Complete Report PDF

NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD
FOR RELEASE JANUARY 28, 2015
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
ON THIS REPORT:
Amy Mitchell, Director, Journalism Research
Rachel Weisel, Communications Associate
202.419.4372
www.pewresearch.org
RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, January, 2015, “After Charlie Hebdo, Balancing Press Freedom and Respect for
Religion”
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
About This Report
This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals.
Principal Researchers
Jeffrey Gottfried, Research Associate
Michael Barthel, Research Associate
Research Team
Amy Mitchell, Director, Journalism Research
Carroll Doherty, Director, Political Research
Claudia Deane, Director, Research Practices
Scott Keeter, Director, Survey Research
Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Research
Gregory Smith, Associate Director, Research
Alec Tyson, Senior Researcher
Katerina Eva Matsa, Research Associate
Elisa Shearer, Research Assistant
Graphic Design
Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Publishing
Ben Wormald, Associate Web Producer
About Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes
and trends shaping America and the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic
research, media content analysis and other data-driven social science research. It does not take
policy positions. The center studies U.S. politics and policy views; journalism and media; internet,
science and technology; religion and public life; Hispanic trends; global attitudes and trends; and
U.S. social and demo-graphic trends. All of the center’s reports are available at
www.pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.
Michael Dimock, President
Elizabeth Mueller Gross, Vice President
Robyn Tomlin, Chief Digital Officer
Andrew Kohut, Founding Director
© Pew Research Center 2015
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
Majority Has Heard of Hebdo Attack,
Says Publishing Cartoons Depicting
Prophet Muhammad Was Okay
About three-in-four Americans (76%) have
heard at least a little about the attack on the
offices of the satirical magazine Charlie
Hebdo, according to a new poll by the Pew
Research Center, conducted January 22-25
among 1,003 adults. Of these, a majority
(60%) says that it was okay for Charlie Hebdo
to have published cartoons that depict the
Prophet Muhammad, but nearly three-in-ten
(28%) do not support the magazine’s decision
to publish this material – saying it was not
okay.
76%
44%
Heard a lot
of U.S. adults
have heard
about the attack
32%
Heard a little
Of the 76% of U.S. adults who have heard about the
attack…
28% say it was not okay
to publish the cartoons
60% say it was okay to
publish the cartoons
Survey conducted Jan. 22-25, 2015.
PEW RESEARCH CENTER
www.pewresearch.org
DK/
Refuse
12%
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
The reasons Americans give for their
views on the subject highlight an
ongoing tension in the U.S. between
the values of free expression and
religious tolerance.
When asked to explain their position
on whether or not it was okay to
publish these cartoons, a majority of
those who heard about the attack and
say it was okay to publish cite freedom
of speech and of the press (70%).
Tension Between Press Freedom and Religious
Sensitivity in Judging Hebdo Cartoons
% who name ___ as the reason to publish or not publish
Among those who say it was
“Okay” to publish
%
Freedom of the
press/speech
70
All religions get
criticized/lampooned
8
The cartoons are harmless
6
Among those who say
it was “Not okay” to publish
%
Should respect religious
beliefs
Offensive/politically
incorrect/not appropriate
Provoked anger/
violence/terrorism
35
31
7
Survey conducted Jan. 22-25, 2015. Up to three responses were allowed.
Responses that were mentioned by 5% or more of respondents in each category
included in table. Other reasons below 5% can be found in the topline. “Okay” to
publish (N=503). “Not okay” to publish (N=207).
PEW RESEARCH CENTER
“Offensive things should be legal and tolerated in order for there to be freedom of speech.”
“I think it was poor judgment and poor taste, but it was within freedom of speech.”
“It’s their right to express their views on satirical matters and it’s one that should not be given up
out of fear or pressure.”
Another justification, albeit expressed by a far smaller portion (8%), is that everyone gets
criticized, parodied, and lampooned – not just one group or religion.
“They made fun of the pope and other religions too, as long as they don’t pick favorites. They’re
equal opportunity insulters.”
“They publish cartoons about any and everybody, so why should we separate Muslims?”
