Tilmicosin/Trimethoprim 355

Tilmicosin/Trimethoprim 355
py may predispose to toxicity (see Uses and Administration of Gentamicin Sulfate, p.284).
Tobramycin may be used as a 0.3% eye ointment or
eye drops in the treatment of eye infections. It is also
given by inhalation in patients with cystic fibrosis to
control Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in a dose
of 300 mg every 12 hours for 28 days using a suitable
nebuliser. Treatment is then stopped for 28 days before
being resumed for another treatment period. This cycle
may be repeated indefinitely.
◊ Reviews.
1. Cheer SM, et al. Inhaled tobramycin (TOBI ): a review of its use
in the management of pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Drugs 2003; 63: 2501–20.
Tosufloxacin Tosilate (rINNM)
A-64730; T-3262; Tosilato de tosufloxacino; Tosufloxacin Tosylate; Tosufloxacine, Tosilate de; Tosufloxacini Tosilas. Tosufloxacin toluene-4-sulphonate monohydrate.
Тосуфлоксацина Тозилат
C 19 H 15 F 3 N 4 O 3,C 7 H 8 O 3 S,H 2 O = 594.6.
C AS — 115964-29-9; 144742-63-2.
Tosufloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial with properties
similar to those of ciprofloxacin (p.243). It is given orally as the
tosilate in the treatment of susceptible infections in usual doses
of 300 to 450 mg daily in 2 or 3 divided doses.
For blepharitis, conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers, and other eye infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria, eye drops containing 0.3% of tosufloxacin tosilate are used.
Proprietary Preparations (details are given in Part 3)
Jpn: Ozex.
BP 2008: Tobramycin Injection;
USP 31: Tobramycin and Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Ointment; Tobramycin and Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Suspension; Tobramycin and
Fluorometholone Acetate Ophthalmic Suspension; Tobramycin for Injection; Tobramycin Inhalation Solution; Tobramycin Injection; Tobramycin
Ophthalmic Ointment; Tobramycin Ophthalmic Solution.
Proprietary Preparations (details are given in Part 3)
Arg.: Bioptic; Fotex; Gotabiotic; Gotabiotic D; Klonamicin; Oftalbrax†; Radina; Tobi; Tobrabiotic; Tobradosa; Tobragan; Tobranet; Tobrex; Toflamixina;
Tuberbut; Xao T; Xibrax; Austral.: Nebcin; Tobi; Tobrex; Austria: Brulamycin; Cromycin; Tobi; Tobrasix; Tobrex; Belg.: Obracin; Tobi; Tobrex; Braz.:
Tobra-M†; Tobracin; Tobragan; Tobramina; Tobranom; Tobrex; Toflamixina†; Canad.: Nebcin†; Tobi; Tobrex; Tomycine†; Chile: Tobragan; Tobrex;
Tobrin; Xolof; Cz.: Bramitob; Brulamycin; Tobi; Tobrex; Denm.: Nebcina;
Tobi; Tobrex; Fin.: Nebcina†; Tobi; Tobrex; Tomycin; Fr.: Nebcine; Tobi;
Tobrex; Ger.: Brulamycin†; Gernebcin; Tobi; Tobra-cell; Tobramaxin; Gr.:
Colther; Eyebrex; Eyetobrin; Ikobel; Monobracin†; Monotobrin; Nebcin;
Thilo-micine; Tobi; Tobrex; Hong Kong: Nebcin†; Tobrex; Toracin; Hung.:
Brulamycin; Tobi; Tobrex; India: Ocutob; Tobacin; Tobazon; Tobraneg; Indon.: Bralifex; Dartobcin; Isotic Tobryne; Tobrex; Tobryne; Irl.: Nebcin†;
Tobi; Tobralex†; Israel: Nebcin†; Tobi; Tobrex; Ital.: Bramicil; Bramitob;
Nebicina; Tobi; Tobrabact; Tobral; Tobrastill; Malaysia: Tobrex; Mex.: Eyebrex; Micitrex; Obry; Tobra†; Tobrex; Trazil; Verbram; Neth.: Obracin; Tobi; Tobrabact; Tobrex; Norw.: Nebcina†; Tobi; Tobrex; NZ: Nebcin; Tobi†;
Tobrex; Philipp.: Ramitop; Tobrex; Pol.: Tobi; Tobrex; Tobrosopt; Port.:
Bramitob; Distobram†; Tobi; Tobra-Gobens; Tobrex; Tobrexan; Tobridavi;
Rus.: Brulamycin (Бруламицин); Tobrex (Тобрекс); S.Afr.: Nebcin; Tobrex; Singapore: Tobrex; Spain: Tobi; Tobra Gobens; Tobrabact; Tobradistin†; Tobrex; Tobrexan; Swed.: Nebcina; Tobi; Tobrex; Switz.: Obracin; Tobi; Tobrex; Thai.: Tobrex; Turk.: Thilomaxine; Tobel; Tobrased; Tobrex;
Tobsin; UK: Nebcin†; Tobi; USA: AkTob; Nebcin†; Tobi; Tobrasol; Tobrex;
Venez.: Poentobral; Tobranax; Tobrasol; Tobrex; Trazil†.
Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Antibioptal; Bicrinol; Biocort; Bioptic DX; Decadron con Tobramicina; Fotadex; Gotabiotic F; Ingebrax; Klonamicin Compuesto; Larsen; Lotemicin; Polioftal; Radina Dex; Tobrabiotic D; Tobracort;
Tobradex; Tobradiclo; Tobragan D; Tobratlas; Toflam; Toflamixina Plus; XaoDex†; Xibradex; Austria: Tobradex; Belg.: Ocubrax; Tobradex; Braz.: Tobracin D; Tobracort; Tobradex; Canad.: Tobradex; Chile: Poentobral Plus;
Tobradex; Tobragan D; Tobrin-D; Todexona; Xolof D; Cz.: Tobradex; Fr.:
Tobradex; Gr.: Dexamycin; Eyebrex-Dexa†; Lofoto; O-Biotic; Thilomicine
Dex; Tobradex; Tobrafen; Hong Kong: Tobradex; Hung.: Ocubrax†;
Tobradex; India: Obrasone; Ocutob-D; Tobazon DM; Indon.: Bralifex
Plus; Isotic Tobrizon; Tobradex; Ital.: Tobradex; Malaysia: Tobradex;
Mex.: Obrydex; Obrypre; Tobracort; Tobradex; Trazidex; Trazinac; Neth.:
Tobradex; NZ: Tobradex; Philipp.: Tobradex; Pol.: Tobradex; Rus.:
Tobradex (Тобрадекс); Tobrasone (Тобразон); S.Afr.: Tobradex; Singapore: Tobradex; Spain: Ocubrax; Tobradex; Switz.: Tobradex; Tobrafen;
Thai.: Tobradex; Turk.: Ocubrax; UK: Tobradex; USA: Tobradex; Venez.:
Poentobral Plus; Tobracort; Tobradex; Tobragan D; Todenac; Todex; Trazidex; Trazinac.
Trimethoprim (BAN, USAN, rINN)
BW-56-72; NSC-106568; Triméthoprime; Trimethoprimum; Trimethoxyprim; Trimetopriimi; Trimetoprim; Trimetoprima; Trimetoprimas. 5-(3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine.
C 14 H 18 N 4 O 3 = 290.3.
C AS — 738-70-5.
ATC — J01EA01.
ATC Vet — QJ01EA01; QJ51EA01.
Compounded preparations of trimethoprim may be represented by the following names:
• Co-trifamole (BAN)—trimethoprim 1 part and sulfamoxole 5
parts (see p.257)
• Co-trimazine (BAN)—trimethoprim 1 part and sulfadiazine 5
parts (see p.258)
• Co-trimoxazole (BAN)—trimethoprim 1 part and sulfamethoxazole 5 parts (see p.258)
• Co-trimoxazole (PEN)—trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole.
Pharmacopoeias. In Chin., Eur. (see p.vii), Int., US, and Viet.
Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Trimethoprim). A white or yellowish-white powder. Very slightly soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol.
USP 31 (Trimethoprim). White to cream-coloured, odourless
crystals or crystalline powder. Very slightly soluble in water;
slightly soluble in alcohol and in acetone; soluble in benzyl alcohol; practically insoluble in carbon tetrachloride and in ether;
sparingly soluble in chloroform and in methyl alcohol. Store in
airtight containers. Protect from light.
Trimethoprim Sulfate (USAN, rINNM)
Tosufloxacin (USAN, rINN)
A-61827; Abbott-61827; Tosufloxacine; Tosufloxacino; Tosufloxacinum. (±)-7-(3-Amino-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic
C 19 H 15F 3 N 4 O 3 = 404.3.
C AS — 100490-36-6 (anhydrous tosufloxacin); 10813846-1 (anhydrous tosufloxacin); 107097-79-0 (tosufloxacin
Incompatibility. UK licensed product information states that
trimethoprim injections (containing the lactate) should not be
mixed with solutions of sulfonamides because of incompatibility. Although a former such preparation stated that it should not
be diluted in chloride-containing infusion solutions, because of
the risk of precipitating trimethoprim hydrochloride, others are
stated to be compatible with sodium chloride 0.9% and some
other chloride-containing solutions including Ringer’s solution.
