Full Text - Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology

Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
20th November 2014. Vol. 69 No.2
© 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1992-8645
E-ISSN: 1817-3195
Research Scholar, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, India
Associate Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Karpagam University, Coimbatore, India.
E-mail: [email protected],
[email protected],
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) consists of mobile nodes. Nodes are connected without any
infrastructure. MANET ensures that lack of infrastructure, self organization and no access point. Mobile
nodes are sharing their data whenever and wherever it’s needed. To maintain the effective data sharing, the
data replication technique is needed. The main aim of the research work is to develop the data replication
algorithm based on multicasting, data access method and power consumption in order to provide the
minimum power consumption and high data availability rate in the network. Due to the presence of the
network partition, mobile nodes in one partition are not able to access the data hosted by nodes in the other
partition. So the performance of data access is degraded. Existing methods aims at balancing trade-off
between energy consumption, data availability and delay. In proposed method we are focussing on
balancing between data accessibility, power consumption and data availability ratio. In first phase, the
multicast approach is proposed to achieve higher data availability. In second phase, the data replication
procedure is proposed to ensure the higher data replication rate. In third phase, the data accessibility
method ensures the more data accessibility rate. In fourth phase the power consumption procedure to
ensure minimum transmission and reception power. By simulation results show that the proposed scheme
achieves better performance than the existing methods like DAFN and OTOO.
Keywords: MANET, Power Consumption, Data Accessibility, End To End Delay, Overhead, Network
Lifetime, Network Partition And Data Replication Procedure.
A. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET)
A Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a
wireless network consisting of mobile nodes, which
can communicate with each other without any
infrastructure (base-stations) support. The nodes are
free to move randomly and organize themselves
arbitrarily. Every node communicates via wireless
radios that have limited transmission capabilities.
These networks introduced a new art of network
establishment and can be well suited for an
environment where either the infrastructure is lost
or where deploy an infrastructure is not very cost
effective. However in this case, the nodes are
limited to send and receive information but do not
route anything across the network. It can turn the
dream of getting connected "anywhere and at any
time" into reality. Typical application examples
include a disaster recovery or a military operation.
Not bound to specific situations, these networks
may equally show better performance in other
B. Data Availability and Need of Data Replication
Data availability means where the availability
ensures that the data can be successfully transmitted
from the source to the destination in a timely
manner. It is assumed that the application layer
does not use encryption and expects the underlying
network services to be secure. Data Replication is
technique which enhances data availability by
making copies of data items. Furthermore there are
various issues arise in MANET which leads to
problem in data replication. Replication allows
better data sharing. It is a key approach for
achieving high availability. It is suitable to improve
the response time of the access requests, to
distribute the load of processing of these requests
on several servers and to avoid the overload of the
routes of communication to a unique server.
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
20th November 2014. Vol. 69 No.2
© 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1992-8645
C. Issues concerning Data Accessibility
Data accessibility means that the number of
successfully serviced requests divided by the total
number of data item requests generated by all
mobile hosts in the network. Some of the following
major issues concerning data accessibility is given
• Frequent disconnection of mobile hosts: Mobile
hosts often get disconnected from the network due
to various factors like power failure or their
mobility. In addition, some mobile users switch
their units on and off regularly to save power,
causing more network disconnections. Servers
which hold the data cannot provide services if they
are disconnected from other mobile hosts. Thus,
ideally, the replication algorithm should be able to
determine when a particular mobile host would be
disconnected and, accordingly, replicate its data
items in a different server to improve data
• Network partitioning: Due to frequent
disconnection of mobile hosts, network partitioning
occurs more often in MANET databases than in
traditional databases. Network partitioning is a
severe problem in MANET when the server that
contains the required data is isolated in a separate
partition, thus reducing data accessibility to a large
extent. Therefore, the replication technique should
be able to determine the time at which network
partitioning might occur and replicate data items
Rashid Azeem and Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad
Khan [1] offered a survey and classification of Data
Replication techniques for MANETS Databases.
