Download PDF - BioMedSearch

Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to the Synergistic
Interaction between EGCG and Doxorubicin to Kill the
Hepatoma Hep3B Cells
Li Chen1,2,3, Hui-Lan Ye2, Guo Zhang2*, Wen-Min Yao2, Xing-Zhou Chen2, Fa-Can Zhang2, Gang Liang3
1 New Drug Research & Development Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, P. R. China, 2 Department of Gastroenterology,
The People’s Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Guangxi, P. R. China, 3 Pharmacy School of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, P. R.
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate(EGCG), the highest catechins from green tea, has promisingly been found to sensitize the
efficacy of several chemotherapy agents like doxorubicin (DOX) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. However, the
detailed mechanisms by which EGCG augments the chemotherapeutic efficacy remain unclear. Herein, this study was
designed to determine the synergistic impacts of EGCG and DOX on hepatoma cells and particularly to reveal whether the
autophagic flux is involved in this combination strategy for the HCC. Electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy
confirmed that DOX significantly increased autophagic vesicles in hepatoma Hep3B cells. Western blot and trypan blue
assay showed that the increasing autophagy flux by DOX impaired about 45% of DOX-induced cell death in these cells.
Conversely, both qRT-PCR and western blotting showed that EGCG played dose-dependently inhibitory role in autophagy
signaling, and that markedly promoted cellular growth inhibition. Amazingly, the combined treatment caused a synergistic
effect with 40 to 60% increment on cell death and about 45% augmentation on apoptosis versus monotherapy pattern. The
DOX-induced autophagy was abolished by this combination therapy. Rapamycin, an autophagic agonist, substantially
impaired the anticancer effect of either DOX or combination with EGCG treatment. On the other hand, using small
interference RNA targeting chloroquine autophagy-related gene Atg5 and beclin1 to inhibit autophagy signal, hepatoma
cell death was dramatically enhanced. Furthermore, in the established subcutaneous Hep3B cells xenograft tumor model,
about 25% reduction in tumor growth as well as 50% increment of apoptotic cells were found in combination therapy
compared with DOX alone. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that the suppressed tendency of
autophagic hallmark microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) expressions was consistent with thus combined
usage in vitro. Taken together, the current study suggested that EGCG emerges as a chemotherapeutic augmenter and
synergistically enhances DOX anticancer effects involving autophagy inhibition in HCC.
Citation: Chen L, Ye H-L, Zhang G, Yao W-M, Chen X-Z, et al. (2014) Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to the Synergistic Interaction between EGCG and
Doxorubicin to Kill the Hepatoma Hep3B Cells. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85771. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085771
Editor: Yuan-Soon Ho, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan
Received September 7, 2013; Accepted December 5, 2013; Published January 21, 2014
Copyright: ß 2014 Chen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81172260; 30960145 to GZ and no. 81102495 to LC)
and Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (2010GXNSFC013020 to GZ). The URL of website is The
funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
* E-mail: [email protected]
Among those valuable cytostatic agents available in the
chemotherapeutic guideline, DOX was routinely used as a single
drug for treatment of patients with HCC [6]. Indeed, DOXinduced myocardial toxicity and related resistance in tumor cells
are really serious, especially with a low response rate of about 15 to
20% in HCC [6]. In this regards, a couple of combination
regimens were suggested for DOX usage to deal with the
controversy between its potency and side-effect. Our previous
study has shown that EGCG severed as a promising chemosensitizing enhancer for DOX in HCC treatment [7]. However, the
detailed mechanism responsible for this combined strategy towards
tumor is not known with certainty. Recently, as soon as a novel
mechanism of autophagy underlying the carcinogenesis has been
reported, it raises a promising attempt to figure out whether the
interaction between DOX and EGCG involved autophagic flux
during the therapeutic process for HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent
cancers worldwide and is accounting for 85 to 90% of all primary
liver cancer which represents approximately 4% of all new cancer
cases diagnosed [1]. Although liver transplantation is considered
the most effective method for advanced HCC, surgical resection is
used as upfront treatment due to the living donor problems [2] and
it is still applicable to only a small proportion of patients with high
recurrence rate about 50% at 2 years and 75% at 5 years after the
resection, respectively [3]. To this day, diversified nonsurgical
managements such as bland particle embolization, chemoembolization, radioembolization, stereotactic body radiation therapy
and traditional chemotherapy have been importantly applied to
patients with HCC. However, since their toxic side effects and
most common multiple drug resistance [4,5], the overall prognosis
still remains frustratingly poor.
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved cellular process which
degrades and recycles intracellular constituents. As it is activated
upon various stressful stimuli including physiological disturbance
and pathological conditions, the modulation of autophagy is a new
pattern to determine cell fate and provides mechanistic insight into
pathogenesis and therapy of varies diseases in mammalian [8,9].
However, how does autophagy plays a role in chemotherapy for
malignant tumor remains controversial. Recent study identifying
the autophagy-mediated necroptosis mechanism using a novel
chalcone derivative chalcone-24 established the role of autophagy
for overcoming chemoresistance [10]. Additionally, another study
in breast cancer cells revealed that ceramide transporter depletion
promoted sensitization to diverse cytotoxics, which was mediated
by enhanced autophagy flux [11]. These evidences indicated that
autophagy induction may contribute to the efficacy of some
anticancer agents. Conversely, the overwhelming majority of
studies supported that autophagy inhibition significantly increased
cell death in gastrointestinal and hepatic cancer in response to
various anticancer agents [12–19]. For instance, multi-kinase
inhibitors such as sorafenib stimulated autophagy in hepatoma
cells which attenuated its anti-cancer effects [20]. Therefore, to
appropriately modify autophagy signals would be worth investigating to clarify the mechanism underlying the combined strategy
for HCC.