Coming at the issue from the opposite perspective, the most common reason offered by those who
say it was not okay to publish the cartoons is religious tolerance and respect. About two-thirds of
those who disapprove of publishing the cartoons named some aspect or variation of tolerance and
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
respect; 35% say that religious beliefs should be respected, and 31% say the cartoons were
offensive, politically incorrect or inappropriate.
“Because I agree with free speech, but I also have a strong respect for people’s religious ideas.
It’s a matter of respect – things you just don’t do.”
“It would be like making fun of Buddha or Jesus Christ … Anybody would be insulted.”
“I found all of them to be offensive whether it was Jews or the pope and the Islamic ones. There
is no dignity in that.”
A much smaller proportion (7%) says that they are against publication of the cartoons because
they provoked violence, threats or anger.
“People get nutty. Be careful what you publish.”
“It was instigating. It wasn’t right to publish it and wasn’t right to blow up the place in response.”
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
Non-Whites and Women Less Likely to Think It Was Okay to
Publish; Republicans More Likely
Opinions about the appropriateness of
publishing the cartoons vary considerably
among demographic groups. One difference
that stands out is between whites and nonwhites.1
While seven-in-ten whites who have heard
about the attack support Charlie Hebdo’s
decision to publish the cartoons, this is true of
just 37% of non-whites. Instead, about half
(48%) of non-whites decry the cartoons –
saying it was not okay to publish them.
Whites, Men and Republicans More
Likely to Think It Was Okay for Charlie
Hebdo to Publish Cartoons of the
Prophet Muhammad
Among those who have heard about the attack, % who
say it was okay or not okay to publish the cartoons
Not okay
Total
Men are more likely than women to support
the publishing of the cartoons, with two-thirds
(67%) of men who heard about the attack
saying it was okay to publish, compared with
about half (52%) of women. Women, on the
other hand, express more opposition to the
cartoons (33%, versus 24% among men).
Politically, support for publishing the cartoons
is far higher among Republicans and
Republican leaners (70%) than among
Democrats and Democratic leaners (55%). And
among Democrats, the difference between
whites and non-whites persists.2
28
White
Non-white
Male
Female
60
20
48
70
37
24
33
Republican/Rep lean
Democrat/Dem lean
Okay
20
35
67
52
70
55
Survey conducted Jan. 22-25, 2015. Based on respondents who
heard at least “a little” about the attack (N=799). Whites do not
include Hispanics, while non-whites do include Hispanics.
PEW RESEARCH CENTER
Whites include only non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics are included in non-whites. Samples sizes not large
enough to break out Hispanics and blacks separately from non-whites.
2 Sample sizes not large enough for this analysis among Republicans and Republican leaners or non-leaning
independents.
1
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
Opinions also vary with level of education, as
those with at least some college education are
more likely to say it was okay to publish than
those with lower education levels (69% of
college grads say it was okay to publish,
compared with 62% of those with some college
and 48% of those with high school or less).
There is not much difference in opinion when it
comes to religious affiliation. Protestants,
Catholics and the unaffiliated all support the
publishing of the cartoons at roughly the same
rate.
Was Publishing the Cartoons Depicting
the Prophet Muhammad Okay or Not
Okay?
Among those who have heard about the attack, % who
say it was okay or not okay to publish the cartoons
Okay
%
Not
Okay
%
DK/
Refused
%
Total
60
28
12=100
Men
67
24
9=100
Women
52
33
14=100
White Non-Hispanic
70
20
10=100
Total Non-White
37
48
15=100
18-29
54
35
12=100
30-49
60
27
13=100
50-64
67
25
8=100
65+
55
31
14=100
College grad+
69
20
12=100
Some college
62
30
8=100
HS or less
48
36
16=100
Republican/Rep leaner
70
20
11=100
White Rep/Rep lean
74
16
10=100
Democrat/Dem leaner
55
35
10=100
66
25
9=100
39
49
12=100
59
66
72
60
71
62
29
21
20
31
19
25
13=100
13=100
8=100
9=100
10=100
13=100
White Dem/Dem lean
Non-white Dem/Dem
lean
Protestant
White evangelical
White mainline
Catholic
White Catholic
Unaffiliated
Survey conducted Jan. 22-25, 2015. Figures may not add to 100%
because of rounding. Based on respondents who heard at least “a
little” about the attack (N=799).
