Preview - Magnolia Press

Zootaxa 3919 (3): 573–582 /zootaxa /
Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Contribution to the knowledge of Patagonia, Argentina: redescription of the
genus Xenogenus Berg 1883 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhopalidae)
and description of immature stages of Xenogenus gracilis Reed, 1899
Universidad Nacional de La Pampa. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Uruguay 151 L6300CLB, Santa Rosa, La Pampa.
Argentina. E-mail: [email protected],
Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. División Entomología. Paseo del Bosque s/n 1900, La
Plata, Buenos Aires. Argentina. E-mail: [email protected]
This is a review of Xenogenus Berg 1883 a Neotropical genus with two species: X. gracilis Reed (1899) and X. picturatum
Berg 1883. Males of X. picturatum, males and females of X. gracilis are redescribed and illustrated; instars II–V of X.
gracilis are described and illustrated. The host plant and new record data are also given for the latter.
Key words: Nymphs, Host plant, Xenogenus gracilis, Xenogenus picturatum.
The Rhopalidae has often been considered to be a subfamily of an inclusive Coreidae, but Chopra (1967) treated it
as a distinct family. Chopra (1967) also presented a revision of the Rhopalidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), including
keys to subfamilies, tribes, and genera. Göllner-Scheiding (1983) published a world catalog of the family. The
family is a monophyletic group (Xinzheng Li 1996) and consists of two subfamilies: Rhopalinae and Serinethinae
(Chopra 1967; Göllner-Scheiding 1983). Schaefer (1993) wrote about the origins and biogeography of the
Rhopalinae in the New World. Rhopalinae have six tribe, Corizomorphini Chopra, Chorosomatini Douglas &
Scott, Harmostini Stål, Maccevethini Chopra, Niesthrini Chopra and Rhopalini Amyot & Serville. The genus
Xenogenus is a Chorosomatini (Schaefer 1994) with two species: X. gracilis (Reed 1899) and X. picturatum Berg
1883. The former occurs only in South America, whereas the latter is widespread throughout the New World
(Schaefer 1993). Both species are present in Argentina (Coscarón submited). Berg (1883) described X. picturatum.
Reed (1899) described Harmostes gracilis. Later, Harris (1942) transferred Harmostes gracilis to the genus
Xenogenus. The two species are very similar to each another (Göllner-Scheiding 1980).
Until now, worldwide contributions on nymphs have included Arhyssus hirtus (Torre-Bueno) (Wheeler &
Henry 1984), A. lateralis (Say) (Paskewitz & McPherson 1983), Esperanza texana Barber (Wheeler & Henry
1984), Harmostes (Harmostes) reflexulus (Say) (Yonke & Walker 1970), Liorhyssus hyalinus (Fabricius) (Cornelis
et al. 2012), Niesthrea louisianica Sailer (Wheeler 1977), Rhopalus (Brachycarenus) trigrinus (Schilling)
(Wheeler & Hoebeke 1988) and R. (Rhopalus) parumpunctatus Schill (Stroyan 1954).
In the present work, we give a diagnosis of Xenogenus, redescribe its species and describe the nymphs from
instars II–V of Xenogenus gracilis. New distributional records are provided, and Salsola is recorded as a new host
Material and methods
Specimens were collected with a garden vacuum model 56/86 Stihl and sweep-net with a diameter of 35 cm in
Accepted by D. Rider: 5 Jan. 2015; published: 18 Feb. 2015
The color of antennae, pronotum and the distribution of red dots are not reliable characters to differentiate
these two species. We expand the distributions of both species to southern Argentina. The southern limit of
distributions of both species is between latitudes 42°S and 43°S in the province of Chubut.
This research was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET),
Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica from Argentina and Universidad Nacional de La Pampa
(UNLPam), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales.
Berg, C. (1883) Addenda et emendanda ad Hemiptera Argentina. Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, 15, 241–269.
Chopra, N.P. (1967) The higher classification of the Family Rhopalidae (Hemiptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological
Society of London, 119, 363–399.
Cornelis, M., Quirán, E. & Coscarón, M.C. (2012) The scentless plant bug, Liorhyssus hyalinus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera:
Heteroptera: Rhopalidae): Description of immature stages and notes on its life history. Zootaxa, 3525, 83–88.
Coscarón, M.C. (submitted) Rhopalidae. Catalogue of the Heteroptera or true bugs of Argentina. Zootaxa.