They were evaluated the present replication
techniques depend on how they addressed the
recognize matters. They have recognized
replication techniques for exacting applications.
In this survey, they explained a numeral of open
research troubles. They suggested that the
replication techniques must be capable to
approximate the workload of the server. In adding,
network partitions might reconnect after some time,
reasoning data replicated across the partitions to be
unnecessary, the replication technique should be
capable to eradicate replica doubling to progress
data ease.
Rajeev Kumar and Prashant Kumar [2] proposed
the replica allocation technique based on cluster for
MANETs. Here each mobile node is associated
with a cluster and each cluster has its cluster head
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(CH). Each CH will maintain an Available Replica
Table (ART). Whenever a node requires a new data
item then node has to send the request to the CH.
Now CH will check the id of required data item in
its ART, if found the data id, then the request is
redirected to the node with node-id pertaining to
that item-id in ART. When a node receives a data
item then, it will make a replica of it for future use
and an update message was sent to the CH.
Yang Zhang et.al [3] proposed the several data
replication schemes to improve the data availability
and reduce the query delay. The basic idea was to
replicate the most frequently accessed data locally
and only rely on neighbor’s memory when the
communication link to them was reliable. They
proposed schemes to balance the trade-offs between
data availability and query delay under different
system settings and requirements.
Nishant Gupta et.al [4] proposed an efficient data
replication technique for Mobile Ad-hoc networks
that improve data availability by considering all the
issues related with MANET such as power
consumption, resource availability, response time
and consistency management. This replication
technique made data replication effective as it
replicate data items on the basis of access frequency
of data items, current network topology and
stability of wireless links. It improved the response
time and maintained consistency. However the
performance of our Algorithm was yet to be
measured in terms of the percentage of transactions
successfully executed, energy consumption of
servers and clients, and the average difference in
energy consumption between two servers.
Kuppusamy et.al [5] proposed Adaptive Push and
Pull Algorithm for Clusters (APPC) and Cluster
Based Data Consistency (CBDC) approach to
address the consistency requirements and
maintenance in mobile ad hoc network. The Cluster
heads (CH) shared their information with neighbors
to improve the performance. Thus the cooperative
caching improved the data availability in MANET.
Also Adaptive Push and Pull Algorithms for
Cluster proposed to improve the data consistency
among the source and caching Mobile Nodes. The
combination of push and pull algorithm for clusters
improved the data consistency among source and
cache copies by associate with Time to Live (TTL)
Zeina Torbey et.al [6] presented the CReaM, a
user-Centric REplicAtion Model for mobile
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
20th November 2014. Vol. 69 No.2
© 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1992-8645
environment that gives priority to the users by
letting them determine the amount of resources they
assign to the system. In this paper, they focussed on
CReaM’s autonomic behavior that generates
replication requests based on resource monitoring
and user settings. Simulation-based evaluation of
CReaM, which shown its efficiency comparing
with a periodical model; indeed, CReaM gave the
same rate of data availability.
Hoa Ha Duong et.al [7] proposed a stable group
creation algorithm based on long lasting
connectivity. While data sharing systems for
MANET already exist, both the use of semantic
information and of temporal stability were new in
this domain. They illustrated the interest of the
proposed algorithms by showing how a wiki service
on MANETs would benefit from them. The
proposed distributed data replication algorithm to
be used for data sharing in Mobile Ad hoc
Networks (MANETs). The system replicates data
before users access them. To this purpose, it used a
predictive algorithm based on semantic information
about the user and the data and previous access
patterns. It also aimed at creating enough replicas to
prevent data loss in case a peer unexpectedly
disappears or a partition occurs.
Arathi.R.R. et.al [8] introduced the Time Based
Approach which provided the access to recent data
on demand basis. In this system, the data came
along with a time stamp. This approach provided
the data availability even with limited resources.
They considered all these issues and proposed a
new cache protocol based on time specification.