PEW RESEARCH CENTER
www.pewresearch.org
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
Four-in-Ten Think Attack Will Have Some Impact on U.S.
News Media’s Coverage of Religion
An important question that arises from this event is what effect,
if any, the attack might have on the kind of religious content
U.S. news organizations are willing to publish. Overall, about
half (48%) of those who have heard about the attack say that
there will be no effect on U.S. news organizations in their
willingness to publish or air things that may offend some
people’s religious beliefs. About a quarter (24%) feels U.S. news
organizations will be less willing to publish this type of content.
This split is similar among those who do and do not think
publishing the cartoons was okay.
Nearly A Quarter Think
U.S News Organizations
Will Become Less Willing
to Publish Things That
May Offend Religious
Views
Among those who have heard about
the attack, % who think the attack
will make U.S. news organizations…
Don't know/
Refused
12%
24%
Less willing
48%
No effect
16%
More willing
Survey conducted Jan. 22-25, 2015.
Based on respondents who heard at least
“a little” about the attack (N=799).
PEW RESEARCH CENTER
www.pewresearch.org
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
About the Survey
The analysis in this report is based on telephone interviews conducted January 22-25, 2015 among
a national sample of 1,003 adults, 18 years of age or older, living in the continental United States
(501 respondents were interviewed on a landline telephone, and 502 were interviewed on a cell
phone, including 284 who had no landline telephone). The survey was conducted by interviewers
at Princeton Data Source under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates
International. A combination of landline and cell phone random digit dial samples were used; both
samples were provided by Survey Sampling International. Interviews were conducted in English
and Spanish. Respondents in the landline sample were selected by randomly asking for the
youngest adult male or female who is now at home. Interviews in the cell sample were conducted
with the person who answered the phone, if that person was an adult 18 years of age or older. For
detailed information about our survey methodology, see http://people-press.org/methodology/
The combined landline and cell phone sample are weighted using an iterative technique that
matches gender, age, education, race, Hispanic origin and region to parameters from the 2012
Census Bureau's American Community Survey and population density to parameters from the
Decennial Census. The sample also is weighted to match current patterns of telephone status
(landline only, cell phone only, or both landline and cell phone), based on extrapolations from the
2013 National Health Interview Survey. The weighting procedure also accounts for the fact that
respondents with both landline and cell phones have a greater probability of being included in the
combined sample and adjusts for household size among respondents with a landline phone.
Sampling errors and statistical tests of significance take into account the effect of weighting.
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
The following table shows the unweighted sample sizes and the error attributable to sampling that
would be expected at the 95% level of confidence for different groups in the survey:
Unweighted
sample size
1,003
Plus or minus …
3.6 percentage points
799
4.0 percentage points
White non-Hispanic
Total non-white
(including Hispanics)
586
4.7 percentage points
192
8.1 percentage points
Males
390
5.7 percentage points
Females
409
5.6 percentage points
Republican/Rep leaners
335
6.2 percentage points
Democrat/Dem leaners
339
6.1 percentage points
Group
Total sample
Heard of attack
Of those who have heard
of attack by subgroup:
Sample sizes and sampling errors for other subgroups are available upon request.
In addition to sampling error, one should bear in mind that question wording and practical
difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of opinion polls.
© Pew Research Center, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
PEW RESEARCH CENTER
JANUARY 22-25, 2015 OMNIBUS
FINAL TOPLINE
N=1,003
ASK ALL:
PEW.1 As I read a list of some stories covered by news organizations this past week, please tell me if you
happened to follow each news story very closely, fairly closely, not too closely, or not at all closely.
First, [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE] [IF NECESSARY “Did you follow [ITEM] very closely, fairly
closely, not too closely or not at all closely?”]
a.
b.
Very
closely
Fairly
closely
Not too
closely
Not at all
closely
(VOL.)
