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Effectiveness of the Global Banking
System in 2010: A Data Envelopment
Analysis approach
Ngo Thanh
Massey University, New Zealand, VNU University of Economics and
Busiess, Hanoi, Vietnam
May 2011
Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/56389/
MPRA Paper No. 56389, posted 12. June 2014 17:22 UTC
Effectiveness of the Global Banking System in 2010:
A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach
Ngo Dang-Thanh
University of Economics and Business (Vietnam National University), Hanoi, Vietnam
Massey University, Palmerston North , New Zealand
The current crisis has revealed the weaknesses of the global financial in general and its banking system in particular,
put forward a requirement for assessing the effectiveness and stability of the banking sectors across countries.
Based on available data from 64 countries over the world, the author tried to evaluate the effectiveness of the
banking sectors in those countries through the view point of the data envelopment analysis approach to define how
the global banking systems is under the effect of the current crisis. Findings from the research showed that banking
systems in advanced economies are still more effective than in developing countries. Moreover, it explained the
effect of the current financial crisis, the role of public finance (and the government), and the development of the
(privately) commercial banks to the effectiveness of the banking sectors. The research also explained some
determinants that can affect the effectiveness of the banking system, including inflation, bank concentration, and
level of economic development.
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, effectiveness, efficiency, banking, cross countries
Introduction
Because of the important role of the banking and financial system in the rapid development of new industrial
economies (NIEs) in the 1960s-1970s, there were renewed interests in the relationship between financial and
economic growth. Schumpeter (1911) argued that the role of financial intermediaries in savings mobilization,
projects evaluation and selection, risk management, entrepreneurs monitor, and facilitating transactions is
important to technological innovation and economic growth. Following this argument, many other leading
economists continuing emphasized the positively essential role of the financial sector in economic development,
including Goldsmith (1969), Shaw (1973), McKinnon (1973), King and Levine (1993a, 1993b).
Banks are the core of the financial system. They accept deposits from savers and lend them to borrowers.

Acknowledgement: I would like to offer my special thanks to Professor David Tripe at Centre for Banking studies, Massey
University, New Zealand for his supports, encouragement and useful comments. I also thank participants at the 18th Annual
Global Finance Conference in Bangkok, Thailand, April 2011 for their constructive comments and feedbacks to improve the
quality of the paper. The usual disclaimer applies.
Ngo Dang-Thanh, Lecturer, Faculty of Political Economy, University of Economics and Business (Vietnam National University);
Ph.D. candidate, Centre for Banking Studies, Massey University, NZ.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ngo Dang-Thanh, Faculty of Political Economy, University of
Economics and Business (Vietnam National University). E-mail: [email protected]
2
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
They hold liquid reserves which allowing predictable withdrawal demand. They issue liabilities which are more
liquid than the deposits. They also reduce (or some times eliminate) the need of self-finance (Bencivenga &
Smith, 1991, p. 195). Banks hold an important role within the financial system, and to some certain level,
researching the banking system therefore means researching the financial system.
Started from the bankruptcy of the Northern Rock Bank in the UK (2008, February), however, the global
financial crisis and its heavily impacts has put researchers and policy makers under the requirement of
re-assessment and re-evaluation the stability and performance of the global financial and banking system1.
A firm is effective when it reaches its target outputs. Similarly, a banking system is defined as effectiveness
if it can fulfill its missions of providing banking services and monitoring the stability of the system. Meanwhile,
if banking systems are set under similar conditions of macro- and micro-economic, the level of outcomes that a
banking system can provide (in term of services and stability) is indeed its efficiency. In this sense, the problem
of calculating effectiveness of banking systems all over the world becomes the problem of evaluating its
efficiency with a (dummy) similar and equal input. This research is a trying to define the effectiveness of the
global banking system in 2010 through analysing cross-country data observed from 64 countries, using the data
envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives some
reviews on efficiency and effectiveness evaluation in the banking sector using DEA approach. Section 3 explains
the methodologies and technical will be applied in the research. Section 4 shows empirical results and section 5
concludes.
Literature Review
To evaluate the efficiency of a set of firms (or banks), the most popular approaches are ratio analysis,
parametric analysis and nonparametric analysis (the latter two methods belongs to the X-efficiency approach).
While ratio analysis focuses on ratios between two variables (of inputs or outputs) to define the productivity and
efficiency, X-efficiency analysis evaluates the efficiency of a bank through a multi-variables aspect.