Coscarón, M.C., Diez, F., Basset, C. & Lopez, N. (2014) Heteroptera. A web resource for Heteroptera types from Museum of
La Plata. Avaliable from: (accessed 31 October 2014)
Distant, W.L. (1880–1893) Biologia Centrali Americana. Insecta. Rhynchota. Hemiptera-Heteroptera, 1. In: Godman, F. &
Salvin, O. (Eds.), Biologia Centrali-Americana. London, pp. i–xx, 1–462 pp., plates 1–39. [1893, 369–462]
Dellapé, P.M. & Carpintero, D.L. (2012) Relevamiento de los Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) de las Sierras de Tandil,
provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 14, 125–134.
Göllner-Scheiding, U. (1980) Einige bemerkungen zu den gattungen Corizus Fallén, 1814, und Xenogenus Berg, 1883
(Heteroptera, Rhopalidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 54, 111–121.
Göllner-Scheiding, U. (1983) General-katalog der Familie Rhopalidae (Heteroptera). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen
Museum in Berlin, 59, 37–189.
Harris, H.M. (1942) The Chilean Rhopalidae in the Edwyn C. Reed collection (Hemiptera). Iowa State College Journal of
Science, 16, 357–362.
Li, X. (1996) Cladistic analysis and higher classification of Coreoidea (Heteroptera). Entomologia Sinica, 3, 283–292.
Maes, J.M. & Göllner-Scheiding, U. (1993) Catalogo de los Coreoidea (Heteroptera) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaragüense de
Entomología, 25, 1–19.
Pall, J.L. & Coscarón, M.C. (2012) The Rhopalidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Argentina. Journal of Natural History, 46,
Pall, J.L., Quirán, E.M. & Coscarón, M.C. (2013) New records of species of the family Rhopalidae (Heteroptera) in the
province of La Pampa (Argentina). Munis Entomology & Zoology Journal, 8, 382–386.
Pennington, M.S. (1922) Notas sobre coreidos Argentinos. Physis, 5, 125–170.
Paskewitz, S.M. & McPherson, J.E. (1983) Life history and laboratory rearing of Arhyssus lateralis (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae)
with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 76, 477–482.
Reed, E.C. (1899) Sinopsis de los Hemipteros de Chile, Primera parte (continuación). Revista chilena de historia natural, 3,
37–49. 32–38. Available from: (accessed 1 September 2014)
Schaefer, C.W. (1993) Origins of the New World Rhopalinae (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of
America, 86, 127–133.
Schaefer, C.W. (1994) The tribal placement of Xenogenus (Hemiptera, Rhopalidae, Rhopalinae). Proceedings of the
Entomological Society of Washington, 96, 723–725.
Schaefer, C.W. & Chopra, N.P. (1982) Cladistic analysis of the Rhopalidae, with a list of food plants. Annals of the
Entomological Society of America, 75, 224–233.
Schaefer, C.W. & Mitchell, P.L. (1983) Food plants of the Coreoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Annals of the Entomological
Society of America, 76, 591–615.
Stroyan, H.L.G. (1954) Notes on the early stages of Rhopalus parumpunctatus Schill. (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Proceedings of
the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series A (General Entomology), 29, 32–38.
Zootaxa 3919 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press ·
Torre-Bueno, J.R de la (1941) Help notes toward a revision of the genus Harmostes Burm. 1835. Bulletin of the Brooklyn
Entomological Society, 36, 82–101.
Uhler, P.R.(1893) A list of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera collected in the Island of St. Vincent by Mr Herbert H. Smith; with
descriptions of new genera and species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1893, 705–719.
Wheeler, A.G., Jr. (1977) Life history of Niesthrea louisianica (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) on rose of Sharon in North Carolina.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 70, 631–634.
Wheeler, A.G., Jr. & Henry, T.J. (1984) Host plants, distribution, and description of fifth-instar nymphs of two little-known
Heteroptera, Arhyssus hirtus (Rhopalidae) and Esperanza texana (Alydidae). Florida Entomologist, 67, 521–529.
Wheeler, A.G. Jr. & Hoebeke, R.E. (1988) Biology and seasonal history of Rhopalus (Brachycarenus) tigrinus, with
descriptions of immature stages (Heteroptera: Rhopalidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 96, 381–389.
Yonke, T.R. & Walker, D.L. (1970) Field history, parasites, and biology of Harmostes reflexulus (Say) (Hemiptera:
Rhopalidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 43, 444–450.
582 · Zootaxa 3919 (3) © 2015 Magnolia Press