DK/Ref
25
28
20
26
2
29
33
16
20
2
11
26
21
40
1
25
32
19
24
*
18
24
21
35
2
24
33
20
23
*
26
31
17
26
1
14
10
30
26
24
24
31
40
1
*
13
26
23
36
2
Reports about the condition of the U.S.
economy
January 22-25, 2015
26
30
18
24
2
January 8-11, 2015
24
35
17
24
1
December 4-7, 2014
28
31
20
19
1
November 6-9, 2014
31
35
21
12
2
October 16-19, 2014
26
33
22
18
1
September 25-28, 2014
25
33
22
19
1
July 31-August 3, 2014
27
29
23
21
1
June 5-8, 2014
26
28
20
24
1
March 20-23, 2014
30
34
18
17
2
March 6-9, 2014
27
31
19
22
1
February 27-March 2, 2014
27
32
16
24
1
February 6-9, 2014
28
29
20
22
1
January 30-February 2, 2014
29
31
17
23
*
January 9-12, 2014
28
29
19
23
1
January 2-5, 2014
29
31
17
22
1
SEE TREND FOR PREVIOUS YEARS: http://www.people-press.org/files/2015/01/NII-Economy-trend.pdf
Developments in Paris after the terrorist
shootings at a magazine office and a
supermarket
January 22-25, 2015
TRENDS FOR COMPARISON:
January 8-11, 2015: The terrorist
shootings at a newspaper office in Paris
January 2-5, 2014: Two terrorist bombings
in Russia
September 25-29, 2013: The terrorist
attacks at a shopping mall in Nairobi,
Kenya
May 23-26, 2013: The murder of a British
soldier in London, in a suspected terrorist
attack
July 28-31, 2011: A bombing and shooting
attack in Norway that killed more than 70
people
July 23-24, 2011: A bombing and shooting
attack in Norway that killed over 90 people
January 27-30, 2011: Suicide bombings at
an airport in Russia that killed at least 35
people
April 1-5, 2010: Suicide bombings in Russia
July 17-20, 2009: The bombing of two
hotels in Indonesia
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
PEW.1 CONTINUED...
December, 2008: The terrorist attacks in
Mumbai, India
September, 2008: A bombing at a Marriott
Hotel in Pakistan that killed over 50 people
July, 2007: The investigation into who was
responsible for car bombs that were
discovered in London and a car bomb that
went off at an airport in Scotland
July, 2007: British police finding and
defusing a car bomb in London
August, 2006: British officials stopping a
terrorist plot to blow up planes flying to the
U.S.
October, 2005: The recent terrorist
bombings in Bali, Indonesia
July, 2005: The terrorist bombings in
London, England
September, 2004: The killing of Russian
school children by Chechen rebels
March, 2004: The terrorist bombings in
Madrid, Spain
Late October, 2002: The terrorist bombing
of a nightclub in Bali, Indonesia
c.
d.
Barack Obama’s State of the Union speech
January 22-25, 2015
January 30-February 2, 2014
February 14-17, 2013
January 26-29, 2012
January 27-30, 2011
January 29-February 1, 2010
TRENDS FOR COMPARISON:
February 27-March 2, 2009: Barack
Obama’s first address to a joint session of
Congress
February 1-4, 2008: President Bush’s State
of the Union address
January 26-29, 2007: Reports about
George Bush’s State of the Union address
February, 2006: George W. Bush’s State of
the Union address
February, 2003
January, 1994: Reports about Bill Clinton’s
State of the Union address
February, 1992: President Bush's State of
the Union Address
Reports about the Islamic militant group in
Iraq and Syria, known as ISIS
January 22-25, 2015
December 4-7, 2014
November 20-23, 2014
October 16-19, 2014: U.S. airstrikes
against ISIS and other Islamic militant
groups in Iraq and Syria
October 2-5, 2014
Very
closely
Fairly
closely
Not too
closely
Not at all
closely
(VOL.)