EGCG as the highest catechins content in green tea has a
variety of physiological and pharmacological activities. It has been
shown that EGCG not only induced the apoptosis and inhibited
the proliferation in tumor cells [21,22], but also increased
sensitivity to traditional antineoplastic drugs and reverse multidrug
resistance in hepatoma cells [7]. Recently, it has been shown that
EGCG exerted these beneficial effects involving autophagy flux
regulation and the specific mechanism differs from different cells
and diseases [23–26]. However, whether the regulation of
autophagic signaling is responsible for its anticancer augmentative
effect in HCC is still not known. In this study, we aimed to
determine the synergistically antitumor effect mediated by
autophagy signals in response to EGCG cooperated with DOX
in HCC and identify a new autophagy inhibitor as a potential
augmenter for cancer therapy.
Cell lines and animals
The human HCC cell lines Hep3B cells (Cell Resource Center
of Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences) were maintained in
high-glucose dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium supplemented
with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and 100 units/ml
penicillin-streptomycin (Solarbio Science and Technology, Beijing,
China) at 37uC in a humidified incubator in 5% [v/v] CO2
atmosphere. Cells in logarithm growth stage were plated in plates
or covered culture dishes at different densities for the following
designed studies. Male nude mice (four to six weeks old, Animal
Research Center of Guangxi Medical University) were maintained
under specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions.
MTT assay
Cells were plated at a density of 7000 per well of a 96-well plate
and, 24 hours after plating, treated as the indicated concentrations. Twenty microliters MTT with a concentration of 5 mg/ml
was added to each well for an additional 4 hours. The blue MTT
formazan precipitate was then dissolved in 150 mL of dimethyl
sulfoxide per well with incubation for 10 minutes in a rotary
platform at 37uC. Cell proliferation inhibition ratio was calculated
according to the absorbance at a wavelength of 490 nm (A value)
in each well by ELISA analyzer (GF-M3000,ShangDong province,
China). Cell proliferation inhibition ratio (%) = (A value of control
group–A value of treated group)/A value of control group
Analysis of in vitro drug interaction
As previous studies [27,28], cells were seeded at a density of
7000 per well of a 96-well plate and, 48 hours after cells attached,
treated as the indicated agents and concentrations. MTT assay
was used to detect the absorbance at a wavelength of 490 nm as
the OD value. The coefficient of drug interaction (CDI) is
calculated as follows: CDI = AB/(A6B). According to the absorbance of each group, AB is the ratio of the combination groups to
control group; A or B is the ratio of the single agent group to
control group. Thus, CDI value ,1, = 1 or .1 indicates that the
drugs are synergistic, additive or antagonistic, respectively.
Trypan blue assay
Cells were plated at a density of 26105 per well of a 12 well
plate. At the end of treatment as described as the figure legend,
cells in each well were calculated under a light microscope
(Olympus, CKX-41).
Materials and Methods
EGCG, 3(4,5-demethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) were purchased from Sigma. Doxorubicin was
purchased from Hisun Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Zhejiang, China).
Human anti-beclin1 polyclonal antibody was from Cell signaling
Technology. Anti-LC3 and anti-Atg5 polyclonal antibody were
purchased from Novus Biologicals. Human anti-GAPDH polyclonal antibody and all horseradish peroxidase–conjugated
secondary antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. Trizol was from Invitrogen. cDNA reverse transcription
system, SYBRH Premix Ex TaqTM II reagent kits were from
Takara Biotechnology (Dalian, China). PCR primers were
synthesized by Sangon Biotechnology (Shanghai, China). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) kits and enhanced chemiluminescence were purchased from
Merck. High glucose dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium and fetal
bovine serum were from Thermo. Trypsin was purchased from
Amresco. Polymer Detection System Kits for immunohistological
staining was from ZSGB-Bio (Beijing, China). Horseradish
Peroxidase Color Development Kits was purchased from Beyotime Biotechnology.
Annexin V/propidium iodide assay
Cells were plated at a density of 56105 per well of 6 well plates.
After treatment as indicated as the Figure legend, apoptotic cells
were evaluated in vitro by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining
(BD PharMingen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions
and then were analyzed using flow cytometry (Mansfield, MA).
Transfection of cells with small interference RNA (siRNAs)
Cells were plated at a density of 16105 per well of 12 well plates
in antibiotic-free medium. After plating 24 hours, cells were 30–
50% confluent and then infected with a variety of constructs. Two
microliter LipofectamineTM 2000 (Invitrogen) and 50 nM siRNA
(scrambled or experimental) were diluted into 100 mL of OptiMEMH I Reduced Serum Medium (Gibco), respectively (one
portion for each sample). Diluted siRNA was added to the diluted
Lipofectamine 2000 for each sample and incubated at room
temperature for 25 minutes. The mixture was added to each well
of cells containing 800 mL antibiotic-free medium for a total
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
volume of 1000 mL medium. An equal volume of medium was
replaced after 4 hours incubation. Cells were incubated for
24 hours, then treated with the indicated concentrations of
DOX, EGCG and a combined pattern, and subsequently
analyzed after 24 hours treatment.
of 95uC for 5 seconds (denaturation) and 60uC for 34 seconds
(renaturation). The relative expression levels of mRNA were
determined by the formula, 22DDCt.
Electron microscopy
The nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with cell
suspension containing 16107 Hep3B cells per mouse in the right
side fossa axillaries. The subcutaneous tumors were monitored and
when the volume of tumor reached 100 mm3, the nude mice were
subjected to medical intervention. Based on the weight and the
volume of the tumor, the mice were randomly divided into 4
groups with 6 in each, including the control group, the EGCG
group (50 mg/kg, qd, ig; EGCG), DOX group(2 mg/kg, q4d, ip;
DOX) and DOX combined with EGCG (EGCG+DOX group).
The tumor weight was measured every 2 days and the tumor size
was monitored every 4 days by vernier caliper. Measured values
were used to calculate the tumor volume according to the formula
[length (mm)6width (mm)2]/2. Fifteen days after treatment, all
rats were humanely sacrificed to dissect and weight the tumor
tissues. A portion of the tumor tissue was fixed in 10% formalin for
subsequent histological analysis, and the remaining tissue was
stored at 280uC for molecular studies. All experimental procedures were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the First
Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and the
People’s Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,
Nanning, China.
