First record of the Subtropical Pygmy-Owl Glaucidiumparkeri in Colombian Andes byOrlando A. Acevedo-Charry,Juan F. Freile& William DazaDíaz The enigmatic Subtropical Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidiumparkeri), an uncommon and recently described species (Robbins & Howell 1995), has few scattered recordsalong the east Andean foothills and subtropics of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia (Hennessey et al. 2003, Freile& Castro 2013). First records of this species from Ecuador and Peru date back to the 1960s–1970s, but confusion between the Andean Pygmy-Owl (G. jardinii) and the Least Pygmy-Owl (G. minutissimum) resulted in it beingformally described two decades later (Robbins & Howell 1995). Despiteextensive explorations of the Neotropics and arelative good understanding of its biodiversity, the discovery of new species continues, especially sincethe recent exploration of remote areas in the central and northern Andes (Carantón-Ayala &Certuche-Cubillos 2010, Hosneret al. 2013). Andean slopes of Colombia, however, are still insufficiently known, with new distributional records being regularly reported (Salamanet al. 2002, Freeman et al. 2011). Yet, little information exists on the avifauna of the southern Departments of Nariño and Putumayo, as a result of Colombian political instability (Sanchez-Cuervo& Aide 2013). Recently, Calderón-Leytonet al. (2011) compiled bird records from ornithological surveys undertaken since the beginning the XX century in Nariño. However, the eastern slope of the Andes of Nariño and neighbouring Putumayo are still poorly explored (Salamanet al. 2002, Acevedo-Charry 2014). In 2010, the regional environmental corporation of the southern Amazonia of Colombia (Corporaciónpara el DesarrolloSostenible del Sur de la Amazonía - CORPOAMAZONIA) began a project to find and declare Important Bird Areas (IBA) in theDepartment of Putumayo(Devenish et al. 2009, Gutiérrez-Zamora et al. 2013).The Sibundoy valley was one of the areas submitted as a new IBA (Acevedo-Charry 2014, Mueses-Cisneros et al. unpublished data). Currently, Coca crop eradication near the Sibundoy valley produced land abandonment and natural forest regenerationin the region, but recently gold miner explorations could be a new hazard to biodiversity there (Sanchez & Aide 2013). A birdwatch and conservation workshop aimed at building local capacity in bird observationwas carried out in 2013(Gutierrez-Zamora et al. 2013, Acevedo-Charry 2014). After the workshop, observers of the Sibundoy valley birdwatching club began sending photos and field notes to OAC. On18 January 2014, WDD with other three bird watchersfrom Sibundoy valley (Brayan Coral, Álvaro Cárdenas and Judit Jaramillo) undertook bird observations on the road between San Francisco and Mocoa, Putumayo (01° 04’ N, 76° 48’ W, 1800 m elevation). After crossing through two canyon sides across the basin of Río Blanco, ca.15 km east from the main road,they observed and photographed a pygmy-owl that was tentatively identified as Andean Pygmy-Owl (Fig. 1).The photographed bird was later identified as Subtropical Pygmy-Owl by JFFby its bold white coronal spots, dark greyish brown head, and tail proportionately short as compared to Andean Pygmy-owl G. jardinii, which has browner head, less prominent coronal spots, tail proportionately longer, head proportionately bigger (Schulenberget al. 2007). Habitat and elevation also point towards G. parkeri. The bird was perched in the subcanopy of a tree 18 m in height. The pygmy-owl was perched quiet and remained restless for more than 5 min. Then, it flew down the creek slope. Habitat was similar to other localities known for the species (Robbins & Howell 1995, Freile&Castro 2013), with creek slopes ca. 45º, and forest connection until Amazon foothills of Villagarzón and Mocoa Municipalities. The Subtropical Pygmy-Owl is known to occurin almost20localities along the Andean eastern slope (Robbins & Howell 1995, Hennessey et al. 2003, Walker et al. 2006, Xeno-Canto 2009, Freile& Castro 2013, Robbins et al. 