatz. 1982. Import of proteins into mitochondria: Energydependent
uptake of precursors by
mitochondria. J.
Georgopoulos, C , D. Ang, K . Liberek, and M . Zylicz. 1990. Properties of the Esc h e r i c h i a coli
heat shock proteins and their role in bacteriophage X growth. In
i n biology
and medicine
(ed. R.I. Morimoto et al.), pp. 191-222. Cold Spring
Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
Gething, M . - J . and J. Sambrook, J. 1992. Protein folding in the cell. N a t u r e 355: 33-45.
Glick, B. and G . Schatz. 1991. Import of proteins into mitochondria. A n n u . Rev.
25: 21-44.
Glick, B., A . Brandt, K. Cunningham, S. Müller, R. Hallberg, and G . Schatz.
Cytochromes c and b are sorted to the intermembrane Space of yeast mitochondria by
a stop-transfer mechanism. C e l l 69: 809-822.
Goloubinoff, P., A . A . Gatenby, and G . H . Lorimer. 1989a. GroE heat-shock proteins promote assembly of foreign prokaryotic ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oligomers in
N a t u r e 337: 44-47.
Goloubinoff, P., J.T. Christeller, A . A . Gatenby, and G . H . Lorimer. 1989b. Reconstitution
of active dimeric ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from an unfolded State depends on
two chaperonin proteins and M g A T P . N a t u r e 342: 884-889.
Grivell, L . 1989. Nucleo-mitochondrial interactions in yeast mitochondrial biogenesis.
182: 477-493.
E u r . J. Biochem.
Hachiya, N . , R. Alam, Y . Sakasegawa, M . Sakaguchi, N . Mihara, and T . Omura. 1993. A
mitochondrial import factor purified from rat liver cytosol is an ATP-dependent conformational modulator for precursor proteins. E M B O J. 12: 1579-1586.
Hallberg, E . , Y . Shu, and R . L . Hallberg. 1993. Loss of mitochondrial hsp60 function:
Nonequivalent effects on matrix-targeted and intermembrane-targeted proteins. M o l
C e l l B i o l 13: 3050-3057.
Hannavy K . , S. Rospert, and G . Schatz. 1993. Protein import into mitochondria: A paradigm for the translocation of Polypeptides across membranes. C u r r . B i o l 5: 694-700.
Hartl, F . - U . and W. Neupert. 1990. Protein sorting to mitochondria: Evolutionary conservations of folding and assembly. Science
247: 930-938.
Hartman, D., D. Dougan, N.J. Hoogenraad, and P.B. Hoj. 1992a. Heat shock proteins of
barley mitochondria and chloroplasts. Identification of organellar hsplO and 12: Putative chaperonin 10 homologues. F E B S Lett.
305: 147-150.
Hartman, D J . , N.J. Hoogenraad, R. Condron, and P.B. Hoj. 1992b. Identification of a
mammalian 10-kDa heat shock protein, a mitochondrial chaperonin 10 homologue essential for assisted folding of trimeric Ornithine transcarbamoylase i n vitro.
Sei. 89: 3394-3398.
S . M . , C . Woolford, S. van der Vies, K . Tilly, D . T . Dennis, C.P.
Georgopoulos, R.W. Hendrix, and R.J. Ellis. 1988. Homologous plant and bacterial
proteins chaperone oligomeric protein assembly. N a t u r e 333: 330-334.
Hendrick, J., and F . - U . Hartl. 1993. Molecular chaperone function of heat-shock proteins.
A n n u . Rev. Biochem.
62: 349-384.
Hendrix, R. 1979. Purification and properlies of GroE, a host protein involved in bacteriophage assembly. J. M o l . B i o l 129: 375-392.
Hohn, T., B. Hohn, A . Engel, M . Wortz, and P.R. Smith. 1979. Isolation and characterization of the host protein GroE involved in bacteriophage X assembly. J. M o l B i o l
129: 359-373.
Hutchinson, E . G . , W. Tichelaar, G . Hofhaus, H. Weiss, and K . R . Leonard. 1989. Identification and electron microsopic analysis of a chaperonin oligomer from
8: 1485-1490.
Hwang, S. and G . Schatz. 1989. Translocation of proteins across the mitochondrial inner
membrane, but not into the outer membrane, requires nucleotide triphosphates in the
matrix. Proc.
N a t l Acad.
Sei 86: 8432-8436.