Establishment of supcutaneous xenograft tumor model
in nude mice
Hep3B cells were incubated with doxorubicin of 2.5 mM for
24 hours, and then collected in eppendorf tubes by centrifugation
after being digested with 0.25% trypsin. Prior to embedding, cells
were fixed with 4% glutaraldehyde and 1% osmium tetraoxide
overnight. Then cells were embedded in epoxide resin, followed by
ultrathin sections (100 nm) prepared on an ultramicrotome and
next, were double stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate.
Images of the autophagy in cytoplasm were viewed with a
transmission electron microscope (Hitachi H7650, Japan).
Fluorescence microscopy
Cells were plated in 24-well plates with 56104 cells per well and
treated with indicated agents and indicated time. Briefly, cells were
fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes. Subsequently,
the cells were permeabilized with 0.5% Triton X-100 for 15
minutes, washed with PBS and blocked with 1% BSA for 30
minutes at room temperature. The cells were treated with LC3
antibody diluted by 1% BSA and incubated overnight. Prior to
staining with 5 ug/ml 49,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (SIGMA),
cells were incubated with secondary antibody conjugated with
fluorescein isothicyanate for 1 h. The slices were examined under
the fluorescent microscope (Olympus, IX-71).
Tumor tissues from control group and treatment groups were
used for immunohistochemistry following the Polymer Detection
System Kits. Sections (4 mm thick) from paraffin-embedded
tumors were deparaffinized and then rehydrated using xylene
and ethanol, and next, immersed in 3% hydrogen peroxide
solution for 10 min in dark to block endogenous peroxidases. After
rinsed with double-distilled water and immersed in PBS solution
for 3 times, sections were boiled for 10 minutes in 10 mM citrate
buffer solution (pH 6.0) for antigen retrieval. Slides were incubated
overnight at 4uC with anti-LC3 (1:100). The appropriate
peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody was added to specimens and incubated for 30 minutes at 37uC. Visualization was
performed using the DAB Kits (ZSGB-BIO, China) following the
manufacturer’s instructions. All slides were counterstained with
hematoxylin and eosin (HE).
Western blotting
Total protein was extracted from cells or tumor tissues and lysed
in RIPA lysate [20 mM Tris-HCl (pH = 8.0), 1%NP40, 150 mM
NaCl, 2 mM ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid (PH = 8.0),
0.1%SDS] which contained protease inhibitor (Roche Molecular
Biochemicals). Equal amounts of proteins were loaded onto 10%
SDS-PAGE and transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride
membrane (Millipore) which subsequently was blocked with 5%
nonfat milk and incubated in corresponding primary and
secondary antibodies as designed. All immunoblots were visualized
by electronic chemiluminescence (PerkinElmer) according to the
manufacturer’s instructions and then digitally scanned. The
density of protein band presenting the protein expression level
was analyzed using Image J software (
Quantatative real-time quantitative polymerase chain
reaction (qRT-PCR)
HE staining
The deparaffinization and rehydration were conducted as
described above. Prior to dehydration, nuclei were stained with
hematoxylin and cytoplasm with eosin. Mountant was dropped on
the slide and a cover glass was put on it. Morphological changes
were obtained under the light microscope.
At the end of treatments, cells interfered with drugs or infected
with siRNAs were rinsed with cold PBS solution. Trizol reagent
(Invitrogen) was used for RNA extraction, followed by the
measurement of RNA concentration. The reverse transcription
of cDNA was processed using a SYBRH Premix Ex TaqTM II
reagent kits. SYBR method was used to detect the expression of
autophagy related gene Atg5 and beclin1. The synthesized primers
were as follows: Atg5 forward primer, 59-CCAAAGCAGCATTGATGACCA-39; Atg5 reverse primer, 59-AGCCACAGGACGAAACAGCTT-39. beclin1 forward primer, 59-ACAGTGGACAGTTTGGCACA-39; beclin1 reverse primer, 59-CGGCAGCTCCTTAGATTTGT-39. Specific primers for the GAPDH
were used as control and the primers were forward primer, 59CATGAGAAGTATGACAACAGCCT-39 and reverse primer,
59-GTCCTTCCACGATACCAAAGT-39. PCR conditions were
one cycle of 95uC for 5 seconds (predenaturation) and forty cycles
TUNEL assay
The slides were next deparaffinized and rehydrated and treated
with proteinase K for 20 minutes. The tissue sections were then
analyzed with FragELTM DNA Fragmentation Detection Kits
(Merck, America) followed the manufacturer’s instructions and
visualized using fluorescence microscope. The percentage of
TUNEL-positive cells was calculated by dividing the number of
TUNEL-positive cells by the number of 49,6-diamidino-2phenylindole-positive nuclei at high magnification for three fields
in each tumor sample.
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
Statistical analysis
DOX-induced antitumor effects were enhanced by
autophagy inhibition
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS13.0 software.
Experiments were repeated at least three times with consistent
results. Quantitative data were presented as mean 6 SE.
Comparison of the effects of various treatments was performed
using One-Way ANOVA analysis and Pearson’s correlation.
Tumor mean diameter, and mean volume were analyzed for
statistical significance using paired Student’s t tests. P,0.05 was
considered statistically significant.
Under the light microscope, administration of DOX was found
to exert substantial antiproliferative effects on hepatoma Hep3B
cells. Interestingly, while pre-treated those cells with threemethyladenine (3MA), a representative autophagic antagonist,
the DOX-induced proliferative inhibition effects was dramatically
aggravated. The trypan blue assay further confirmed autophagic
suppression amplified DOX-induced cell death with an enhancement of about 45% (Fig. 2).