2013). Even though above authors suggesting a continuous distribution along the entire Andean foothills from northern Peru through southern Colombia,there are no records to date from the outlying ridges of northern Peru, neither northeastern slopes of Ecuador Andes or southeastern slopes of Colombia Andes(Fig. 2). This record in eastern slopes of Colombian Andes, c. 200 km NE of the northernmost record in Ecuador (Cascada San Rafael, province of Napo; Ridgely& Greenfield 2001), is not entirely unexpected given its continuous range throughout the eastern Andes of Ecuador, with no evident geographic barriers between the northernmost Ecuadorian records and the Sibundoy valley.Vocal playback efforts of Andean Pygmy-Owl performed by OAC at the Sibundoy Valley produced no results, but fieldwork did not include areas bellow 2000 m elevation (Acevedo-Charry 2014), an altitude at which Andean and Subtropical Pygmy-Owls apparently replace each other (Robbins & Howell 1995, Freileet al. 2012). It seems likely that Subtropical Pygmy-Owl ranges further north in the east Andes of Colombia, but has remained overlooked due to apparent low population density, little vocal activity throughout the year, and the fact that its voice was poorly known until recently (Robbins & Howell 1995).This record, along with future exploration at the Sibundoy valley and areas to the north and south, will provide a more clear understanding of the distribution and natural history of this poorly understood bird. It also supports future and ongoing conservation efforts in the area. Furthermore, the natural history, habitat use, ecological interactions, population dynamics and distribution for several owl species, including the Subtropical Pygmy-Owl, in northern and central Andes are still lacking making it necessary to pay further attention to the study of nocturnal birds (Freileet al. 2012). Acknowledgements To Sonia Charry (R.I.P), her love and careful always companies OAC explorations. We thank B. Coral, A. Cárdenas and J. Jaramillo for their enthusiast and company to WDD, and also forsharing their detailed field notes and let us publishes their observations. WDD took the photograph in J. V.Pinchado’s farmland.We thank to CORPOAMAZONIA for support the project I 06-086 1-02- 04 10-12 “Establecimiento de Áreas de Importancia para la Conservación de las Aves AICAS en el Departamento del Putumayo. Fase II”, OAC visited the Sibundoy valley while this project.Thanks to M. B. Robbins, N. Krabbe, D. Brinkhuizen, J. Nilsson, R. Ahlman and F. G. Stiles for commenting on identification issues, also to B. Branoff and J. J. Mueses-Cisneros for their comments on the manuscript. References: Acevedo-Charry, O.A. 2014. Aves de Quindicocha – valle de Sibundoy, Putumayo – Colombia: potencial área de conservación. Univ. Sci. 19:29–41. Devenish, C., Díaz-Fernández, D. F., Clay, R. P., Davidson, I.&Yépez-Zabala, I. 2009.Important Bird Areas Americas – Priority sites for biodiversity conservation. BirdLife International. BirdLifeConservation Series 16. Quito, Ecuador. Calderón-Leyton, J.J., Flórez-Paí, C., Cabrera-Finley, A.&Rosero-Mora, A. 2011. Aves del departamento de Nariño, Colombia.Biota Colomb. 12:32–116. Carantón-Ayala, D. & Certuche-Cubillos, K. 2010. A new species of antpitta (Grallariidae: Grallaria) from the northern sector of the western Andes of Colombia.Ornitol. Colomb. 9:56–70. Freeman, B.G., Hilty, H., Calderón-F., D., Ellery, T.&Urueña, L. E. 2011. New and noteworthy bird records from central and northern Colombia. Cotinga 34:33–42. Freile, J.F. & Castro, D. F. 2013.New records of rare screech owls (Megascops) and pygmy owls (Glaucidium), with taxonomic notes and a conservation assessment of two globally imperilled species in Ecuador.Cotinga 35:7–12. Freile, J.F., Castro, D. F.