Hence any information that was accessed can be
made to be relayed along with time related
information. If this information was already present
then it checks if the received one was cached
information and if it is latest, makes an update.
Moreover since all cached information were time
specific, the information can be automatically
deleted from the cache after the speculated time
interval. This time variant may either be proposed
by the data server or by the intermediate node that
is responding to the particular information access
Takahiro Hara [9] quantified the impact of node
mobility on data availability in MANET. In mobile
ad hoc networks, there are many applications in
which mobile users share information, e.g.,
collaborative rescue operations at a disaster site and
exchange of word-of-mouth information in a
shopping mall. For such applications, improving
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data availability is a significant issue and various
studies have been conducted with this aim.
However, each of these conventional works
assumed a particular mobility model and did not
fully investigate the influence of the mobility. He
considered several factors that affect the data
Pooja Sharma et.al [11] developed Cluster based
data replication technique for MANET. In this
research work, performance analysis of existing
Cluster-based MANETs techniques based upon of
available techniques into various classes, with
respect to various issues such as Client/server
classification, Data availability and data
consistency, Partition detection, etc. is carried out.
Prashant Srinivas et.al [14] proposed an approach
to reduce the data traffic and to increase an data
available in the network. Here, each mobile node
has a buffer for temporary storing data segment for
a particular time, If a mobile node requests for a
particular data segment and the request is multi
hoped, then first request is sent to its (requester)
neighbor node, neighbor node first match requested
data segment with holed copy of data segment, if it
is matched the request will be responded by this
neighbor otherwise request will be routed to mobile
server. In this way the overhead of the server and
data traffic in the server zone will be reduced. The
proposed method reduces time consumed by
multiple nodes and data availability will be
Hauspie et al. [15] developed a new metric for
evaluating link robustness that is used to detect
network partitions without using the services of a
GPS. According to this technique, the decision to
replicate data items is taken not only at the time of
detecting a network partition, but also during the
time when the condition of the wireless connections
worsen in terms of reliability, bandwidth and delay.
This is because in high density networks, the
connection is reliable only as long as the server is
near the client as they would be separated by fewer
hops. In such a case, replicating a data service on a
host that is closer to the client enhances the chances
of the client being able to access the data on the
Chen and Nahrstedt [16] proposed a distributed
data lookup algorithm to address the issue of
identification of data availability in MANET and a
predictive data replication algorithm. This
technique uses the group-based data accessibility
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
20th November 2014. Vol. 69 No.2
© 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1992-8645
scheme. In such a scheme, a set of mobile nodes
forms a separate group and the nodes within this
group collectively host a set of data items that are
available for data access to all the other nodes of
the group, while reducing data redundancy within
that group.
Moon et al. [18] introduced an energy efficient
eager replication scheme, named E-DRM (eager
replication extended database state machine), that
have energy restrictions and achieve data
consistency across the network reducing the
number of broadcast messages.
The paper is organized as follows. The Section 1
describes introduction about MANET, issues
concerning data accessibility and need for data
availability. Section 2 deals with the previous work
which is related to data replication. Section 3 is
devoted for the implementation of DRA based on
data replica configuration. Section 4 describes the
performance analysis and the last section concludes
the work.
In the proposed algorithm, we used 4 modules to
increase the data availability ratio and minimize the
power consumption. In first module we use the
concept of multicasting approach to increase the
data availability rate. Here we use the reliable
energy efficient multicasting routing protocol to
improve energy efficiency in MANET. In second
module, we use our data replication procedure [22].