DEA is a popular nonparametric method applied in evaluating efficiency in finance and banking area. After
Farrell (1957) laid the foundation for a new approach in evaluating efficiency and productivity at micro level,
Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (1978) and then Banker, Charnes and Cooper (1984) developed the CCR and
BCC-DEA model, respectively, to evaluate the (relative) efficiencies of the researched decision making units
(DMUs). Since then, DEA was increasingly applied in efficiency evaluation, especially in social sciences2.
There are a limited number of researches using DEA to examine banking performance at cross-country
level. A study in 1997 showed that out of 130 studies on banking performance and efficiency, only six were
focused on comparing the efficiency level of banking systems across countries (Berger & Humphrey, 1997, pp.
182-184). As shown in Table 1, all three DEA studies were using small sample data at institutional (bank) level to
define the benchmark frontier, hence, the global banking system was left untouched.
1
According to Science Direct, since 2010, there are more than 2,200 journal articles regarding banking performance after the
crisis 2007-2008 (Retrieved December 20, 2010, from http://www.sciencedirect.com).
2
Recent study of Avkiran (2010) showed that there are more than 170 articles using DEA as main methodology to analyse the
efficiency of banks and banks branches, including Sherman and Gold (1985), Peristiani (1997), Schaffnit, Rosen and Paradi
(1997), and Pastor, Knox Lovell and Tulkens (2006).
3
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
In the 2000s, further studies which used common frontier approach were developed by add in the model
some environmental/controllable variables such as banking market conditions or market structure and regulation
(Kwan, 2003; Lozano-Vivas, Pastor, & Hasan, 2001; Maudos, Pastor, Perez, & Quesada, 2002; Sathye, 2005).
However, as they are also mainly focused on institutional level data while macro environment is different from
country to country, they ignored that banks which are efficient in this country may not performance well if they
run as foreign-owned banks in other countries (Berger, 2007, p. 125). Hence, while trying to examine the whole
banking systems across countries, this study attempts to overcome the above problem.
Table 1
Studies on Banking Performance at Cross-Country Level (Prior to 1997)
Authors (date)
Berg, Forsund, Hjalmarsson, &
Suominen (1993)
Fecher & Pestieau (1993)
Bergendahl (1995)
Ruthenberg & Elias (1996)
Bukh, Berg, & Forsund (1995)
J. Pastor, Perez, & Quesada (1997)
Method used
Countries included
Institution
Data envelopment analysis
Norway, Sweden, Finland
Bank
Distribution free approach
Mixed optimal strategy
Thick frontier approach
Data envelopment analysis
Data envelopment analysis
11 OECD countries
Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark
15 developed countries
Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark
08 developed countries
Financial service
Bank
Bank
Bank
Bank
Note. Source: Berger and Humphrey (1997).
As DEA evaluates the efficiency of each DMU based on the optimal multipliers (or weights) of inputs and
outputs factors, it allows us to examine the effectiveness of a banking system by looking at the achievements of
the banking sector, including both quantity (assets, deposits, credits, etc.) and quality (overhead cost,
nonperforming loans, frequency of bank crises, etc.) factors of commercial banks in the economy3. They are
chosen following 122 variables represents the stability of the global financial system (WEF, 2010, Appendix A).
However, since DEA treats those factors dynamically (meaning each country can have its own preference on
them), to be understandable in evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of the banking systems between
countries, a common preference (or common set of weights) for the above analyzed factors is required.
Therefore, in this research, the DEA model will be divided into three stages, in which the first stage conducts a
dynamic DEA model (DSW model) to define the relatively efficiencies of the banking systems from these 64
countries; the second stage examines the determinants affecting that efficiencies (Tobit model); and the third
stage defines the common set of weights for those analyzed factors (CSW model) in order to conduct the final
banking effectiveness scores.
Technical Methodologies
On the first step, DSW model is produced to calculate the maximum effectiveness scores that each country
can achieve with the observed (achievement) factors. Mahlberg and Obersteiner (2001) and Depotis (2004)
developed an input-oriented DEA-like model which treats all factors as outputs, while input is a dummy variable
(values equal to 1 for all countries). Therefore, the DSW model in this research is in fact a
3
It is important to notice that these factors are outcomes that a banking system is aiming for; hence, the DEA model in this paper
will use them all as output variables.
