Tars and Tar Oils/Titanium Dioxide 1617
Austria: Exorex; Braz.: Ionil-T Plus†; Tarflex; Theratar; Canad.: Balnetar;
Doak-Oil; Estar†; Mazon Medicated Soap; Neutrogena T/Gel; Neutrogena
T/Gel Therapeutic; Pentrax; Spectro Tar†; Targel; Tersa-Tar; Chile: DHS Tar
Gel; Neutrogena Shampoo Neutar; Psorigel†; Tarmed; Tigel IRM; Cz.: Delatar; Teer-Linola-Fett N†; Denm.: Basotar†; Fr.: Caditar; Ger.: Basiter†;
Berniter; Hoepixin Bad N†; Lorinden Teersalbe; Tarmed; Teer-Linola-Fett;
Gr.: Exorex; Ionil; Tarmed; Hong Kong: Pinetarsol; Zetar; Irl.: Alphosyl†;
Exorex; Pentrax; Psoriderm; Israel: Alphosyl 2 in 1; Denorex†; T/Gel; Ital.:
Konor; Shampoo SDE Tar†; Malaysia: Pin-Xol; Pinetarsol; Mex.: Ionil-T
Plus; Shampoo Tersa-Tar†; Tarmed; Neth.: Exorex; Norw.: Soraderm†;
NZ: Pinetarsol; Psorigel†; Pol.: Delatar; Freederm Tar; Polytar; Port.: Neutar; Tarmed; Rus.: Freederm Tar (Фридерм Деготь); S.Afr.: Alphosyl;
Denorex; Exarex†; Linotar; Singapore: Pinetarsol; Spain: Alfitar; Alphosyl;
Piroxgel; Psoriasdin; Tar Isdin Champu; Tarmed; Tejel; UK: Alphosyl 2 in 1;
Carbo-Dome; Clinitar; Exorex; Pentrax; Pinetarsol; Psoriderm; T/Gel; USA:
Balnetar; Creamy Tar; DHS Tar; Estar†; Fototar; Ionil-T Plus; MG217 Medicated; Neutrogena T/Gel; Oxipor VHC; PC-Tar; Pentrax; Polytar; Psorigel†; Taraphilic; Tegrin; Tera-Gel; Zetar; Venez.: Alma-Tar†.
Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Acnetrol; Adop-Tar†; Aeroseb; Champuacid;
Cicatrol; Confor-Tar†; Cremsor N; Domtisona†; Eurocoal; Farm-X; Hyaluron; Ingemet; Ionil-T; Laurinol Plus; Medic†; Mencogrin; Mencogrin AP;
Oilalfo; Sequals G; Sorsis; Sorsis Beta; Austral.: Alphosyl; Eczema Cream;
Egopsoryl TA; ER Cream†; Fongitar; Hamilton Pine Tar with Menthol; IonilT; Neutrogena T/Sal†; Pinetarsol; Polytar; Psor-Asist; Sebitar; Tarband†;
Austria: Alphosyl; Alpicort; Locacorten Tar; Belg.: Locacortene Tar†;
Braz.: Hebrin; Ionil-T; Polytar; Xarope Sao Joao†; Canad.: Boil Ease†;
Dan-Tar Plus; Denorex Medicated; Mazon Medicated Cream; Mazon Medicated Shampoo; Medi-Dan; Multi-Tar Plus; Oxipor; P & S Plus; Polytar; Polytar AF; Sebcur/T; Sebutone†; SJ Liniment; Spectro Tar†; Sterex; Sterex Plus;
Tardan; Targel SA; X-Seb T; X-Seb T Plus; X-Tar; Chile: Denorex Herbal†;
Ionil-T; Tarytar†; Cz.: Locacorten Tar†; Polytar; Polytar AF; Suspensio Visnevski cum Pice Liquida Herbacos; Fr.: Alphosyl†; Cystel Shampooing Antiseborrheique†; Epiphane†; Item Alphacade; Laccoderme a l’huile de cade;
Node DS; Node K; Node P; Novophane; Novophane S; Phytolithe†; Psocortene; Sebosquam; Squaphane; Squaphane E; Squaphane MasqueCreme; Squaphane P; Squaphane S; Ger.: Lorinden T†; Psorigerb N†;
Hong Kong: 2-4-2†; Cocois†; Egopsoryl TA; Fongitar; Ionil-T; Locacorten
Tar†; Multi-Tar; Polytar; Polytar Emollient; Sebitar; Hung.: Aknefug-liquid
N†; Polytar; Polytar AF; India: Derobin Skin; Ionax T; Indon.: Polytar; Irl.:
Alphosyl HC†; Capasal; Cocois; Denorex; Gelcotar†; Ionil-T†; Polytar; Polytar Emollient†; Pragmatar; Israel: Alphosyl HC†; Alphosyl†; Capasal; CT
Ointment†; CT Pommade†; CT Shampoo†; Polytar; Topicorten-Tar; Ital.:
Alphosyle†; Balta-Crin Tar†; Rivescal Tar; Malaysia: Cocois†; Egopsoryl
TA; Mentar; Polytar; Sebitar; Mex.: Antaderm; Dariseb; Dealan; Dermoscalp; Ionil-T; Jabon del Tio Nacho; Polytar; Sebryl; Sebryl Plus; Sebstopp;
Shampoo del Tio Nacho; Neth.: Denorex; NZ: Coco-Scalp; Cocois†;
Egopsoryl TA; Fongitar†; Ionil-T; Polytar; Polytar Emollient; Polytar Plus; Sebitar; Philipp.: Fongitar; Ionil-T; Polytar; Pol.: Cocois; Polytar AF; Psorisan;
Port.: Alpha Cade; Banholeum Composto; Betacade†; Edoltar†; Fongitar;
Polytar; Sucadermil; S.Afr.: Alphosyl; Fongitar; Haarlemensis; Oxipor VHC;
Polytar; SB Universal Ointment; Singapore: Denorex†; Egopsoryl TA; Fongitar; Ionil-T; Polytar; Sebitar; Spain: Alphosyl; Bazalin; Emolytar; Ionil
Champu; Ionil†; Polytar; Quinortar†; Tar Isdin Plus†; Zincation Plus; Swed.:
Alphosyl†; Switz.: Alphosyl†; Thai.: Fongitar; Ionil-T†; Polytar; Turk.: Kadolin; Wilkinson; UK: Alphosyl HC; Capasal; Cocois; Polytar AF; Polytar
Emollient; Polytar Liquid; Polytar Plus; Pragmatar†; Psorin; Sebco; Snowfire;
Varicose Ointment; USA: Boil Ease; Ionil-T; Medotar; Neutrogena T/Sal;
Sal-Oil-T; Sebex-T; SLT†; Tarlene; Tarsum; X-Seb T; X-Seb T Plus; Venez.:
Tazarotene (BAN, USAN, rINN)
AGN-190168; Tatsaroteeni; Tazaroten; Tazarotène; Tazaroteno;
Tazarotenum. Ethyl 6-[(4,4-dimethylthiochroman-6-yl)ethynyl]nicotinate.
C 21 H 21NO 2 S = 351.5.
C AS — 118292-40-3.
ATC — D05AX05.
ATC Vet — QD05AX05.
H 3C
Adverse Effects and Precautions
As for Tretinoin, p.1618.
Systemic absorption from tazarotene applied topically
is low, and the most frequent adverse effects are on the
skin; the incidence of adverse events appears to be concentration related.
Animal studies have indicated that tazarotene is fetotoxic and teratogenic, and licensed product information recommends that tazarotene should not be used
during pregnancy or in women planning a pregnancy.
Similarly, tazarotene should not be used, or used with
caution, during breast feeding, as animal data indicate
that it may be distributed into breast milk.
Effects on the skin. A 57-year-old man with diabetes and recalcitrant psoriasis on the trunk and limbs developed acute
dermatitis1 in the genital area 2 weeks after starting treatment
with topical tazarotene 0.1%. The affected areas became ulcerated over the next few days. It was suspected that accidental contact with the tazarotene that had been applied to the truncal
psoriasis was responsible. Pyogenic granuloma has been associated with topical tazarotene and other retinoids given orally or
applied topically (see Effects on the Skin, Hair, and Nails, under
Isotretinoin, p.1601).
1. Wollina U. Genital ulcers in a psoriasis patient using topical
tazarotene. Br J Dermatol 1998; 138: 713–14.