Jindal, S., A . K . Dudani, B. Singh, C . B . Harley, and R.S. Gupta. 1989. Primary structure
of a human mitochondrial protein homologous to the bacterial and plant chaperonins
and to the 65-kilodalton mycobacterial antigen. M o l C e l l . B i o l 9: 2279-2283.
T. Langer and W. Neupert
Johnson, R.B., K. Fearon, T. Mason, and S. Jindal. 1989. Cloning and characterization of
the yeast chaperonin HSP60 gene. Gene
84: 295-302.
Kang, P.-J., J. Ostermann, J. Shilling, W. Neupert, E. Craig, and N . Pfanner. 1990. Requirement for hsp70 in the mitochondrial matrix for translocation and folding of
precursor proteins. N a t u r e 348: 137-142.
Kiebler, M . , K. Becker, N. Pfanner, and W. Neupert. 1993. Mitochondrial protein import:
Specific recognition and membrane translocation of preproteins. J. M e m b r . B i o l . 135:
Kim, P. and R.L. Baldwin. 1990. Intermediates in the folding reactions of small proteins.
59: 631-660.
A n n u . Rev. Biochem.
Koll, H . , B. Guiard, J. Rassow, J. Ostermann, A . Horwich, W. Neupert, and F . - U . Hartl.
1992. Antifolding activity of hsp60 couples protein import into the mitochondrial
matrix with export to the intermembrane Space. C e l l 68: 1163-1175.
Kurihara, T. and P.A. Silver. 1992. DnaJ homologs and protein transport. In M e m b r a n e
and protein
(ed. W. Neupert and R. Lill), pp. 309-384. Elsevier,
New York.
Langer, T., G . Pfeifer, J. Martin, W. Baumeister, and F . - U . Hartl. 1992a. Chaperoninmediated protein folding: GroES binds to one end of the G r o E L cylinder, which accommodates the protein Substrate within its central cavity. E M B O J. 11: 4757-5765.
Langer, T., C. L u , H . Echols, J. Flanagan, M . Hayer-Hartl, and F.-U.Hartl. 1992b. Successive action of DnaK, DnaJ and G r o E L along the pathway of chaperone-mediated
protein folding. N a t u r e 356: 683-689.
Liberek, K., J. Marszalek, D. Ang, C. Georgopoulos, and M . Zylicz. 1991.
DnaJ and GrpE heat shock proteins joinlly stimulate ATPase activity of DnaK.
N a t l . Acad.
Sei. 88: 2874-2878.
Lill, R., R. Stuart, M . Drygas, F. Nargang, and W. Neupert. 1992a. Import of cytochrome
c heme lyase into mitochondria: A novel pathway into the intermembrane Space.
11: 449-456.
Lill, R., C . Hergersberg, H . Schneider, T. Söllner, R. Stuart, and W. Neupert. 1992b.
General and exceptional pathways of protein import into the sub-mitochondrial compartments. In M e m b r a n e biogenesis
and protein
(ed. W. Neupert and R. Lill),
pp. 265-278. Elsevier, New York.
Lubben, T . H . , A . A . Gatenby, G . K . Donaldson, G . H . Lorimer, and P.V. Viitanen. 1990.
Identification of a groES-like chaperonin in mitochondria that facilitates protein folding. Proc.
N a t l . Acad.
Sei. 87: 7683-7687.
Luis, A . M . , A . Alconada, and J . M . Cuezva. 1990. The alpha regulatory subunit of the
mitochondrial F,-ATPase complex is a heat-shock protein. Identification of two highly
conserved amino acid sequences among the alpha-subunits and molecular chaperones.
J. B i o l . C h e m . 265: 7713-7716.
Manning-Krieg, U . , P. Scherer, and G . Schatz. 1991. Sequential action of mitochondrial
chaperones in protein import into the matrix. E M B O J. 10: 3273-3280.
Martel, R., L.P. Cloney, L . E . Pelcher, and S . M . Hemmingsen. 1990. Unique composition
of plastid chaperonin-60: a and ß polypeptide-encoding genes are highly divergent.
94: 181-187.
Martin, J., A . L . Horwich, and F . - U . Hartl. 1992. Prevention of protein denaturation under
heat stress by the chaperonin Hsp60. Science
258: 995-998.
Martin, J., K. Mahlke, and N . Pfanner. 1991a. Role of an energized inner membrane in
mitochondrial protein import./. B i o l . C h e m . 266: 18051-18057.
Martin, J., T. Langer, R. Boteva, A . Schramel, A . Horwich, and F . - U . Hartl. 1991b.