4
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
constant-returns-to-scale (CRS) and input-oriented DEA model. For an evaluated country j0-th, its efficiency
score (DSWj0) can be expressed by the following non-negative linear problem:
DSWj0  max
u y
v x
m
mj 0
(1)
k kj 0
Subject to:
u
m
ymj   vk xkj , 1 ≤ j ≤ n
v x  1
u  1
k
kj
m
um ≥ 0
xj = 1 {all original input values are assumed to be equal to 1}
where:
um: weight of m-th output factor;
vk: weight of k-th input factor;
xkj: k-th input of j-th country, k = 1;
ymj: m-th output of j-th country;
n: number of countries;
m: number of factors.
Due to the fact that some countries can have the same scores in this DSW model, a super efficiency DEA
model (Zhu, 2001) is also ran to determine the ranking order of the researched countries, makes it easier to
compare the effectiveness’s of the banking systems between countries.
In the next step, a Tobit regression (for more details, see Tobin, 1958) is used to determine the factors
affecting the country’s banking efficiencies (Tobit model). Since the CSW scores are bounded between 0 to 1,
non-censored regression models could be biased (Fethi & Pasiouras, 2010), while Tobit regression is justify as in
equation (2). Variables used in this model are ones that mainly related to the financial efficient of a banking
system at micro-level and are expressed in
Table 2.
EF = α + β1*CONC + β2*ROA + β3*ROE + β4*CIR + β5*INF
+ β6*CTA + β7*NIM + β8*CII + β9*GROUP
Table 2
Variables of the Tobit Model
Variables
EF
CONC
ROA
ROE
CIR
INF
CTA
Definition
CSW-DEA scores.
Bank concentration (assets of three largest banks as a share of assets of all commercial banks).
Bank’s Average Return on Assets (Net Income/Total Assets).
Bank’s Average Return on Equity (Net Income/Total Equity).
Bank’s Cost to Income ratio (Total costs as a share of total income of all commercial banks).
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %).
Bank’s capital to assets ratio (ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets).
(2)
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
NIM
CII
GROUP
5
Net Interest Margin of banks (value of bank's net interest revenue as a share of its interest-bearing assets).
Depth of credit information index (measures rules and practices affecting the coverage, scope and
accessibility of credit information).
Dummy variable of income group (equals to 0 if country belongs to Lower income, 1 if Middle income, and
2 if High income group).
The last step is to define the optimal common set of weights which should be used for compare and ranking
countries based on their banking systems’ effectiveness. It is done by applying the CSW model. It is believed that
the efficient frontier found in the DSW model in the first step is the ‘best practice frontier’ (Grosskopf &
Valdmanis, 1987; Schaffnit, Rosen, & Paradi, 1997); hence, the optimal common weight set will be the one that
get every countries’ performances closest to that frontier. There are several ways to define that common set of
weights based on this idea. While imposing bounds for factor weights, Roll and Golany (1993) found out that the
common set of weights can be defined by maximizing the average efficiency of all DMUs or maximizing the
number of efficient DMUs. Kao and Hung (2005) applied a compromise solution approach to minimize the total
squared distances between the optimal objective values (found by DEA) and the common weighted values (found
by using common set of weights). Jahanshahloo, Memariani, Lotfi and Rezai (2005) applied the multiple
objective programming approach to simultaneously maximize the performance scores to get it closes to the “best
practice frontier”. Liu and Peng (2008) applied the common weights analysis to minimize the vertical and
horizontal virtual gaps between the benchmark line (slope equals to 1.0, or performance scores equal to 1.0) and
the coordinate of common weighted DMUs. In this paper, we modified the model of Kao and Hung (2005) into a
minimum distance efficiencies model, in which the common set of weights can be defined as the one minimizing
the total distances between optimal efficiencies (DSW scores) and common weighted scores (CSW scores) of all
DMUs, under the condition that each DMU’s efficiency cannot exceed its DSW efficiency4. To understand the
role of each factor in CSW scores, another condition was added where the total sum of weights is equal to 1 (or
100%). The country’s banking effectiveness scores will be constructed based on that CSW scores and findings
from the super efficiency DEA results in the previous step. This CSW model can be expressed as a
non-negatively linear problem as follow:

min  e*j  e j

(3)
Subject to:
e*j  DSWj
ej 
u y
v x
m
mj
k
kj
,1≤j≤n
e j  e*j
v x  1
u  1
k
kj
m
um ≥ 0.015
4
This constrain makes these distances non-negative, hence, they can be used directly rather than the squared distances.
