```2.1
Identifying and Comparing Induction and Deduction
Induction uses specific examples to make a conclusion. Induction, also known as inductive
reasoning, is used when observing data, recognizing patterns, making generalizations about
the observations or patterns, and reapplying those generalizations to unfamiliar situations.
Deduction, also known as deductive reasoning, uses a general rule or premise to make a
conclusion. It is the process of showing that certain statements follow logically from some
proven facts or accepted rules.
2
Example
Kyra sees coins at the bottom of a fountain. She concludes that if she throws a coin into the
fountain, it too will sink. Tyler understands the physical laws of gravity and mass and decides
a coin he throws into the fountain will sink.
The specific information is the coins Kyra and Tyler observed at the bottom of the fountain.
The general information is the physical laws of gravity and mass.
Kyra’s conclusion that her coin will sink when thrown into the fountain is induction.
Tyler’s conclusion that his coin will sink when thrown into the fountain is deduction.
2.1
Identifying False Conclusions
It is important that all conclusions are tracked back to given truths. There are two reasons
why a conclusion may be false. Either the assumed information is false or the argument is
not valid.
Example
Erin noticed that every time she missed the bus, it rained. So, she concludes that next time
she misses the bus it will rain.
Erin’s conclusion is false because missing the bus is not related to what makes it rain.
2.1
Writing a Conditional Statement
A conditional statement is a statement that can be written in the form “If p, then q.” The
portion of the statement represented by p is the hypothesis. The portion of the statement
represented by q is the conclusion.
If I plant an acorn, then an oak tree will grow.
A solid line is drawn under the hypothesis, and a dotted line is drawn under the conclusion.
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Example
2.1
Using a Truth Table to Explore the Truth Value
of a Conditional Statement
The truth value of a conditional statement is whether the statement is true or false. If a
conditional statement could be true, then its truth value is considered “true.” The first two
columns of a truth table represent the possible truth values for p (the hypothesis) and q (the
conclusion). The last column represents the truth value of the conditional statement ( p → q).
Notice that the truth value of a conditional statement is either “true” or “false,” but not both.
2
Example
Consider the conditional statement, “If I eat too much, then I will get a stomach ache.”
p
q
p→q
T
T
T
T
F
F
F
T
T
F
F
T
When p is true, I ate too much. When q is true, I will get a stomach ache. It is true that
when I eat too much, I will get a stomach ache. So, the truth value of the conditional
statement is true.
When p is true, I ate too much. When q is false, I will not get a stomach ache. It is false that
when I eat too much, I will not get a stomach ache. So, the truth value of the conditional
statement is false.
When p is false, I did not eat too much. When q is true, I will get a stomach ache. It could
be true that when I did not eat too much, I will get a stomach ache for a different reason.
So, the truth value of the conditional statement in this case is true.
When p is false, I did not eat too much. When q is false, I will not get a stomach ache. It
could be true that when I did not eat too much, I will not get a stomach ache. So, the truth
value of the conditional statement in this case is true.
2.1
Rewriting Conditional Statements
A conditional statement is a statement that can be written in the form “If p, then q.” The
hypothesis of a conditional statement is the variable p. The conclusion of a conditional
statement is the variable q.
Example
Consider the following statement: If two angles form a linear pair, then the sum of the measures
of the angles is 180 degrees. The statement is a conditional statement. The hypothesis is “two
angles form a linear pair,” and the conclusion is “the sum of the measures of the angles is 180
degrees.” The conditional statement can be rewritten with the hypothesis as the “Given”
statement and the conclusion as the “Prove” statement.
Given: Two angles form a linear pair.
Prove: The sum of the measures of the angles is 180 degrees.
Chapter 2 Summary
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2.2
Identifying Complementary and Supplementary Angles
Two angles are supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180 degrees.
Two angles are complementary if the sum of their measures is 90 degrees.
Y
Z
V
X
W
2
Example
In the diagram above, angles YWZ and ZWX are complementary angles.
In the diagram above, angles VWY and XWY are supplementary angles.
Also, angles VWZ and XWZ are supplementary angles.
2.2
and Vertical Angles
Adjacent angles are angles that share a common vertex and a common side.
A linear pair of angles consists of two adjacent angles that have noncommon sides that
form a line.
Vertical angles are nonadjacent angles formed by two intersecting lines.
Example
m
2
1
3
4
n
Angles 2 and 3 are adjacent angles.
Angles 1 and 2 form a linear pair. Angles 2 and 3 form a linear pair. Angles 3 and 4 form a
linear pair. Angles 4 and 1 form a linear pair.
Angles 1 and 3 are vertical angles. Angles 2 and 4 are vertical angles.
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2.2
Determining the Difference Between Euclidean
and Non-Euclidean Geometry
Euclidean geometry is a system of geometry developed by the Greek mathematician Euclid
that included the following five postulates.
1. A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points.
2. Any straight line segment can be extended indefinitely in a straight line.
3. Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn that has the segment as its
radius and one point as the center.
2
4. All right angles are congruent.
5. If two lines are drawn that intersect a third line in such a way that the sum of the inner
angles on one side is less than two right angles, then the two lines inevitably must
intersect each other on that side if extended far enough.
Example
Euclidean geometry:
2.2
Non-Euclidean geometry:
Using the Linear Pair Postulate
The Linear Pair Postulate states: “If two angles form a linear pair, then the angles
are supplementary.”
Example
R
38°
P
Q
S
m/PQR 1 m/SQR 5 180º
38º 1 m/SQR 5 180º
m/SQR 5 180º 2 38º
m/SQR 5 142º
Chapter 2 Summary
199
2.2
The Segment Addition Postulate states: “If point B is on segment AC and between
points A and C, then AB 1 BC 5 AC.”
Example
A
B
C
4m
2
10 m
AB 1 BC 5 AC
4 m 1 10 m 5 AC
AC 5 14 m
2.2
The Angle Addition Postulate states: “If point D lies in the interior of angle ABC, then
m/ABD 1 m/DBC 5 m/ABC.”
Example
C
D
39°
24°
A
B
m/ABD 1 m/DBC 5 m/ABC
24º 1 39º 5 m/ABC
m/ABC 5 63º
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