Chaperonin-mediated protein folding at the surface of groEL through a "molten
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
globule"-like intermediate. N a t u r e 352: 36-42.
Mayer, A . , R. Lill, and W. Neupert. 1993. Translocation and insertion of precursor
proteins into isolated outer membranes of mitochondria. J. C e l l B i o l 121: 2233-2243.
McMullin, T . W . and R.L.
Hallberg. 1987. A normal mitochondrial protein is selectively
synthesized and accumulated during heat shock in T e t r a h y m e n a
C e l l B i o l 7: 4414-4423.
. 1988. A highly evolutionary conserved mitochondrial protein is structurally related to the protein encoded by the Escherichia
groEL gene. M o l
Cell Biol
Mizzen, L.A.,
C. Chang, J.I. Garrels, and W.J.
Welch. 1989. Identification, characteriza-
tion, and purification of two mammalian stress proteins present in mitochondria, grp75,
a member of the hsp70 family and hsp58, a homolog of the bacterial G r o E L protein. J.
B i o l C h e m . 264: 20664-20675.
Murakami, H . , D. Pain, and G . Blobel. 1988. 70K heat-shock related protein is one of at
least two distinct cytosolic factors stimulating protein import into mitochondria./. C e l l
B i o l . 107: 2051-2057.
Murakami, K. and M . Mori. 1990. Purified presequence binding factor (PBF) forms an
import-competent complex with a purified mitochondrial precursor protein. E M B O J.
9: 3201-3208.
Murakami, K . , S. Tanase, Y . Morino, and. N . Mori. 1992. Presequence binding factordependent and -independent import of proteins into mitochondria../. B i o l . C h e m . 267:
Neupert, W . and N . Pfanner. 1993. Roles of molecular chaperones in protein targeting to
mitochondria. Philos.
Neupert, W., F.-U.
T r a n s . R . Soc. Lond.
339: 355-362.
Hartl, E . A . Craig, and N. Pfanner. 1990. How do Polypeptides cross
the mitochondrial membranes? C e l l 63: 447-450.
Nicholson, D., C . Hergersberg, and W. Neupert. 1988. Role of cytochrome c heme lyase
in the import of cytochrome c into mitochondria../. B i o l C h e m . 263: 19034-19042.
H . and S. Tuboi. 1988. The cytosolic factor required for import of precursors of
mitochondrial precursor proteins into mitochondria./. B i o l C h e m . 263: 3188-3193.
. 1990. Purification and identification of a cytosolic factor required for import of
precursors of mitochondria proteins into mitochondria. A r c h . Biochem.
Ostermann, J., A . Horwich, W. Neupert, and F . - U . Hartl. 1989.
Protein folding in
mitochondria requires complex formation with hsp60 and A T P hydrolysis. N a t u r e 341:
Ostermann, J., W. Voss, P. Kang, E . Craig, W. Neupert, and N. Pfanner. 1990. Precursor
proteins in transit through mitochondrial contact sites interact with hsp70 in the matrix.
F E B S L e t t . 2 1 1 : 281-284.
Palleros, D.R., W.J. Welch, and A . L . Fink. 1991. Interaction of hsp70 with unfolded
proteins: Effects of temperature and nucleotides on the kinetics of binding. Proc.
Sei. 88: 5719-5723.
Pfanner, N . , M . Tropschug, and W. Neupert.
Mitochondrial protein import:
Nucleoside triphosphates are involved in conferring import-competence to precursors.
C e l l 4 9 : 815-823.
Pfanner, N . , J. Rassow, B. Guiard, T. Söllner, F.-U.
Hartl, and W . Neupert. 1990. Energy
requirements for unfolding and membrane translocation of precursor proteins during
import into mitochondria./. B i o l . C h e m . 265: 16324-16329.
Picketts, D J . , C.S.K. Mayanil, and R.S. Gupta. 1989. Molecular cloning of a Chinese
hamster mitochondrial protein related to the "chaperonin" family of bacterial and plant
T. Langer and W. Neupert
proteins. J. B i o l . C h e m . 264: 12001-12008.
Prasad, T.K.,
E . Hack, and R . L . Hallberg. 1990. Function of the maize mitochondrial
chaperonin hsp60: Specific association between hsp60 and newly synthesized F j ATPase alpha subunits. M o l C e l l . B i o l . 10: 3979-3986.
Rassow, J., F . - U . Hartl, B. Guiard, N . Pfanner, and W. Neupert. 1990.
traverse the mitochondrial envelope in an extended State. F E B S Lett.
275: 190-194.