Mahlberg and Obersteiner (2001) found that restriction weights with lower bound of 0.01 steered a middle course between too
strong predetermination and too large flexibility.
5
6
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
xj = 1 {all original input values are assumed to be equal to 1}
where:
um: weight of m-th factor;
ymj: m-th factor of j-th country;
n: number of countries;
m: number of factors.
The final effectiveness scores will then be calculated follow this equation:
ES j 
u
CSW
m
ymj
(4)
where:
ESj: Effectiveness score of country j-th;
umCSW: Common weight of factor m-th;
ymj: Value of factor m-th of country j-th.
Empirical Results
In the first stage, countries and factors are collected from the database of Beck, Demirgüç-Kunt and Levine
(2000), Laeven and Valencia (2010), the World Bank (World Development Indicator, Global Development
Financial, and Doing Business databases), the International Monetary Fund (IMF, 2010), the Consultative Group
to Assist the Poor (CGAP, 2010) and Annual Reports from Central Banks of such researched countries (see Table
A). Ten factors6 are included in this research, covering both quantitative (the first 5 factors) and qualitative (the
last 5 factors) aspect of the banking sectors (see Table 3). It is important to notice that the last 3 factors are
undesirable factors (as they have negative effect to the banking effectiveness), hence, they was transformed into
desirable ones through the linear monotone decreasing transformation method7.
Table 3
Descriptive Statistics of Factors
Factors
Mean
Commercial banks’ assets/GDP
0.74
Domestic credit provided by banking sector (% of GDP)
80.21
Commercial banks' deposits/GDP
0.60
Number of ATMs per 100,000 people
28.27
Number of branches per 100,000 people
11.47
Private credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
36.72
Public credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
8.24
Banks' overhead costs/Total assets
0.22
Nonperforming loans ratios of commercial banks
17.39
Frequency of banking crises
2.92
Note. Data of the last three variables are already transformed.
6
Standard
error
0.06
8.74
0.04
4.87
1.23
4.38
1.60
0.01
0.78
0.09
Standard
deviation
0.48
69.92
0.36
38.96
9.86
35.03
12.76
0.05
6.23
0.72
Minimum
Maximum
0.09
-11.17
0.12
0.06
0.53
0
0
0
0
0
2.42
379.30
1.80
236.07
45.60
100
48.50
0.26
22.80
4.00
According to Dyson et al. (2001, p. 248) and Avkiran (2001, p. 68), one rule of thumb in using DEA is that the sample size has
to be at least 3 times bigger than the number of total inputs and outputs to overcome the discrimination problem. As we have 64
samples over 10 variables, hence, this research is justified.
7
In this method, the transformed values will be calculated by the different between a proper translation vector w with the original
values of those undesirable factors. For more details, see Seiford and Zhu (2002) and Fare and Grosskopf (2004).
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
7
As mentioned in section 3, those factors will be treated as output variables, while a dummy-input (equals to
1) will be set for the whole 64 countries. The DSW model then produces an effective frontier built from 25
countries, while the other 39 are ineffective (see Table B).
Within the ineffective ones, none of them is developed countries, suggesting that the banking systems in
advanced economies still run better than in developing countries although they had to bear stronger effect from
the current crisis. This can be explained by the different between projected values and original values of these
factors (in percentage of original values), in which the biggest differences are mainly for quantity factors, except
for the case of private credit bureau coverage. The results show that, major weaknesses of ineffective countries in
banking system development are the ATM network, bank deposits to GDP, private credit coverage, bank assets,
and bank’s domestic credits. Those are the disadvantage of developing countries as they are still on their way
developing their financial and banking systems (see Table 4).