EGCG significantly inhibited autophagic activity and
suppressed proliferation in vitro
Autophagy was observed in Hep3B cells and
up-regulated by DOX administration
To address the prospect that EGCG regulates autophagic
activity, electron microscopy showed a decrement of autophagic
vacuoles in Hep3B cells treated with EGCG (Fig. 3A). To further
confirm that autophagic activity was down-regulated by EGCG, a
dramatic reduction of mRNA expression level of autophagic genes
was reflected by qRT-PCR, which behaved as a dose-dependent
manner (Fig. 3B). Concurrently, western blotting indicated a
decreased expression of Atg5 in cells treated with 20 mg/ml and
40 mg/ml EGCG of about 50% and 80%, respectively. Meanwhile, the suppressed expression levels of beclin1 protein of about
60% also detected in those cells treated with 40 mg/ml EGCG for
24 hours (p,0.01) (Fig. 3C). In addition to the autophagy
inhibition effects, MTT assay showed that proliferation suppression on Hep3B cells was also found to exert in a dose- and timedependent manner following EGCG treatment (Fig. 3D). An
inverse correlation between the exposure concentration of EGCG
and protein or gene expression of Atg5 and beclin1 was potently
showed when Pearson’s correlation was used, and a positive
correlation was showed between EGCG concentrations and cellgrowth inhibition ratio.
To confirm whether autophagic activity is altered with DOX
treatment, transmission electron microscopy was done to visualize
autophagosomes in the cytoplasm in Hep3B cells. Typical
autophagosome was defined as a double-membraned structure
containing intracellular organelles and cytoplasmic contents such
as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome [29]. As
showed in Fig. 1A, there was a marked increment in the number of
autophagic structures in cells treated with DOX (2.5 mM) (pannel
right) compared with the vehicle (control) (pannel left). Simultaneously, western blotting showed that the DOX dose-dependently
induced increasing expression levels of autophagic protein Atg5
and the expression of beclin1 also mildly elevated in these cells.
(Fig. 1B). Moreover, by immunofluorescence microscopy, autophagic activity with LC3 labeled in cultured Hep3B cells was
measured. It was found that there was an evidently increased
green punctae in cells treated with DOX versus vehicle (Fig. 1C).
These results were consistent with the previous study [30].
Figure 1. DOX treatment was found to increase autophagic activity in Hep3B cells. (A) Electron microscopic technology showed upregulated numbers of autophagosomes in Hep3B cells treated with 2.5 mM DOX versus control. Arrows indicate autophagic structures. Scale bars
represent 500 nm. Magnification, 640000. (B) Immunoblots showed increased expression levels of Atg5 and beclin1 in Hep3B cells treated with DOX
of 1, 2.5 and 5 mM for 24 h compared with control. Protein ratios normalized to GAPDH were used to quantify fold change relative to control and are
shown below each blot. Data are from a representative study (n = 3). (C) Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that elevated LC3 fluorescent signals
were visualized in cells administrated with 2.5 mM DOX.
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
Figure 2. Autophagy suppression enhanced DOX-induced growth inhibition and cell death of Hep3B cells. Hep3B cells were treated
with vehicle (control), 2 mM 3MA, 2.5 mM DOX, or both 3MA and DOX for 24 h. Light microscopic images recorded the morphology (A) and trypan
blue assay determined the cell death (B); Columns, percentage of trypan blue-positive cells; bars, SE. Data was from a representative of three
independent studies. Bars = 200 mm. *p,0.05 vs. control, #p,0.01 vs. control.
HE staining, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL assay and western
blotting. HE staining showed the structure of the tumor tissues
presented as tumor nodules, cells organized in disorder, nuclei of
different sizes with pathological karyokinesis. Visible necrosis and
abundant lymphocytes and monocytes were evident in DOX
treatment group (Figure not shown). Immunohistochemistry
showed decreased expression of LC3 protein stained as claybank
region in the combined treatment group versus monotherapy
(0.1960.02 vs. 0.3460.03, p,0.01) (Fig. 6C). DOX treatment
resulted in a marked increment in TUNEL positive cells in
comparison with vehicle and EGCG-treated cells. Moreover, cotreatment resulted in a higher rate compared with DOX treatment
tumor (10.4760.92 vs. 5.2760.43, p,0.01) (Fig. 6D). Simultaneously, western blotting analysis of protein extracted from the
tumor tissues showed a marked suppression in the expression of
Atg5 and beclin1 (Figure not shown).
Combination of EGCG and DOX synergistically facilitate
antitumor effects in Hep3B cells, which involved
autophagic regulation
Given the evidence provided above that the opposing actions
towards autophagy activity as well as cell fate exerted by both
ECCG and DOX treatment in Hep3B cells, we proceeded to
define the interact effects of EGCG on DOX-induced antitumor
effects. As expected, according to the MTT assay and the
coefficient of drug interaction (CDI) shown in table 1, EGCG and
DOX yielded synergistic interactions across a wide concentration
range (CDI,1). In particular, a lowest CDI value (0.7960.06) was
presented in the combination of 10 mg/ml EGCG and 2.5 mM
DOX. By trypan blue assay, synergistic inhibitory effects on the
viability of Hep3B cells were also observed in these combined two
compounds. For 24 h incubation, a significantly greater cell death
percentage was showed in the 10 mg/ml EGCG co-treatment cells
compared with the DOX-challenged cells (17.6760.52% vs.
10.8960.43%, p,0.01) and for 20 mg/ml EGCG co-treatment
cells (27.8660.64% vs. 10.8960.43%, p,0.01). When the
exposure time extended from 24 h to 48 h, a higher cell death
percentage of 48.9962.31% was presented in the combined
pattern (Fig. 4A). As for the flow cytometry detection, co-treatment
was found to increase the apoptosis by about 45% versus DOXsuffered cells (Fig. 4B), which was consistent with the trypan assay.
These results demonstrated that EGCG, in combination with
DOX, presented a significantly synergistic anticancer effect on
Hep3B cells. Meanwhile, siRNA interference technique targeting
at Atg5 and beclin1 genes was carried to suppress autophagy.
Gene knockdown effect was validated by qRT-PCR and western
blotting (Fig. 5A, B). Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, impaired
the cell death of about 60% in the co-treatment Hep3B cells
(Fig. 5C). However, it was refreshing that specifically inhibiting the
autophagy pathway by siRNAs powered the cell death (Atg5
siRNA, beclin1 siRNA and scrambled siRNA; 33.8463.84,
37.9966.12 and 23.0361.60, respectively) (Fig. 5D).