Uses and Administration
Tazarotene is a retinoid used for the topical treatment
of mild to moderate acne and plaque psoriasis, and to
treat signs of photoageing. Tazarotene is a prodrug that
is de-esterified in the skin to its active form, tazarotenic
acid. The mode of action is unknown but it appears to
modulate cell proliferation and differentiation.
In the treatment of psoriasis, tazarotene 0.05% cream
or gel is used initially and increased to 0.1% if necessary. It is applied once daily in the evening. In the UK
tazarotene is licensed for use in patients with psoriasis
affecting up to 10% of the body-surface; in the USA, it
may be used on psoriasis involving up to 20% of the
In the treatment of acne, tazarotene is applied as a
0.1% gel or cream once daily in the evening.
There may be exacerbation of acne during early treatment or of psoriasis at any time during treatment. The
treatment period is usually up to 12 weeks, although
tazarotene has been used for up to 12 months in the
treatment of psoriasis.
A 0.1% cream is used in the topical treatment of certain
signs of photoageing (facial fine wrinkling, mottled
hypo- and hyperpigmentation, and benign facial lentigines). It is applied once daily at bedtime to lightly cover
the entire face.
◊ Reviews.
1. Foster RH, et al. Tazarotene. Drugs 1998; 55: 705–11.
2. Tang-Liu DD-S, et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism of tazarotene: a novel topical treatment for acne and
psoriasis. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999; 37: 273–87.
3. Guenther LC. Optimizing treatment with topical tazarotene. Am
J Clin Dermatol 2003; 4: 197–202.
Malignant neoplasms. There has been some interest in the use
of topical tazarotene in the treatment of neoplasms affecting the
skin. Preliminary studies have reported some lesion regression or
clearance in basal cell1 and squamous cell carcinomas2 (p.673),
and mycosis fungoides3 (p.657).
1. Bianchi L, et al. Topical treatment of basal cell carcinoma with
tazarotene: a clinicopathological study on a large series of cases.
Br J Dermatol 2004; 151: 148–56.
2. Bardazzi F, et al. A pilot study on the use of topical tazarotene to
treat squamous cell carcinoma in situ. J Am Acad Dermatol
2005; 52: 1102–4.
3. Apisarnthanarax N, et al. Tazarotene 0.1% gel for refractory mycosis fungoides lesions: an open-label pilot study. J Am Acad
Dermatol 2004; 50: 600–607.
Skin disorders. Tazarotene is used for the topical treatment of
mild to moderate acne1,2 (p.1577) and plaque psoriasis3,4
(p.1583); benefit has also been reported for psoriasis of the
nails.5,6 Improvement has been reported too in keratinisation disorders such as Darier’s disease7,8 (p.1578) and congenital
ichthyosis9-11 (p.1580). Topical tazarotene can also improve
some signs of photoageing (p.1581), including fine wrinkling,
mottled hyperpigmentation, and lentigines (liver spots).12-14
1. Leyden JJ. Meta-analysis of topical tazarotene in the treatment
of mild to moderate acne. Cutis 2004; 74 (4 suppl): 9–15.
2. Shalita AR, et al. Effects of tazarotene 0.1% cream in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris: pooled results from two multicenter, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group
trials. Clin Ther 2004; 26: 1865–73.
3. Weinstein GD, et al. Tazarotene cream in the treatment of psoriasis: two multicenter, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies of the safety and efficacy of tazarotene creams
0.05% and 0.1% applied once daily for 12 weeks. J Am Acad
Dermatol 2003; 48: 760–7.
4. Dando TM, Wellington K. Topical tazarotene: a review of its
use in the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Am J Clin Dermatol
2005; 6: 255–72.
5. Scher RK, et al. Tazarotene 0.1% gel in the treatment of fingernail psoriasis: a double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled
study. Cutis 2001; 68: 355–8.
6. Bianchi L, et al. Tazarotene 0.1% gel for psoriasis of the fingernails and toenails: an open, prospective study. Br J Dermatol
2003; 149: 207–9.
7. Oster-Schmidt C. The treatment of Darier’s disease with topical
tazarotene. Br J Dermatol 1999; 141: 603–4.
8. Brazzelli V, et al. Linear Darier’s disease successfully treated
with 0.1% tazarotene gel “short-contact” therapy. Eur J Dermatol 2006; 16: 59–61.