Table 4
Differences Between Projected and Original Values for Inefficient Countries
Factors
Commercial banks' assets/GDP
Domestic credit provided by banking sector (% of GDP)
Commercial banks' deposits/GDP
Number of ATMs per 100,000 people
Number of branches per 100,000 people
Private credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
Public credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
Banks' overhead costs/Total assets
Nonperforming loans ratios of commercial banks
Frequency of banking crises
Average
Total differences
In value
21.72
2,338
21.67
1373
379.4
1,230
56.46
0.741
80.16
21.68
552.3
In percentage of original value
45.56
45.55
56.44
75.88
51.7
52.34
10.71
5.376
7.201
11.59
36.24
In the second stage, the results from Tobit model show the relation between the banking systems’
effectiveness and various variables such as Inflation level of the economy, Income group that the country belongs
to, Concentration of the banking system, etc. as summarized in Figure 1. It is obvious that higher inflation,
banking concentration, and bank’s cost-income ratio can reduce the effectiveness of the banking sector
(respectively significant at 1, 5 and 10 percent), while the high level of economic development (improving to
higher income group) can help increase the effectiveness of the banking system (5% significant level).
8
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
Figure 1. Determinants of the global banking effectiveness.
In the last stage, solving the non-linear problem of the CSW model (equation (3)) helped us defining a
common set weight for the ten factors of every country in the research (Table 5). Noticeably, important factors
which strongly affect the performance of the banking sector in those countries are Nonperforming loans ratio
(79.49%), Public credit bureau coverage (10.47%), and Number of branches per 100,000 people (3.03%). The
other factors only keep minimum role (1% weight) in the final results. It shows that the effectiveness of the
banking sector is mainly affected by the damage of the global crisis, the (financial) public policy of the
government, and the development of the commercial bank system of each country respectively. It also suggests
that the quality of the banking sector is now becoming more important than the quantity aspect, not only for
countries with developed banking systems but for developing countries as well. Thus, country which focuses on
improving the quality of its banking sector can have higher effectiveness and is more stable.
Table 5
Common set of weights for the effectiveness scores
Factors
Commercial banks' assets/GDP
Domestic credit provided by banking sector (% of GDP)
Commercial banks' deposits/GDP
Number of ATMs per 100,000 people
Number of branches per 100,000 people
Private credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
Public credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
Banks' overhead costs/Total assets
Nonperforming loans ratios of commercial banks
Frequency of banking crises
Weight
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
3.03
1.00
10.47
1.00
79.49
1.00
By applying this common set of weights, the effectiveness scores of country’s banking systems can be
calculated and countries can be ranked as in Table 6. Since nonperforming loans ratio became the most important
factor, countries having problems with NPLs became less efficient and ranked bottom in the list, including even
Denmark and New Zealand.
9
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
Table 6
The Global Banking Effectiveness in 2010
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Country
Japan
Canada
Chile
Malaysia
Australia
Switzerland
United States
Bulgaria
Argentina
Ecuador
Costa Rica
United Kingdom
Korea, Rep.
Sweden
Brazil
El Salvador
Dominican Republic
Peru
Israel
Guatemala
Singapore
Estonia
Panama
Indonesia
Turkey
South Africa
Czech Republic
Hungary
Saudi Arabia
India
Macedonia, FYR
Slovak Republic
Effectiveness score
23.231
23.231
23.231
22.275
22.177
22.079
22.037
21.755
21.671
21.461
21.421
21.415
21.066
21.060
20.968
20.232
20.070
19.907
19.735
19.626
19.326
19.276
19.085
18.993
18.749
18.538
18.302
18.233
18.045
17.921
17.842
17.750
Rank
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
Country
Kuwait
Venezuela, RB
Moldova
Lithuania
Bolivia
Croatia
Uganda
Jordan
Mozambique
Poland
Colombia
Armenia
Thailand
Russian Federation
Georgia
Morocco
Kazakhstan
Albania
Yemen, Rep.
Nigeria
Kenya
Bangladesh
Tunisia
Romania
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Mauritius
Denmark
New Zealand
Vietnam
Angola
Botswana
Sierra Leone
Effectiveness score
17.606
17.556
17.504
17.394
17.333
17.307
16.947
16.891
16.853
16.771
16.770
16.276
16.203
16.066
15.859
15.475
15.288
15.116
14.566
14.202
11.871
10.486
9.696
9.442
8.051
7.601
6.519
5.338
4.841
4.761
0.662
0.203
Conclusions
Using data from 64 countries in the world, this research applied the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to
evaluate the effectiveness of banking systems in the World in 2010. The research was divided into three steps, in
which the first stage applied data envelopment analysis method to build a common frontier for these 64 countries;
the second step detected the determinants of the banking sector’s effective; and the last step defined a common set
of weights for analyzed factors helping in ranking the effectiveness of the global banking system in 2010.