DOX, a representative agent of anthracyclines, has been worldwidely in use for more than 40 years for the treatment of
malignant neoplasm from various organs such as leukemia, breast
cancer, colon cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the
intrinsic shortage of DOX severely limits its clinical efficacy since
minimizing dose may impair the therapeutic lethality and cause
drug resistance, while dose escalation results in a dose-dependent
cardiotoxicity [31,32]. With this regard, it highlights an urgent
need for combination of different chemotherapeutic agents
mediated by potential complementary mechanisms, which severs
as a common method to diminish the drug cytotoxicity and
achieve more satisfied efficacy [33]. The present study revealed
that combination of EGCG and DOX interacted to kill
hepatocellular carcinoma cells via autophagy inhibition.
Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway which
widely occurs in all eukaryotic cells [34], has been implicated in
many physiological and pathological processes. Autophagy acts as a
process which could result in both cell survival and cell death and its
relationship with the HCC therapy has attracted increasing
attention in a variety of fields in recent years. Interestingly,
autophagy is inducible with the adoption of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs, including DNA-damaging agents, proteasome
inhibitors and multikinase inhibitors resulted in impaired chemotherapeutic efficacy and the role for autophagy was believed to
be a potential prosurvival and escapable mechanism [19,35–38].
Recent findings have revealed that autophagy was a potential
Anti-tumor activity of EGCG and DOX in vivo
The size and weight of the tumors in the EGCG or DOX
treatment groups were slightly diminished compared with the
control group. But for the combination treatment group, a
marked inhibition of tumor size and weight presented in
comparison with DOX-treated tumors (219.66612.15 mm3 vs.
346.35617.98 mm3, P,0.01; 0.2060.01 g vs. 0.3160.01 g, P,
0.01) (Fig. 6 A, B). The harvested tumor tissues were subjected to
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
Figure 3. Dose-dependent inhibited effect of EGCG on the autophagy and proliferation in Hep3B cells. (A) EGCG (40 mg/ml) was found
to reduce the autophagosome number in Hep3B cells. Arrows indicate autophagic structures. (B) Exposed to EGCG of 10, 20, 40 mg/ml for 24 h, the
expression levels of Atg5 and beclin1 in Hep3B cells were determined at the RNA levels by qRT-PCR. (C) Cell lysates following treatment with varies
concentrations of EGCG were subjected to western blotting. Protein ratios normalized to GAPDH were used to quantify fold change relative to
control. Results shown are representative of three independent experiments and error bars indicate SE. (D) EGCG exerted inhibition effects on
proliferation of Hep3B cells in dose- and time-dependent manner after EGCG treatment with the indicated concentrations. Bars = 500 nm.
Magnification, 640000. *p,0.05 vs. control, #p,0.01 vs. control.
compare with DOX alone, a more dramatic cell death and growth
inhibition was found in DOX-treated settings with 3MA, an
antagonist for autophagy. Similarly, results from a research have
provided an evidence that autophagic pharmacologic inhibitors or
autophagic genes disruption augments the proapoptotic activity
for doxorubicin and melphalan, the DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents in human multiple myeloma cells [38]. Another
study revealed that blocking autophagic flux also enhanced the
lethality for sorafenib in HCC [19]. These data supported that
DOX induced-autophagy was not responsible for its antitumor
efficacy, but a potential self-protection behavior to escape from
cytotoxicity therapy. Therefore, autophagy inhibition increases the
self-protection behavior responds to chemotherapeutic agents,
which is a promising druggable target for anticancer therapy [39].
It is well known that DOX may initiate free radicals, generate
reactive oxygen species (ROS) and then cause cytotoxicities via
DNA damage [22]. Additionally, in this study, DOX was found to
significantly trigger elevated LC3 fluorescent punctae and
biochemical hallmarks of autophagy such as Atg5 and beclin1 in
Hep3B cells, which indicated that autophagy signal was definitely
involved in DOX-driving cytotoxicities process. To clarify whether
autophagy plays a role in the mechanism underlying its antitumor
effects or potential cancer elusion, we evaluated the influence of
DOX on the cell viability by suppressing autophagy. As a result,
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
marked autophagy inhibition and cell death as well as apoptosis by
both in vivo and in vitro binding assay, compared with monotherapy.
Concomitantly, EGCG was found to abolish DOX-induced
autophagy by western blot (data not shown). Given this amazing
prospect, pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to
modulate the activity of autophagy. As a consequence, blocking
autophagy with Atg5 or beclin1 siRNAs resulted in greater cell
death percentage, while activating autophagy with rapamycin
resulted in impaired lethality in co-treatment Hep3B cells. This
potently proved that inducible autophagy is the mechanism
potentially underlying limited chemotherapeutic efficacy for
DOX. Emerging studies have revealed that EGCG sensitize
tumor cells to anticancer agents via different mechanisms. Prior
study in multidrug resistance HCC confirmed that tea catechins at
non-toxic doses(,100 mg/ml) augmented DOX-induced cell
death and sensitize chemoresistant HCC cells to DOX via
downregulaion of MDR1 expression, or enhancement of intracellular DOX accumulation, involving inhibition of P-gp function
[7]. Study in orthotopic mouse glioblastoma models have shown
that EGCG enhanced therapeutic efficacy of temozolomide,
which is also a DNA damaging agent, through the inhibition of
GRP78 [42]. Additionally, a sensitizing effect on doxorubicinresistant murine sarcoma and human colon carcinoma cell lines
was confirmed following combination of EGCG and DOX.
Although several mechanisms underlying the anticancer activities
of EGCG have been reported, the mechanism of EGCG action
has not yet fully elucidated. The present study provided evidence
that EGCG synergistically facilitated DOX anticancer efficacy via
autophagy inhibition, a complementary mechanism between these
compounds, which may be an effective targeting approach in
cancer therapy.
It should reinforce the point that DOX-induced cardiotoxicity is
a major limiting factor in anticancer therapy. Epidemiological
studies have repeatedly demonstrated that health benefits a lot
from green tea, and EGCG is the principal active constituent [43].