DK/Ref
29
37
20
14
*
16
32
23
28
1
34
30
19
16
1
34
31
16
18
1
54
26
9
9
2
13
31
26
29
1
48
37
11
4
*
48
30
11
10
1
34
35
18
12
1
20
34
25
20
1
20
20
26
29
28
33
23
19
20
18
22
22
15
16
16
16
13
17
41
43
37
37
36
29
2
1
*
1
1
1
37
26
14
23
*
18
17
20
45
*
25
26
20
28
1
24
36
22
24
19
15
34
24
1
1
26
25
18
31
*
26
26
20
27
1
25
28
31
33
29
31
21
21
17
21
21
20
1
1
1
29
31
33
30
19
21
19
18
1
1
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
PEW.1 CONTINUED...
September 25-28, 2014: U.S. airstrikes
against ISIS and other Islamic militant
groups in the Middle East
September 11-14, 2014: Reports about the
Islamic militant group in Iraq and Syria,
known as ISIS
August 14-17, 2014: U.S. airstrikes against
an Islamic militant group in Iraq
June 26-29, 2014: Growing violence and
political instability in Iraq
Very
closely
Fairly
closely
Not too
closely
Not at all
closely
(VOL.)
DK/Ref
37
32
16
14
1
37
30
16
17
*
23
29
21
26
1
25
29
18
27
1
ASK ALL:
PEW.2 How much, if anything, have you read or heard about the attack in Paris, France on the satirical
magazine Charlie Hebdo? Have you heard … [READ]
Jan 22-25
2015
44
32
23
1
A lot
A little [OR]
Nothing at all
Don't know/Refused (VOL.)
ASK ALL:
PEW.3 As you may know, over the past several years this magazine has published cartoons depicting the
Prophet Muhammad, which some people found offensive to their religious beliefs. Do you think
publishing these cartoons was okay or not okay?
Jan 22-25
2015
Based on heard
about attack
[N=799]
60
Okay
28
Not okay
12
Don't know/Refused (VOL.)
www.pewresearch.org
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PEW RESEARCH CENTER
ASK IF “OKAY” OR “NOT OKAY” (PEW.3=1,2) [N=857]:
PEW.4 Just in your own words, why do you feel that it was [IF PEW.3=1 okay; IF PEW.3=2 not okay] for
them to publish these cartoons? [OPEN-END; ACCEPT UP TO THREE RESPONSES; PROBE ONCE
WITH “ANYTHING ELSE”]3
Based on those who heard “a lot” or “a little” about attack (PEW.2=1,2):
Jan 22-25,
2015
Said okay
to publish
[N=503]
70
8
6
2
2
2
Freedom of press/speech
All religions get
criticized/lampooned
The cartoons are harmless
People don’t have to read it
Freedom of religion
Weren’t intended to offend
1
1
1
1
1
The attack was not justified
Newsworthy/important
General negative religion
General negative Muslim
General anti-terrorist
2
7
Other
Don’t know/Refused
Jan 22-25,
2015
Said not okay
to publish
[N=207]
35
31
7
3
2
2
1
1
1
3
16
Should respect religious beliefs
Offensive/politically incorrect/not
appropriate
Provoked anger/violence/terrorist
Muslims unfairly singled out
Did not have to publish them
Are limits to what should be
published
Did not like cartoons/not funny
Freedom of religion
Freedom of speech/press
Other
Don’t know/Refused
ASK ALL:
PEW.5 Do you think that the attacks in France will make U.S. news organizations more willing, less willing or
have no effect on their willingness to publish or air things that may offend some people’s religious
beliefs?
Jan 22-25
2015
Based on heard
about attack
[N=799]
16
More willing
24
Less willing
48
No effect
12
Don't know/Refused (VOL.)
ASK ALL:
PARTY In politics TODAY, do you consider yourself a Republican, Democrat, or independent?
ASK IF INDEP/NO PREF/OTHER/DK/REF (PARTY=3,4,5,9):
PARTYLN
As of today do you lean more to the Republican Party or more to the Democratic Party?
January 22-25, 2015
3
Republican
24
(VOL.) (VOL.)
No
Other (VOL.)
Democrat Independent preference party DK/Ref
29
34
8
1
4
If respondents volunteered more than one response, Pew Research accepted up to three.
www.pewresearch.org
Lean
Rep
12
Lean
Dem
14