The research evaluated the effectiveness of the global banking systems using a dummy input and ten outputs
to create a common frontier for the whole banking systems of 64 countries (while previous studies used
institutional level data of smaller sample size); and after that building a common set of weights to calculate the
10
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
effectiveness scores of the global banking system, applied to the DEA method. This proposes an interesting
function for using DEA in examining the effectiveness (and efficiency) in the banking sector.
Findings from the research showed that banking systems in advanced economies are still more effective than
in developing countries. Reasons seem to be related to the development of the banking sector in quantity (number
of bank branches) and more importantly in quality aspects (including the NPL ratio, public credit bureau coverage,
bank concentration, bank’s capital, and cost-income ratio). It is also included the effect of economic development,
expresses through level of income (group) and inflation rates. These results partly explained the effect of the
current financial crisis to the banking sector, the role of public finance (and the government) in this kind of
situation, and the important role of developing commercial banking system to its efficiency and effectiveness.
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Appendix
Table A
Countries’ Data
Country
Albania
y1
0.77
y2
66.88
y3
0.74
y4
2.37
y5
2.11
y6
0.00
y7
9.90
y8
0.24
y9
16.70
y10
3.00
12
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Bangladesh
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Canada
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Estonia
Georgia
Guatemala
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Israel
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Malaysia
Mauritius
Moldova
Morocco
Mozambique
New Zealand
Nigeria
Panama
Peru
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
Sierra Leone
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
0.24
0.18
0.20
1.29
0.54
0.32
0.19
0.91
0.85
1.40
0.78
0.51
0.49
0.90
0.67
2.42
0.22
0.28
0.56
0.42
1.18
0.40
0.44
0.90
0.69
0.29
0.95
1.48
1.29
0.89
0.29
1.21
0.81
0.73
0.55
0.99
0.88
0.49
0.91
0.22
1.55
0.45
0.86
0.21
0.55
0.52
0.49
0.55
0.09
9.34
24.47
16.66
143.75
59.38
55.24
-11.17
117.85
66.74
178.07
115.92
43.26
53.90
75.09
57.98
211.45
39.06
19.76
77.70
49.94
97.26
32.87
40.11
80.70
68.35
36.75
82.16
379.30
114.92
33.51
40.09
112.32
74.92
64.37
42.70
115.54
111.78
39.76
95.54
14.14
156.45
26.73
85.41
18.51
60.06
40.91
26.03
9.42
7.35
0.24
0.20
0.12
1.14
0.51
0.38
0.58
0.66
0.77
1.04
0.55
0.22
0.25
0.77
0.62
0.72
0.21
0.28
0.75
0.42
0.48
0.22
0.37
0.50
0.70
0.33
0.87
1.80
1.09
0.39
0.29
0.59
0.71
0.36
0.56
1.09
0.86
0.45
0.94
0.29
0.96
0.26
0.88
0.26
0.42
0.32
0.36
0.53
0.15
9.58
14.91
1.37
64.18
0.06
4.80
9.00
17.82
29.79
135.23
24.03
9.60
12.83
40.10
19.57
52.39
15.08
6.32
1.78
11.07
57.70
1.17
20.20
29.40
7.29
4.84
18.81
113.75
9.38
7.01
0.99
90.03
19.69
28.78
49.97
16.44
22.04
236.07
9.68
4.90
50.36
18.63
16.19
5.85
17.31
12.47
6.28
14.70
1.14
0.60
10.01
7.59
29.86
4.47
1.53
3.77
14.59
13.87
45.60
9.39
8.74
9.59
23.36
11.15
37.63
6.00
9.30
3.62
4.62
15.19
3.14
10.12
28.25
10.64
8.44
14.74
9.98
10.02
2.47
1.38
13.40
8.27
3.39
26.79
9.80
11.92
10.07
15.80
2.92
28.04
6.42
12.87
4.17
8.17
13.76
2.24
5.36
2.76
0.00
100.00
34.50
100.00
0.00
33.90
51.90
59.20
6.20
100.00
33.90
60.50
56.00
77.00
73.10
5.20
46.10
46.00
8.20
94.60
20.60
12.20
28.40
10.30
10.20
0.00
89.80
76.20
0.00
29.50
2.30
93.80
30.40
18.40
0.00
82.00
0.00
0.00