Specifically, EGCG was reported to protect heart against
doxorubicin-induced myocyte injury [44]. Moreover, autophagy
suppression mediated by resveratrol, also a plant-derived polyphenol, is an important mechanism to protect against DOX
cardiotoxicity [45]. Hence, it is convinced that DOX combined
with EGCG resulted in aggravated cytotoxicity to cancer cells and
it seems plausible that this compound also acted protective role to
myocardial cells.
The present research confirmed that a therapeutic regimen that
EGCG co-treatment with DOX jointly exacerbated the antineoplastic efficacy mediated by suppressing autophagy. With regard to
the unsatisfying efficacy for the therapy of liver cancer currently,
the use of EGCG as a sensitizer for DOX chemotherapy warrants
further clinical exploration. Compared with traditional anticancer
agents, EGCG is available worldwide and safe to administrate in a
wide range of dose. Promisingly, since exhibiting potential clinical
benefits, EGCG has been strongly confirmed as a chemopreventive agent in clinical trials for varies cancers such as prostate, oral
and colon cancer [46–49]. Given the evidence from these phase II
and phase III clinical trials, ‘‘from bench to real-life situations’’ for
EGCG as a superb agent for cancer chemoprevention is on the
horizon. Indeed,there are still some problems remained to be
answered. For instance, it is not clear that the particular
mechanism of EGCG towards autophagy and specific signaling
pathways network within the cooperated pattern in terms of cell
survival and death. Secondly, the injurious dosage of EGCG has
not yet been elucidated adequately, but the low dosage is preferred
due to the safety concern. Although similar synergistic in vitro anticancer effect of EGCG and DOX was confirmed on HepG2 cells
Table 1. Dosage inhibitory effects of both EGCG and DOX on
the proliferation of Hep3B cells (n = 9).
EGCG(mg/ml) DOX(mM)
Growth inhibitory effects (OD)
Drug interaction was measured as described in materials and methods with
increasing concentrations of EGCG, DOX or both agents for 48 h. CDI,1
indicates a synergistic effect, CDI = 1 indicates an additive effect, CDI.1
indicates an antagonistic effect.
sensitivity of HCC to DOX, which holds prospect for the potential
application of autophagic inhibitors for cancer therapy. As the
autophagic inhibitors, chloroquine and its analog, hydroxychloroquine have currently being evaluated in clinical trials for cancer
therapy. However, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were
reported to induce ocular toxicities, such as retinopathy [40]. And
whether the safely tolerated doses of hydroxychloroquine or
chloroquine exert effectively autophagic suppressing actions in
human tumors has not yet been identified. These issues drew the
need for additional novel inhibitors of autophagy without
conspicuous observable toxicity [39].
Accumulative studies have revealed that many beneficial
properties have been attributed to EGCG, including chemopreventive, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant actions [41]. There has
been studies suggested that EGCG induced autophagy, which
resulted in decreased level of a mediator of lethal systemic
inflammation, the high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) [24].
Intriguingly, EGCG was also found to promisingly suppress
autophagic level in varies cells with exception of its common
pharmacological machinery [23,25,26]. Hashimoto, K. et al. [23]
found that EGCG inhibited the formation of secondary lysosomes,
autophagosomes and LC3-GFP in mouse-macrophage-like cell
line. As for cancers, Zhang Y et al. [26] found that EGCG
treatment dramatically blocked autophagic flux by elevating the
conversion from LC3I to LC3II and increasing the accumulation
of p62 in HepG2 cells, which was cell death-independent. This
contrary actions performed by EGCG depends on cellular settings
and different molecular pathways. However, the compromised
autophagy responds to EGCG, is mostly adverse to most of
chemotherapeutic agents in clinic. This study presented the
interaction of autophagy and cell death following EGCG
treatment. By using varies assays including electron microscopy,
western blotting and qRT-PCR, EGCG was found to obviously
down-regulate the basal autophagic activity in Hep3B cells with a
dose-dependent pattern. Moreover, such autophagy inhibitory
effect by EGCG was confirmed in vivo studies. In parallel, MTT
assay indicated that EGCG dose-dependently exerted growth
inhibition function in those cells. Thus, besides its anticancer
effects, EGCG emerges as a novel therapeutic anticancer potential
agent to substantially blunt autophagy signal in HCC.
Given a complementary mechanism responsible for antitumor
effects between DOX and EGCG, it is worth determining the cotherapeutic effects by using these two compounds together. The
present study indicated that combined treatment resulted in
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
Figure 4. Combination of EGCG and DOX promoted cell death and apoptosis in Hep3B cells. (A) Trypan blue assay characterized the cell
death of Hep3B cells treated with EGCG (10 mg/ml, 20 mg/ml) in the presence or absence of DOX (2.5 mM) for 24 h and 48 h. (B) Flow cytometry
analyzed the apoptosis of Hep3B cells after addition of EGCG (10 mg/ml) in the presence or absence of DOX (2.5 mM) for 24 h. The lower panel is the
summarized data. Results are representative of three independent experiments and error bars indicate SE. #p,0.01 vs. control.
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
Figure 5. Combination effects of EGCG and DOX on Hep3B cells involved autophagic modulation. Genetic inhibition of autophagy in
Hep3B was conducted with siRNAs targeting at Atg5 and beclin1. Effective knockdown of autophagy gene or protein expression levels with each
siRNA was confirmed by qRT-PCR (A) and western blotting (B). By trypan blue staining, it was showed that (C) rapamycin (Rapa,100 nM), an agonist,
substantially impaired the cell death in Hep3B treated with EGCG(10 mg/ml) and DOX(2.5 mM) and (D)blocking autophagy by siRNAs targeting at
Atg5 and beclin1 enhanced cell death of these cells in the presence of EGCG and DOX for 48 h. Cumulative results from three independent
experiments were shown as mean 6 SE. C, control. #p,0.01 vs. control.