9. Hofmann B, et al. Effect of topical tazarotene in the treatment
of congenital ichthyosis. Br J Dermatol 1999; 141: 642–6.
10. Marulli GC, et al. Type I lamellar ichthyosis improved by tazarotene 0.1% gel. Clin Exp Dermatol 2003; 28: 391–3.
11. Kundu RV, et al. Lamellar ichthyosis treated with tazarotene
0.1% gel. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55 (suppl 5): S94–S95.
The symbol † denotes a preparation no longer actively marketed
12. Phillips TJ, et al. Efficacy of 0.1% tazarotene cream for the
treatment of photodamage: a 12-month multicenter, randomized
trial. Arch Dermatol 2002; 138: 1486–93.
13. Machtinger LA, et al. Histological effects of tazarotene 0.1%
cream vs. vehicle on photodamaged skin: a 6-month, multicentre, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study in patients with photodamaged facial skin. Br J Dermatol 2004; 151:
14. Kang S, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of
tazarotene 0.1% cream in the treatment of photodamage. J Am
Acad Dermatol 2005; 52: 268–74.
Proprietary Preparations (details are given in Part 3)
Austria: Zorac; Belg.: Zorac; Braz.: Zorac†; Canad.: Tazorac; Cz.:
Tazorac; Fin.: Zorac†; Fr.: Zorac; Ger.: Zorac; Gr.: Zorac; India: La Tez;
Tazret†; Irl.: Zorac; Israel: Zorac; Ital.: Zorac; Mex.: Suretin; Pol.: Zorac;
S.Afr.: Zorak; Spain: Zorac; Swed.: Zorac†; Switz.: Zorac; UK: Zorac;
USA: Avage; Tazorac.
Thioglycollic Acid
Kwas tioglikolowy; Tioglicólico, ácido. Mercaptoacetic acid.
Тиогликолевая Кислота
C 2 H 4 O 2 S = 92.12.
C AS — 68-11-1.
Calcium Thioglycollate
Calcium Mercaptoacetate; Tioglicolato cálcico. Calcium mercaptoacetate trihydrate.
Тиогликолят Кальция
C 2 H 2 CaO 2 S,3H 2 O = 184.2.
C AS — 814-71-1.
Thioglycollic acid is used, usually as the calcium salt, in depilatory preparations. Thioglycollates are also used in hair waving or
straightening products with potassium bromate as the neutraliser.
There have been reports of skin reactions associated with the use
of thioglycollates.
Tioxolone (BAN, rINN)
OL-110; Thioxolone; Tioksolon; Tioksoloni; Tioxolon; Tioxolona; Tioxolonum. 6-Hydroxy-1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one; .
C 7 H 4 O 3 S = 168.2.
C AS — 4991-65-5.
ATC — D10AB03.
ATC Vet — QD10AB03.
Pharmacopoeias. In Pol.
Tioxolone has astringent and keratolytic effects, and has been
used topically in the treatment of various skin and scalp disorders.
Proprietary Preparations (details are given in Part 3)
Multi-ingredient: Ger.: Loscon†.
Titanium Dioxide
CI Pigment White 6; Colour Index No. 77891; E171; Oxid titaničitý; Titaanidioksidi; Titandioxid; Titán-dioxid; Titane, dioxyde
de; Titanii dioxidum; Titanio, dióxido de; Titanium Oxide; Titano
dioksidas; Titanyum Dioksit; Tytanu(IV) tlenek.
Двуокись Титана; Диоксид Титана
TiO 2 = 79.87.
C AS — 13463-67-7.
Pharmacopoeias. In Chin., Eur. (see p.vii), Jpn, and US.
Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Titanium Dioxide). A white or almost white powder. Practically insoluble in water; it does not dissolve in dilute
mineral acids but dissolves slowly in hot concentrated sulfuric
USP 31 (Titanium Dioxide). A white odourless powder. Insoluble in water, in hydrochloric acid, in nitric acid, and in 2N sulfuric acid; dissolves in hot sulfuric acid and in hydrofluoric acid; it
is rendered soluble by fusion with potassium bisulfate or with alkali hydroxides or carbonates. A 10% suspension in water is neutral to litmus.
The symbol ⊗ denotes a substance whose use may be restricted in certain sports (see p.vii)