14.00
0.00
100.00
0.00
45.90
31.80
68.30
30.20
14.30
17.90
0.00
2.50
34.30
4.40
0.00
0.90
11.60
0.00
23.70
34.80
0.00
32.90
0.00
24.30
0.00
4.90
0.00
29.70
37.20
2.50
21.00
0.00
0.00
16.90
0.00
0.00
22.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
12.10
28.10
48.50
36.80
0.00
0.00
2.30
0.00
0.00
0.00
23.00
0.00
5.70
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.23
0.18
0.22
0.24
0.24
0.21
0.22
0.14
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.21
0.15
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.13
0.22
0.22
0.23
0.17
0.18
0.01
0.00
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.21
0.25
0.23
0.24
0.22
0.24
0.24
0.21
0.25
0.20
0.25
0.23
0.19
0.23
0.24
0.18
0.18
0.25
0.16
5.34
20.60
18.90
22.80
12.10
19.00
0.00
20.20
20.90
22.20
22.30
19.30
21.80
18.40
20.00
3.30
19.80
20.80
8.50
20.50
21.40
19.20
20.90
20.30
21.00
20.10
21.80
21.60
19.10
18.20
14.30
22.20
20.20
18.70
16.50
18.50
2.50
18.10
17.30
20.50
1.70
17.00
21.60
21.10
18.90
9.50
19.50
21.90
0.00
4.00
0.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
4.00
3.00
13
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
Singapore
Slovak Republic
South Africa
Sweden
Switzerland
Thailand
Tunisia
Turkey
Uganda
United Kingdom
United States
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
Yemen, Rep.
1.10
0.55
0.95
1.40
1.89
0.84
0.62
0.51
0.22
2.08
0.73
0.38
1.24
0.13
79.17
53.80
215.47
133.43
180.59
145.65
72.04
52.54
11.45
211.35
271.64
20.49
94.99
11.29
1.18
0.49
0.67
0.57
1.31
0.79
0.52
0.42
0.20
1.71
0.83
0.39
0.93
0.21
37.93
29.21
17.50
29.56
70.60
17.05
17.69
18.00
0.70
42.45
120.94
16.60
15.36
2.75
9.13
10.28
5.99
21.80
37.99
7.18
15.51
8.50
0.53
18.35
30.86
4.41
3.42
1.97
40.30
44.00
54.70
100.00
22.50
32.90
0.00
42.90
0.00
100.00
100.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.40
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
19.90
15.90
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
19.00
0.20
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.25
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.25
0.22
0.21
0.25
0.25
21.90
20.10
19.40
22.30
22.80
17.60
7.80
19.70
21.10
21.70
20.30
21.40
2.00
18.00
Note. y1, y2,..., y10 are respectively referred to ten factors in Table 3.
Table B
Dynamic DEA Efficiencies
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Country
Moldova
Malaysia
Japan
Canada
United Kingdom
Denmark
Mauritius
Argentina
Switzerland
United States
Chile
Guatemala
Singapore
Macedonia, FYR
South Africa
New Zealand
Australia
Bulgaria
Vietnam
Sweden
Korea, Rep.
El Salvador
Botswana
Saudi Arabia
Angola
Ecuador
Yemen, Rep.
Costa Rica
Morocco
DSW score
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.985
0.984
0.980
0.972
Rank
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
Country
Thailand
India
Dominican Republic
Croatia
Panama
Czech Republic
Lithuania
Estonia
Venezuela, RB
Poland
Indonesia
Jordan
Albania
Brazil
Slovak Republic
Uganda
Bangladesh
Kuwait
Turkey
Mozambique
Kazakhstan
Nigeria
Hungary
Armenia
Bolivia
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Russian Federation
Colombia
Georgia
DSW score
0.961
0.957
0.955
0.951
0.947
0.947
0.944
0.939
0.939
0.938
0.937
0.935
0.931
0.930
0.929
0.925
0.920
0.912
0.904
0.901
0.893
0.893
0.890
0.870
0.867
0.863
0.855
0.846
0.842
4.00
3.00
4.00
2.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
14
30
31
32
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GLOBAL BANKING SYSTEM IN 2010
Tunisia
Peru
Israel
0.970
0.969
0.965
62
63
64
Note. First 25 countries are ranked based on super-efficiency DEA results.
Kenya
Romania
Sierra Leone
0.813
0.750
0.750