(Table S1), further in vivo study should be certified with other
tumorigenic hepatoma cell lines. All together, this study demonstrated that combination of EGCG and DOX enhances the
anticancer effects and targeting autophagy pathway might shed
new light on improving the chemotherapeutic efficacy in HCC
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
Figure 6. Contribution of autophagy and apoptosis to anti-tumor effects of EGCG and DOX in HCC model. Nude mice were
subcutaneously injected with Hep3B cells. When the volume of tumor reached 100 mm3, the mice were divided into corresponding treatment
groups based on both volume and weight. Tumor volume was recorded every 4 days (A) and the tumor weight was recorded (B) when the tumors
were excised after 15 days treatment. The data represents means and standard deviations and error bars indicate SE. (C) LC3 protein expression in
each tumor tissue section was measured by immunochemistry. Magnification, 4006. (D) Apoptosis in each tumor tissue section was measured by
TUNEL staining. Positive cells were determined in three independent experiments. Three random fields representing 200 tumor cells were counted.
Magnification, 2006. Cumulative results were shown as mean 6 SE and error bars indicate SE. Bars = 20 mm. *p,0.05 vs. control, #p,0.01 vs. control,
n = 6.
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
Supporting Information
Zhuang Autonomous Region for their valuable technological assistance on
our projects.
Dosage inhibitory effects of both EGCG and
DOX on the proliferation of HepG2 cells (n = 6).
Author Contributions
Table S1
Conceived and designed the experiments: GZ. Performed the experiments:
LC HLY WMY XZC. Analyzed the data: LC FCZ GZ. Contributed
reagents/materials/analysis tools: FCZ GL GZ. Wrote the paper: LC HLY
The authors thank Dr. Jiao Lan, Dr. Wei Jiao, Dr. Fei Liu and Rui-Ping
Xiao from Scientific Research Center of the People’s Hospital of Guangxi
24. Li W, Zhu S, Li J, Assa A, Jundoria A, et al. (2011) EGCG stimulates autophagy
and reduces cytoplasmic HMGB1 levels in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages.
Biochem Pharmacol 81: 1152–1163.
25. Yan J, Feng Z, Liu J, Shen W, Wang Y, et al. (2012) Enhanced autophagy plays
a cardinal role in mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki
(GK) rats: ameliorating effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. J Nutr Biochem
23: 716–724.
26. Zhang Y, Yang ND, Zhou F, Shen T, Duan T, et al. (2012) (-)-Epigallocatechin3-gallate induces non-apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells via ROSmediated lysosomal membrane permeabilization. PLoS One 7: e46749.
27. Gong H, Zhang X, Cheng B, Sun Y, Li C, et al. (2013) Bisphenol A accelerates
toxic amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide: a possible link
between bisphenol A exposure and type 2 diabetes. PLoS One 8: e54198.
28. Wang D, Wang Z, Tian B, Li X, Li S, et al. (2008) Two hour exposure to
sodium butyrate sensitizes bladder cancer to anticancer drugs. Int J Urol 15:
29. Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Levine B (2010) Methods in Mammalian
Autophagy Research. Cell.
30. Manov I, Pollak Y, Broneshter R, Iancu TC (2011) Inhibition of doxorubicininduced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells by sorafenib–the
role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase counteraction. FEBS J 278: 3494–
31. Von Hoff DD, Layard MW, Basa P, Davis HL, Jr., Von Hoff AL, et al. (1979)
Risk factors for doxorubicin-induced congestive heart failure. Ann Intern Med
91: 710–717.
32. Shan K, Lincoff AM, Young JB (1996) Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.
Ann Intern Med 125: 47–58.
33. Nobili S, Landini I, Giglioni B, Mini E (2006) Pharmacological strategies for
overcoming multidrug resistance. Curr Drug Targets 7: 861–879.
34. Szeto J, Kaniuk NA, Canadien V, Nisman R, Mizushima N, et al. (2006) ALIS
are stress-induced protein storage compartments for substrates of the proteasome
and autophagy. Autophagy 2: 189–199.
35. Escalante AM, McGrath RT, Karolak MR, Dorr RT, Lynch RM, et al. (2013)
Preventing the autophagic survival response by inhibition of calpain enhances
the cytotoxic activity of bortezomib in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Chemother
Pharmacol 71: 1567–1576.
36. Han W, Sun J, Feng L, Wang K, Li D, et al. (2011) Autophagy inhibition
enhances daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in K562 cells. PLoS One 6: e28491.
37. Liu F, Liu D, Yang Y, Zhao S (2013) Effect of autophagy inhibition on
chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells. Oncol Lett 5: 1261–
38. Pan Y, Gao Y, Chen L, Gao G, Dong H, et al. (2011) Targeting autophagy
augments in vitro and in vivo antimyeloma activity of DNA-damaging
chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res 17: 3248–3258.
39. Carew JS, Kelly KR, Nawrocki ST (2012) Autophagy as a target for cancer
therapy: new developments. Cancer Manag Res 4: 357–365.
40. Stelton CR, Connors DB, Walia SS, Walia HS (2013) Hydrochloroquine
retinopathy: characteristic presentation with review of screening. Clin Rheumatol 32: 895–898.
41. Ermakova SP, Kang BS, Choi BY, Choi HS, Schuster TF, et al. (2006) (-)Epigallocatechin gallate overcomes resistance to etoposide-induced cell death by
targeting the molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78. Cancer Res 66:
42. Chen TC, Wang W, Golden EB, Thomas S, Sivakumar W, et al. (2011) Green
tea epigallocatechin gallate enhances therapeutic efficacy of temozolomide in
orthotopic mouse glioblastoma models. Cancer Lett 302: 100–108.
43. Abbas S, Wink M (2010) Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits beta amyloid
oligomerization in Caenorhabditis elegans and affects the daf-2/insulin-like
signaling pathway. Phytomedicine 17: 902–909.
44. Zheng J, Lee HC, Bin Sattar MM, Huang Y, Bian JS (2011) Cardioprotective
effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte
injury. Eur J Pharmacol 652: 82–88.