Injections are considered compatible with glucose 5% and with
sodium lactate.
BW-72U; Sulfato de trimetoprima; Trimethoprim Sulphate
(BANM); Triméthoprime, Sulfate de; Trimethoprimi Sulfas; Trimetoprim Sülfat.
Триметоприма Сульфат
(C 14 H 18 N 4 O 3 ) 2 .H 2 SO 4 = 678.7.
C AS — 56585-33-2.
Pharmacopoeias. In Viet. and US.
USP 31 (Trimethoprim Sulfate). A white to off-white crystalline
powder. Soluble in water, in alcohol, in dilute mineral acids, and
in fixed alkalis. pH of a 0.05% solution in water is between 7.5
and 8.5. Store at a temperature of 25°, excursions permitted between 15° and 30°.
Adverse Effects and Treatment
Trimethoprim is reasonably well tolerated in general,
and the most frequent adverse effects at usual doses are
pruritus and skin rash (in about 3 to 7% of patients) and
The symbol † denotes a preparation no longer actively marketed
mild gastrointestinal disturbances including nausea,
vomiting, and glossitis.
Rarely, more severe effects have been reported. Sulfonamide-like skin reactions including exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have occurred.
Disturbances of liver enzyme values and cholestatic
jaundice have been associated with trimethoprim. Rises in serum creatinine and blood-urea nitrogen have
been reported although it is unclear whether this represents genuine renal dysfunction or inhibition of tubular
secretion of creatinine. Photosensitivity has been reported. Fever is not uncommon but occasionally hypersensitivity reactions may be severe and anaphylaxis
and angioedema have been reported. Cases of aseptic
meningitis have also occurred.
Trimethoprim may cause a depression of haematopoiesis due to interference of the drug in the metabolism
of folic acid, particularly when given over a prolonged
period or in high doses. This may manifest as megaloblastic anaemia, or as thrombocytopenia and leucopenia; methaemoglobinaemia has also been seen. Calcium folinate 5 to 15 mg daily by mouth may be given to
counter this effect. Trimethoprim is teratogenic in animals.
For further information on the adverse effects of trimethoprim when used with sulfamethoxazole, see Cotrimoxazole, p.258.
Effects on the eyes. There have been isolated reports of bilateral anterior uveitis associated with trimethoprim. In 2 such patients,1,2 the reaction recurred upon rechallenge with trimethoprim. A third patient developed uveitis after co-trimoxazole, and
subsequently uveitis with retinal haemorrhage following trimethoprim alone.3
1. Gilroy N, et al. Trimethoprim-induced aseptic meningitis and
uveitis. Lancet 1997; 350: 112.
2. Arola O, et al. Arthritis, uveitis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome
induced by trimethoprim. Lancet 1998; 351: 1102.
3. Kristinsson JK, et al. Bilateral anterior uveitis and retinal haemorrhages after administration of trimethoprim. Acta Ophthalmol
Scand 1997; 75: 314–15.
Hyperkalaemia. Trimethoprim has been reported to induce
hyperkalaemia,1 particularly in HIV-infected patients being
treated for pneumocystis pneumonia or in the elderly. The hyperkalaemia may be due to amiloride-like potassium-sparing properties of trimethoprim, and may be potentiated by ACE inhibitors.
1. Perazella MA. Trimethoprim-induced hyperkalaemia: clinical
data, mechanism, prevention and management. Drug Safety
2000; 22: 227–36.
Trimethoprim should not be given to patients with a
history of hypersensitivity to the drug, and it should be
stopped if a skin rash appears. Care is necessary in giving trimethoprim to patients with renal impairment to
avoid accumulation and toxicity: it should not be given
in severe renal impairment unless blood concentrations
can be monitored. It should be used with caution in patients with severe hepatic damage as changes may occur in the absorption and metabolism of trimethoprim.
It is suggested that regular haematological examination
should be made during prolonged courses of treatment
although the BNF considers evidence of their practical
value to be unsatisfactory; patients or their carers
should be told how to recognise signs of blood toxicity
and should be advised to seek immediate medical attention if symptoms such as fever, sore throat, rash,
mouth ulcers, purpura, bruising or bleeding develop.
Trimethoprim should not usually be given to patients
with serious haematological disorders and particularly
not in megaloblastic anaemia secondary to folate depletion. Care should be taken in patients with actual, or
possible, folate deficiency and use of folinic acid
should be considered. Trimethoprim should be avoided
during pregnancy. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to adverse effects and a lower dosage may be
Trimethoprim may interfere with some diagnostic
tests, including serum-methotrexate assay where dihydrofolate reductase is used and the Jaffé reaction for
The symbol ⊗ denotes a substance whose use may be restricted in certain sports (see p.vii)