&Varela, S. 2012. Estado del conocimiento, distribución y conservación de aves rapaces nocturnas en Ecuador. Ornitol.Neotrop.23:235–244. Gutiérrez-Zamora, E. A., Mueses-Cisneros, J. J., Ramírez-Enriquez, M. C. &Perdomo-Castillo, I. V. 2013.Aves del valle de Sibundoy, alto Putumayo, Colombia – Guía de Campo.Corporaciónpara el DesarrolloSostenible del Sur de la Amazonía – CORPOAMAZONIA.Mocoa, Putumayo, Colombia. Hennessey, A. B., Herzog, S. K., Kessler, M. & Robison, D. 2003. Avifauna of the PilónLajas Biosphere Reserve and communal lands, Bolivia.Bird Conserv. Intern. 13: 319–349. Hosner, P.A., Robbins, M.B., Valqui,T. & Peterson, A. T. 2013.A new species of ScytalopusTapaculo (Aves: Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) from the Andes of Central Peru.Wilson J.Ornithol.152:233–242. Ridgely, R. S. & Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador.Vol. 1 Status, distribution and taxonomy.Cornell University Press, Ithaca. Robbins, M.B. &Howell, S.N.G. 1995.A new species of pygmy-owl (Strigidae: Glaucidium) from the eastern Andes.Wilson Bull. 107:1–6. Robbins, M. B., Schulenberg, T. S., Lane, D. F., Cuervo, A. M., Binford, L. C., Nyári, Á. S., Combe, M., Arbeláez-Cortés E., Wehtje, W., & Lira-Noriega, A. 2013. Abra Maruncunca, dpto. Puno,Peru, revisited: vegetation cover and avifauna changes over a 30year period. Bull. Brit.Orn.Cl. 113: 31–51. Salaman, P.G., Stiles, F. G., Bohórquez, C. I., Álvarez-R., M., Umaña, A. M., Donegan, T. M., & Cuervo, A. M. 2002. New and noteworthy bird records from the east slope of the Andes of Colombia. Caldasia 24:157–189. Sánchez-Cuervo, A.M. & Aide, T. M. 2013. Consequences of the armed conflict, forced armed displacement, and land abandonment on forest cover change in Colombia: a multi-scaled analysis. Ecosystems 16:1–19. Schulenberg, T. S., Stotz, D. F., Lane, D. F., O’Neill, J. P. & Parker, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Helm Field Guides, London. Walker, B., Stotz, D. F., Pequeño, T. & Fitzpatrick, J. W. 2006. Birds of the Manu Biosphere Reserve. Pp. 23-49 in Patterson, B. D., Stotz, D. F. & Solari, S. (eds.) Mammals and birds of the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Fieldiana Zool. N. Ser. 110. Xeno-Canto Foundation. 2009. Xeno-canto America. Bird sounds for the Americas. Xeno-canto Foundation, Amsterdam. Available in: <http://xeno-canto.org> Addresses: Orlando Acevedo Charry*, Corporación para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Sur de la Amazonia – CORPOAMAZONIA, Unidad Operativa Andino Amazónica, Dirección Territorial Putumayo, Sibundoy, Putumayo, Colombia; and Grupo de Ornitología de la Universidad Nacional – GOUN, Colección de Ornitología, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Current address:Tropical Community Ecology Lab, College of Natural Science, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, San Juan, PR00931-3360, USA. Juan F. Freile, Iniciativa Cuscungo, Pasaje El Moro E4-216 & Norberto Salazar, Tumbaco, Ecuador. William Daza Díaz, Anthropologist – Sibundoy valley birdwatchingclub, Sibundoy, Putumayo, Colombia. (*Author correspondence: [email protected]). Figure 1.The Subtropical Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidiumparkeri) at Sibundoy Valley, Putumayo Department, southeast Andes of Colombia. Thephoto was taken by WDDon 18 January 2014 (01° 04’ N, 76° 48’ W, 1800 m elevation). Figure 2. Distribution in South America ofGlaucidiumparkeri. The black dots indicate published localities (Robbins and Howell 1995, Freile and Castro 2013, Hennessey et al. 2003, Walker et al. 2006, Robbins et al. 2013),the gray dots are records in Xeno-Canto (XC152822, XC62899, XC628998),and the white dot is the first record for Colombia (at Sibundoy valley, Putumayo). Abstract: Knowledge about nocturnal birds in the Neotropics is scanty. Here, we present the northernmost record in the Andes and the first one for Colombia of the Subtropical Pygmy-Owl Glaucidiumparkeri. A single bird was photographed at the eastern slopes of theSibundoyValley (01° 04’ N, 76° 48’ W, 1800 m elevation), Putumayo, Colombia. This record is not entirely unexpected given the continuous range along the eastern Andes of Ecuador, with no evident geographic barriers between the northernmost Ecuadorian records and the Sibundoy Valley.
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