Download [ PDF ] - journal of evidence based medicine and

Rajesh Ambulgekar1, Prajyot Kandolkar2, Rohit Thakkar3, Rahul Berlia4
Rajesh Ambulgekar, Prajyot Kandolkar, Rohit Thakkar, Rahul Berlia. ”Case Report of a Pathological Fracture
of Distal Femur through Simple Bone Cyst”. Journal of Evidence based Medicine and Healthcare; Volume 2,
Issue 5, February 02, 2015; Page: 584-586.
ABSTRACT: Simple bone cyst is a benign cystic lesion which occurs in metaphyseal region of
long bones. Cyst if left untreated may resolve spontaneously. If pathological fracture occurs
through the may heal with complete regression of the cyst. In this article we present one such
case which has regressed on its own following a pathological fracture.
KEYWORDS: Simple Bone Cyst, Pathological fracture.
INTRODUCTION: Simple bone cyst also called as unicameral bone cystic condition which occurs
from the metaphyseal region of long bones. It may be asymptomatic or may present with pain
and pathological fracture. Cyst may resolve spontaneously or may require operative
management. If pathological fracture occurs cyst may heal spontaneously and may even lead to
regression of cyst.
CASE REPORT: 10 years old boy from Nanded Maharashtra had a fall and sustained injury to
right lower thigh. Patient presented with pain and inability to move right leg. X done showed a
pathological fracture through cyst. Cyst was well defined and not loculated. There was no
invasion into cortex or joint line. Biopsy was taken and sample as sent for histopathological
examination. Until then patient was managed with skin traction and analgesics. Histopathological
examination revealed that it was a non-malignant condition. Patient was discharged on skin
traction. Considering the age of the child and non-malignant nature of lesion it was planned to
conserve the lesion. Patient was followed up every month and for every visit an X-ray was taken
and union was assessed. Patient was advised non-weight bearing. Satisfactory healing was seen.
Patient was able to weight and walk without any difficulty at 6 months of follow up. X-ray showed
good union with callous around fracture site. There was also spontaneous regression of cyst.
J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pISSN- 2349-2562, eISSN- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 5/Feb 02, 2015
Page 584
DISCUSSION: Simple bone cyst also known as unicameral bone cyst or solitary bone cyst is a
benign cyst that occurs in metaphyseal region. Most common bones affected are proximal femur,
proximal humerus and calcaneum. Occurs in 2nd decade of life. Male to female ratio is
Various mechanisms have been proposed in aetiology of simple bone cyst. It may be a
synovial retention cyst or it may occur due to dysplasia following trauma or may occur due to
occlusion of venous outflow. Occlusion of venous is the most commonly accepted theory now.
Pressure inside cyst is found to be higher than the pressure inside venous system. When a dye is
injected into the cyst it enters into the venous system.[1,4,5]
Cyst is not a true cyst as it is not lined by epithelium. It is lined by fibrous tissue. There
may be some giant cells in the fibrous layer. Fluid inside is straw yellow coloured and contains
high amount of free radical scavengers, prostaglandins and interleukins etc. Cyst may be active or
latent. Cyst that are closer to physis are active cyst while those that are away from physis are
latent cyst.[4,5]
Cysts are usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. Cyst may produce minor
symptoms like pain, feeling of warmth etc. Cyst may be discovered due to a pathological fracture
that occurs through a cyst. Fracture occurring through a cyst is usually linear and minimally
displaced. Cyst may heal spontaneously along with fracture. Cyst may also regress spontaneously
after closure of physis. Cyst usually managed conservatively and observed every 3 to 6 months to
detect any increase in size. If the size is increasing then an intervention may be required.
Sometimes biopsy of the cyst wall taken for diagnostic purpose may also stimulate the regression
of cyst which occurred in our case. [1, 5, 6]
J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pISSN- 2349-2562, eISSN- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 5/Feb 02, 2015
Page 585
In our case patient had a fracture of distal femur through cyst. Biopsy of cyst wall was
taken for diagnostic purpose which served as stimulus for regression of cyst. This resulted in
spontaneous regression of cyst along with healing fracture.
1. Simple bone cyst: a case report and review of the literature 1oral and maxillofacial surgery
residency, federal university of bahia, salvador-ba, brazil; 2 oral and maxillofacial surgery
residency, institute dr. josé frota, fortaleza-ce, brasil; 3doctor program in dentistry and
health, federal university of bahia, salvador-ba, brazil; 4 school of dentistry, federal
university of bahia, salvador-ba, brazil; 5oral and maxillofacial surgery residency, st.
anthony hospital, salvador-ba, brazil. J Health Sci Inst. 2012; 30(3):295-8.
2. Simple bone cysts of the proximal humerus complicated with growth arrest philippe violas,
frédéric salmeron, madeleine chapuis, jérome sales de gauzy, henri bracq, jean-philippe
cahuzac, Acta Orthop. Belg., 2004, 70, 166-170.
3. Instructional review: oncology pathological fractures in children c. b. r. de mattos, o.
binitie,j. p. dormans from children's hospital of philadelphia, philadelphia, pennsylvania,
united states, Bone Joint Res. Oct 2012; 1(10): 272–280.
4. Chapter 21: benign/aggressive tumors of bone,” in campbell’s operative orthopaedics,
mosby, new york, ny, usa, 11th edition, 2007, t. s. canale, ed., vol. 1, pp. 883–886.
5. Current concepts in Bone and soft tissue tumors: Dr Ajay puri, Dr.M.G.Aggarwal Labs et
al., 2001. Labs K, Perka C, Schmidt R: Treatment of stages 2 and 3 giant-cell tumor. Arch
Orthop Trauma Surg 2001; 121:83.
6. Spontaneously healed pathologic fracture over a critical-size calcaneal cyst nikolaos g.
lasanianos, ioannis spanos, aggeliki papaioannou, and elisavet paneri 1st department of
trauma & orthopaedic surgery, athens general infirmary “evaggelismos”, 10676 athens,
Greece, Case Rep Med 2011 4;2011:861094. Epub 2011 Aug 4.
1. Rajesh Ambulgekar
2. Prajyot Kandolkar
3. Rohit Thakkar
4. Rahul Berlia
1. Professor & HOD, Department of
Orthopaedics, Government Medical
College, Nanded.
2. 3rd Year Junior Resident, Department of
Orthopaedics, Government Medical
College, Nanded.
3. 2nd Year Junior Resident, Department of
Orthopaedics, Government Medical
College, Nanded.
4. 1st Year Junior Resident, Department of
Orthopaedics, Government Medical
College, Monded.
Dr. Prajyot Kankolkar,
Room No. 3, Causality Boys Hostel,
Government Medical College,
Navibad Nanded.
E-mail: [email protected]
Submission: 02/11/2014.
Peer Review: 03/11/2014.
Acceptance: 06/11/2014.
Publishing: 30/01/2015.
J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pISSN- 2349-2562, eISSN- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 5/Feb 02, 2015
Page 586