In third module, the data accessibility method is
chosen to enhance the source, destination nodes
data access level. In fourth module the power
consumption procedure is proposed to ensure
minimum power transmission at source and
destination. The description of the following
modules is follows:
A. Multicast Routing Protocol
Multicasting is another important routing
operation to transmit the message from one mobile
host to a number of mobile hosts. Many
applications require disseminating information to a
group of mobile hosts in a MANET. These
applications include distributed games, replicated
file systems, teleconferencing, etc. A single-source
multicasting in MANET is defined by delivering
multicast packets from a single-source node to all
member nodes in a multi-hop communication
manner. A multi-source multicast is the one that
each member can be the source of message sender
E-ISSN: 1817-3195
of the other members. Although multicasting can be
achieved by the multiple point-to-point routes,
constructing a multicast topology for delivering the
multicast packets always provides a better
In our proposed approach, we use reliable energy
efficient multicast protocol [32] to improve the
energy efficiency. This protocol selecting neighbors
in the multicast tree is based not only on the link
distance, but also on the error rates associated with
the link.
Let pk, l denote the packet error probability of link (k
, l ). The expected number of transmissions to
reliably transmit a single packet across this link is 1
/ (1 − pk, l). The expected energy requirements to
reliably transmit a packet across the link (k , l ). is
given by E k, l (reliable)= Ek, l /(1− pk, l ). The
computation of a minimum-cost multicast tree will
follow three steps as described below:
Step 1: Similar to Prim’s algorithm, the reliable
algorithm greedily adds links to an existing tree
such that the incremental cost is minimized.
However, because reliable protocol works on
reliable transmission costs, these costs are a
function of both the link distance and link error
rates. The RBIP algorithm iteratively adds the
minimum cost link from the set of eligible links to
an existing tree. Hereafter, an energy-efficient
broadcast tree has been formed.
Step 2: Reliable protocol prunes those nodes from
the tree that do not lead to any multicast group
member. This processing is performed in a single
post-order traversal.
Step 3: Finally, the sweep operations are performed
on the remaining tree in post-order. A node r is
transferred from being a child of its parent s to
being a child of its grandparent t if doing so reduces
overall energy requirements for reliable packet
transmission costs.
B. Data Replication Procedure
The main proposal of our Data Replication
Algorithm is to construct a data replication
configuration that will present to each mobile node
mi, an energy efficient plan on how to replicate its
local di structures. A data replication configuration
is an energy efficient (interpret, mark)-combination
that dictates how many translating and marking
operations are necessary per distance, such that this
distance can be preserved in cases of mobile node
failures. It is very important to notice that if energy
conservation was not important then we could have
opted for a scheme that replicates each distance di
to the entire network.
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
20th November 2014. Vol. 69 No.2
© 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1992-8645
The following steps to demonstrate the replica of
the data items:
Input: A mobile node mi ∈ mp, a threshold
parameter qmin representing the minimum number
of votes a mobile node must register.
Output: The data replication configuration (I,M) of
procedure DRA(mi ∈ mp)
Step 1: Find neighbor nodes of mi ∈ mc
MNH(si) Find hop-1 neighbors of mi that belong
to mc
if (|MNH(mi)| < qmin) then
MNH(mi) recursively expand neighbors
end if
Step 2: Define possible interpret and mark (i,m)combinations IM={(i, m): q_m>v/2, q_r_1,
i+m>v}, where q = |MNH(mi)|
Step 3: Eliminate redundant (i,m)-combinations
IM′={(i,m): (i,m)2IM, i+m=q+1}
Step 4: Rank the (i,m) in IM’ according to f
(ix,mx) maxi≤|IM′ |f(Ii,Mi)
Step 5: Replicate the information to neighbors
qi = select(MNH(mi),mx) // select a set of max
notify mUqi (m, di) // replicate di to these
maximum neighbors end procedure
C. Data Accessibility Method
In the Data accessibility method, each mobile host
believes the sum of the access frequencies from
itself and its nearby hosts. Here, the mobile node
may reject data items frequently accessed by itself
and replicate those frequently accessed by its
nearby hosts. Here, mobile hosts consume more
power when they access data items held by other
hosts than when they access their own data items
because the source, destination, and relaying
mobile hosts need to send and receive data items.
