2.1 Identifying and Comparing Induction and Deduction Induction uses specific examples to make a conclusion. Induction, also known as inductive reasoning, is used when observing data, recognizing patterns, making generalizations about the observations or patterns, and reapplying those generalizations to unfamiliar situations. Deduction, also known as deductive reasoning, uses a general rule or premise to make a conclusion. It is the process of showing that certain statements follow logically from some proven facts or accepted rules. 2 Example Kyra sees coins at the bottom of a fountain. She concludes that if she throws a coin into the fountain, it too will sink. Tyler understands the physical laws of gravity and mass and decides a coin he throws into the fountain will sink. The specific information is the coins Kyra and Tyler observed at the bottom of the fountain. The general information is the physical laws of gravity and mass. Kyra’s conclusion that her coin will sink when thrown into the fountain is induction. Tyler’s conclusion that his coin will sink when thrown into the fountain is deduction. 2.1 Identifying False Conclusions It is important that all conclusions are tracked back to given truths. There are two reasons why a conclusion may be false. Either the assumed information is false or the argument is not valid. Example Erin noticed that every time she missed the bus, it rained. So, she concludes that next time she misses the bus it will rain. Erin’s conclusion is false because missing the bus is not related to what makes it rain. 2.1 Writing a Conditional Statement A conditional statement is a statement that can be written in the form “If p, then q.” The portion of the statement represented by p is the hypothesis. The portion of the statement represented by q is the conclusion. If I plant an acorn, then an oak tree will grow. A solid line is drawn under the hypothesis, and a dotted line is drawn under the conclusion. 196 Chapter 2 Introduction to Proof © Carnegie Learning Example 2.1 Using a Truth Table to Explore the Truth Value of a Conditional Statement The truth value of a conditional statement is whether the statement is true or false. If a conditional statement could be true, then its truth value is considered “true.” The first two columns of a truth table represent the possible truth values for p (the hypothesis) and q (the conclusion). The last column represents the truth value of the conditional statement ( p → q). Notice that the truth value of a conditional statement is either “true” or “false,” but not both. 2 Example Consider the conditional statement, “If I eat too much, then I will get a stomach ache.” p q p→q T T T T F F F T T F F T When p is true, I ate too much. When q is true, I will get a stomach ache. It is true that when I eat too much, I will get a stomach ache. So, the truth value of the conditional statement is true. When p is true, I ate too much. When q is false, I will not get a stomach ache. It is false that when I eat too much, I will not get a stomach ache. So, the truth value of the conditional statement is false. When p is false, I did not eat too much. When q is true, I will get a stomach ache. It could be true that when I did not eat too much, I will get a stomach ache for a different reason. So, the truth value of the conditional statement in this case is true. When p is false, I did not eat too much. When q is false, I will not get a stomach ache. It could be true that when I did not eat too much, I will not get a stomach ache. So, the truth value of the conditional statement in this case is true. © Carnegie Learning 2.1 Rewriting Conditional Statements A conditional statement is a statement that can be written in the form “If p, then q.” The hypothesis of a conditional statement is the variable p. The conclusion of a conditional statement is the variable q. Example Consider the following statement: If two angles form a linear pair, then the sum of the measures of the angles is 180 degrees. The statement is a conditional statement. The hypothesis is “two angles form a linear pair,” and the conclusion is “the sum of the measures of the angles is 180 degrees.” The conditional statement can be rewritten with the hypothesis as the “Given” statement and the conclusion as the “Prove” statement. Given: Two angles form a linear pair. Prove: The sum of the measures of the angles is 180 degrees. Chapter 2 Summary 197 2.2 Identifying Complementary and Supplementary Angles Two angles are supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180 degrees. Two angles are complementary if the sum of their measures is 90 degrees. Y Z V X W 2 Example In the diagram above, angles YWZ and ZWX are complementary angles. In the diagram above, angles VWY and XWY are supplementary angles. Also, angles VWZ and XWZ are supplementary angles. 2.2 Identifying Adjacent Angles, Linear Pairs, and Vertical Angles Adjacent angles are angles that share a common vertex and a common side. A linear pair of angles consists of two adjacent angles that have noncommon sides that form a line. Vertical angles are nonadjacent angles formed by two intersecting lines. Example m 2 1 3 4 n Angles 2 and 3 are adjacent angles. Angles 1 and 2 form a linear pair. Angles 2 and 3 form a linear pair. Angles 3 and 4 form a linear pair. Angles 4 and 1 form a linear pair. © Carnegie Learning Angles 1 and 3 are vertical angles. Angles 2 and 4 are vertical angles. 198 Chapter 2 Introduction to Proof 2.2 Determining the Difference Between Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometry Euclidean geometry is a system of geometry developed by the Greek mathematician Euclid that included the following five postulates. 1. A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points. 2. Any straight line segment can be extended indefinitely in a straight line. 3. Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn that has the segment as its radius and one point as the center. 2 4. All right angles are congruent. 5. If two lines are drawn that intersect a third line in such a way that the sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two right angles, then the two lines inevitably must intersect each other on that side if extended far enough. Example Euclidean geometry: 2.2 Non-Euclidean geometry: Using the Linear Pair Postulate The Linear Pair Postulate states: “If two angles form a linear pair, then the angles are supplementary.” Example R 38° © Carnegie Learning P Q S m/PQR 1 m/SQR 5 180º 38º 1 m/SQR 5 180º m/SQR 5 180º 2 38º m/SQR 5 142º Chapter 2 Summary 199 2.2 Using the Segment Addition Postulate The Segment Addition Postulate states: “If point B is on segment AC and between points A and C, then AB 1 BC 5 AC.” Example A B C 4m 2 10 m AB 1 BC 5 AC 4 m 1 10 m 5 AC AC 5 14 m 2.2 Using the Angle Addition Postulate The Angle Addition Postulate states: “If point D lies in the interior of angle ABC, then m/ABD 1 m/DBC 5 m/ABC.” Example C D 39° 24° A B m/ABD 1 m/DBC 5 m/ABC 24º 1 39º 5 m/ABC © Carnegie Learning m/ABC 5 63º 200 Chapter 2 Introduction to Proof

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