45. Xu X, Chen K, Kobayashi S, Timm D, Liang Q (2012) Resveratrol attenuates
doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte death via inhibition of p70 S6 kinase 1mediated autophagy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 341: 183–195.
46. Kurahashi N, Sasazuki S, Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Tsugane S, et al. (2008) Green
tea consumption and prostate cancer risk in Japanese men: a prospective study.
Am J Epidemiol 167: 71–77.
1. Nordenstedt H, White DL, El-Serag HB (2010) The changing pattern of
epidemiology in hepatocellular carcinoma. Dig Liver Dis 42 Suppl 3: S206–214.
2. Maluccio M, Covey A (2012) Recent progress in understanding, diagnosing, and
treating hepatocellular carcinoma. CA Cancer J Clin 62: 394–399.
3. Gluer AM, Cocco N, Laurence JM, Johnston ES, Hollands MJ, et al. (2012)
Systematic review of actual 10-year survival following resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. HPB (Oxford) 14: 285–290.
4. Lin S, Hoffmann K, Xiao Z, Jin N, Galli U, et al. (2013) MEK inhibition
induced downregulation of MRP1 and MRP3 expression in experimental
hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Cell Int 13: 3.
5. Sul YH, Lee MS, Cha EY, Thuong PT, Khoi NM, et al. (2013) An ent-Kaurane
Diterpenoid from Croton tonkinensis Induces Apoptosis by Regulating AMPActivated Protein Kinase in SK-HEP1 Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull 36: 158–164.
6. Cao H, Phan H, Yang LX (2012) Improved chemotherapy for hepatocellular
carcinoma. Anticancer Res 32: 1379–1386.
7. Liang G, Tang A, Lin X, Li L, Zhang S, et al. (2010) Green tea catechins
augment the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in an in vivo mouse model for
chemoresistant liver cancer. Int J Oncol 37: 111–123.
8. Bhutia SK, Mukhopadhyay S, Sinha N, Das DN, Panda PK, et al. (2013)
Autophagy: cancer’s friend or foe? Adv Cancer Res 118: 61–95.
9. Zhang G, Park MA, Mitchell C, Walker T, Hamed H, et al. (2008) Multiple
cyclin kinase inhibitors promote bile acid-induced apoptosis and autophagy in
primary hepatocytes via p53-CD95-dependent signaling. J Biol Chem 283:
10. He W, Wang Q, Srinivasan B, Xu J, Padilla MT, et al. (2013) A JNK-mediated
autophagy pathway that triggers c-IAP degradation and necroptosis for
anticancer chemotherapy. Oncogene.
11. Lee AJ, Roylance R, Sander J, Gorman P, Endesfelder D, et al. (2012) CERT
depletion predicts chemotherapy benefit and mediates cytotoxic and polyploidspecific cancer cell death through autophagy induction. J Pathol 226: 482–494.
12. Zhu L, Du H, Shi M, Chen Z, Hang J (2013) ATG7 deficiency promote
apoptotic death induced by Cisplatin in human esophageal squamous cell
carcinoma cells. Bull Cancer.
13. Kang R, Tang D (2012) Autophagy in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and
treatment. Am J Cancer Res 2: 383–396.
14. Xie BS, Zhao HC, Yao SK, Zhuo DX, Jin B, et al. (2011) Autophagy inhibition
enhances etoposide-induced cell death in human hepatoma G2 cells. Int J Mol
Med 27: 599–606.
15. Selvakumaran M, Amaravadi RK, Vasilevskaya IA, O’Dwyer PJ (2013)
Autophagy inhibition sensitizes colon cancer cells to antiangiogenic and
cytotoxic therapy. Clin Cancer Res 19: 2995–3007.
16. Choi JH, Yoon JS, Won YW, Park BB, Lee YY (2012) Chloroquine enhances
the chemotherapeutic activity of 5-fluorouracil in a colon cancer cell line via cell
cycle alteration. APMIS 120: 597–604.
17. Xu N, Zhang J, Shen C, Luo Y, Xia L, et al. (2012) Cisplatin-induced
downregulation of miR-199a-5p increases drug resistance by activating
autophagy in HCC cell. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 423: 826–831.
18. Humbert M, Medova M, Aebersold DM, Blaukat A, Bladt F, et al. (2013)
Protective autophagy is involved in resistance towards MET inhibitors in human
gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 431: 264–269.
19. Shi YH, Ding ZB, Zhou J, Hui B, Shi GM, et al. (2011) Targeting autophagy
enhances sorafenib lethality for hepatocellular carcinoma via ER stress-related
apoptosis. Autophagy 7: 1159–1172.
20. Shimizu S, Takehara T, Hikita H, Kodama T, Tsunematsu H, et al. (2012)
Inhibition of autophagy potentiates the antitumor effect of the multikinase
inhibitor sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer 131: 548–557.
21. Kuo PL, Lin CC (2003) Green tea constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
inhibits Hep G2 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through p53-dependent
and Fas-mediated pathways. J Biomed Sci 10: 219–227.
22. Tu SH, Ku CY, Ho CT, Chen CS, Huang CS, et al. (2011) Tea polyphenol (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits nicotine- and estrogen-induced alpha9nicotinic acetylcholine receptor upregulation in human breast cancer cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res 55: 455–466.
23. Hashimoto K, Sakagami H (2008) Induction of apoptosis by epigallocatechin
gallate and autophagy inhibitors in a mouse macrophage-like cell line.
Anticancer Res 28: 1713–1718.
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771
Autophagy Inhibition Contributes to Kill Hepatoma
47. Schramm L (2013) Going Green: The Role of the Green Tea Component
EGCG in Chemoprevention. J Carcinog Mutagen 4: 1000142.
48. Shimizu M, Fukutomi Y, Ninomiya M, Nagura K, Kato T, et al. (2008) Green
tea extracts for the prevention of metachronous colorectal adenomas: a pilot
study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17: 3020–3025.
49. Tsao AS, Liu D, Martin J, Tang XM, Lee JJ, et al. (2009) Phase II randomized,
placebo-controlled trial of green tea extract in patients with high-risk oral
premalignant lesions. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2: 931–941.
January 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e85771