In order to overcome this issue, each mobile host
separately considers data accesses from itself and
those from others. So, each mobile host determines
the number of data accesses performed by itself and
its nearby hosts to each of its own data items. If the
host multiplies a weight to each of the two
calculated numbers for each data item and sums
them up. This value is used as a criterion for replica
relocation in the proposed method. The following is
the behavior of the when Mk accesses Dfresh, which is
not held by itself.
The Mobile host Mk immediately replicates Dfresh
and finishes the procedure if it has free memory
space to create the replica. Otherwise, Mk floods
mobile hosts within h(≥ 4) hops with a data
information request packet. This request packet
includes Mi’s host identifier and the list of data
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identifiers of data items held by Mk and Dfresh. If a
mobile host, Mk, receives the query packet, it
transmits a data information reply packet to Mk.
This reply packet includes the host identifiers of Mk
and Mj, access frequencies from Mk to data items
included in the request packet.
Where replication profit is derived as
(1− Dj,d )∆Fi,dj ( yi , d) yi,d < m
Wj,d ( yi, d) =  n ∑ j∈N
yi,d = m
Replication profit is defined as replicating an
additional packet of data item d to node i’s buffer,
which is determined by the popularity and
availability of the data item, and the contribution
gain that the node can provide to other nodes.
where the replication profit turns to zero if node i
has already replicated s packets of data d. The
derivation of sd and Fj,d are indicate that the
replication benefit provided by replicating a new
packet of data d on node i should be the
contribution gain that i can provide to other nodes if
they currently cannot successfully retrieve d from
the network. Here the contribution gain is
determined from the popularity of data items.
The popularity of data items is obtained where each
node maintains a data popularity table which
records the average query rate to each data item
from its local view. Each node counts the number
of pending requests it has received and calculates
the average query rate to each data item d as sd =
nd=ntotal, where nd is the number of requests for data
item d, and ntotal is the total number of requests. The
popularity of data items can be derived as,
Fi , d = ∑b = s − y f G d ( y ) (b)
Here bj,k indicates the access frequency from Mj to
Dk. U’j,k denotes the sum of access frequencies to
Dk from mobile hosts within the h hops from Mj
excluding those holding Dk.
δ , γ are predefined weights that give priorities to
the first term i.e.access frequencies from Mj and the
second term i.e.those from other hosts. Exclusively,
the first and second terms denote the changes in the
number of successful data accesses fromMj andMj’s
nearby hosts, respectively, when replacing Dk with
Dfresh. The denominator of the second term becomes
“Fi,fresh+1” due to the same reason.
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
20th November 2014. Vol. 69 No.2
© 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1992-8645
E-ISSN: 1817-3195
Mj selects Dk among its own data items so that
Δj,k→fresh has the positive maximum value and
replaces Dk with Dfresh.
The proposed method improves data availability
and balances the power consumption among mobile
hosts while considering the replication profit. In
particular, a mobile host can reduce its power
consumption by replicating data items that are
frequently accessed by itself but are not frequently
accessed by its nearby hosts. Proposed schem can
adjust data availability and power consumption by
changing parameters δ , γ . If δ is set to a larger
value than γ , each mobile host preferentially
replicates data items frequently accessed by itself,
and thus, its power consumption decreases. On the
other hand, if δ is set to a smaller value than γ ,
each mobile host preferentially replicates data items
frequently accessed by its nearby hosts and its
power consumption increases. However, data
availability becomes higher because those mobile
hosts can share many kinds of data items and get
more benefit from replication profit.
D. The Approach for minimum Power
Step 1: Transmit power is recorded in the data
packet by every node lying along the route from
source to destination and it is forwarded to the next
node. The transmitted power is derived as,
Step 3: The recalculated minimum required
transmission power, Pmin is sent to the precursor
node through acknowledgement (ACK) packet.
This packet contains the source, destination id,
transmission and reception power.
Step 4: This ACK packet is received by the
precursor node, it records the modified transmit
power in the power table and transmits the
remaining packets with Pmin.
Step 5: When a node cannot find a record in the
power table for a particular node, which will be the
case when two nodes never exchanged packet
before, it transmits with default power level 300 db.