Rassow, J., B. Guiard, U . Wienhues, V . Herzog, F . - U . Hartl, and W. Neupert. 1989.
Translocation arrest by reversible
folding of a precursor protein imported into
mitochondria: A means to quantitate translocation contact sites. J. C e l l B i o l . 109:
Reading, D.S., R . L . Hallberg, and A . M . Meyers. 1989. Characterization of the yeast
H S P 6 0 gene coding for a mitochondrial assembly factor. N a t u r e 337: 655-659.
Scherer, P.E.,
U . C . Krieg, S.T. Hwang, D. Vestweber, and G . Schatz. 1990. A precursor
protein partly translocated into yeast mitochondria is bound to a 70 kd mitochondrial
stress protein. E M B O J. 9: 4315-4322.
Schleyer, M . and W. Neupert. 1982. Requirement of a membrane potential for the posttranslational transfer of proteins into mitochondria. E u r . J. Biochem.
125: 109-116.
. 1985. Transport of proteins into mitochondria: Translocation intermediates
spanning contact sites between inner and outer membranes. C e l l 43: 330-350.
Schwerzmann, K . , L . M .
Cruz-Orive, R. Eggmen, A . Sänger, and E.R. Weibel. 1986.
Molecular architecture of the inner membrane of mitochondria from rat liver: A combined biochemical and stereological study. J. C e l l B i o l 102: 97-103.
Segui-Real, B., R. Stuart, and W. Neupert. 1992. Transport of proteins into the various
subcompartments of mitochondria. F E B S Lett.
313: 2-7.
Sheffield, W . , G . Shore, and S. Randall. 1990. Mitochondrial protein import: Effects of
70-kd hsp70 on Polypeptide folding, aggregation and import competence. J. B i o l
C h e m . 265: 11069-11076.
Skerjanc, L S . , W.P. Sheffield, S.K. Randall, J.R. Silvius, and G . Shore. 1990. Import of
precursor proteins into mitochondria: Site of Polypeptide unfolding. J. B i o l C h e m . 265,
Smith, B. and M.P. Yaffe. 1991. A mutation in the yeast heat-shock factor gene causes
temperature-sensitive defects in both mitochondrial protein import and the cell cycle.
M o l C e l l B i o l . 11: 2647-2655.
Stuart, R. and W. Neupert. 1990. Apocyptochrome c: An exceptional mitochondrial
precursor protein using an exceptional import pathway. B i o c h i m i e 72: 115-121.
Stuart, R.A.,
A . Gruhler, I. van der Klei, B. Guiard, H . Koll, and W. Neupert. 1994. The
requirement of matrix A T P for the import of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial
matrix and intermembrane Space. E u r . J. Biochem.
Touchette, N . A . , K . M .
tase from Escherichia
(in press).
Perry, and C R . Matthews. 1986. Folding of dihydrofolate reduccoli.
25: 5445-5452.
Vestweber, D. and G . Schatz. 1988. Point mutations destabilizing a precursor protein enhance its post-translational import into mitochondria. E M B O J . 7: 1147-1151.
Voos, W . , B . D . Gambill, B. Guiard, K . Pfanner, and E . A . Craig. 1993. Presequence and
mature part of preproteins strongly influence the dependence of mitochondrial protein
import on heat shock protein 70 in the matrix. J. C e l l B i o l . 123: 109-118.
Waegemann, K . , H . Paulsen, and J. Soll. 1990. Translocation of proteins into isolated
chloroplasts requires cytosolic factors to obtain import competence. F E B S Lett.
Wickner, S., J. Hoskins, and K . McKenney. 1991. Function of DnaJ and DnaK as
chaperones in origin-specific D N A binding by RepA. N a t u r e 350: 165-167.
Chaperoning Mitochondrial Biogenesis
VWienhues, U . , K. Becker, M . Schleyer, B. Guiard, M . Tropschug, A . Horwich, N . Pfanner, and W. Neupert. 1991. Protein folding causes an arrest of preprotein translocation
in mitochondria in vivo. J. C e l l B i o l 115: 1601-1609.
ZZhong, T. and K . T . Arndt. 1993. The yeast SIS1 protein, a DnaJ homolog, is required for
the initiation of translation. C e l l 73: 1175-1186.
Ziylicz, M . , D. Ang, K. Liberek, and C. Georgopoulos. 1989. Initiation of lambda D N A
replication with purified host- and bacteriophage-encoded
proteins: The role of the
dnaK, dnaJ and grpE heat shock proteins. E M B O J . 8: 1601-1608.