A. Performance Metrics
We evaluate mainly the performance according
to the following metrics.
We use NS2 to simulate our proposed
algorithm. In our simulation, 200 mobile nodes
move in a 1200 meter x 1200 meter square region
for 60 seconds simulation time. All nodes have the
same transmission range of 250 meters. The
simulated traffic is Constant Bit Rate (CBR). Our
simulation settings and parameters are summarized
in table 1.
Table1. Simulation And Setting Parameters Of DRA
No. of Nodes
Area Size
Radio Range
Ptx =
Simulation Time
Sizeof Re qToSend + Sizeoforiginaldata + PRT
Packet Size
Mobility Model
SizeofCleartosend + Acksize + RERR
Re cpower * (
Routing Protocol
Step 2: When the next node receives that data
packet at power Precv, it reads the transmit power Ptx
from the packet, and recalculates the minimum
required transmit power Pmin, for the precursor
SizeofClearToSend + ACKsize + RERR
Sizeof Re qtosend + Datasize + PDR
Re cpower * (
Pmin= (Ptx - Precv) + Pmar + Pwast
To overcome the problem of unstable links due to
channel fluctuations, a margin Pmargin is included.
Because the transmit power is monitored packet by
packet, in our work, we maintain a margin of 10dB.
1200 X 1200
60 sec
512 bytes
Random Way Point
Omni Directional
Control overhead: The control overhead is
defined as the total number of routing control
packets normalized by the total number of received
data packets.
End-to-end delay: The end-to-end-delay is
averaged over all surviving data packets from the
sources to the destinations.
Data Availability Ratio: It is defined as the
making the copies of data items which shared by
several users in a particular point of time.
The simulation results are presented in the next
part. We compare our proposed algorithm EMDRA
with One to One Optimization Scheme (OTOO)
[30] and Dynamic Access Frequency and
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
20th November 2014. Vol. 69 No.2
© 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1992-8645
Neighborhood DAFN [30] in presence of node
mobility and energy consumption environment.
Figure 3 shows the results of average end-to-end
delay for varying the nodes from 20 to 100. From
the results, we can see that scheme has slightly
lower delay than the OTOO [30] and DAFN [30].
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Figure 6 shows the results of Mobility Vs Delay.
From the results, we can see that EMDRA scheme
has slightly lower delay than the OTOO and
Fig. 6. Mobility Vs End To End Delay
Fig. 3. Nodes Vs End To End Delay
Fig. 4, presents the energy consumption. The
comparison of energy consumption for EMDRA,
DAFN, OTOO It is clearly seen that energy
consumed by EMDRA is less compared to OTOO
and DAFN.
Fig.7 . Mobility Vs Data Replication Rate
Fig. 7 presents the comparison of data
replication rate while varying mobility from 10 to
50. It is clearly shown that the data replication rate
of EMDRA is higher than the OTOO and DAFN.
Fig. 4. No.Of Nodes Vs Energy Consumption
Fig. 5, presents the comparison of overhead. It is
clearly shown that the overhead of EMDRA has
low overhead than the OTOOand DAFN.
Fig.8. Mobility Vs Data Accessibility Rate
Fig. 5. Throughput Vs Overhead
Figure 8 shows the results of data accessibility
rate for the mobility 10, 20…50 for the 200 nodes
scenario. Clearly our scheme EMDRA achieves
data accessibility rate than the OTOO and DAFN.
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology
20th November 2014. Vol. 69 No.2
© 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 1992-8645
In MANET, mobile nodes connected without any
access point. The replication technique makes data
replication effective as it replicate data items on the
basis of access frequency of data items, current
network topology and stability of wireless links. It
improves response time and maintained
consistency. In this paper, we have developed an
Efficient Multicast Data Replication approach for
power consumption which attains minimum power
consumption and provide high data availability rate
to the multiple mobile nodes whenever required.
Our scheme comprises the multicast protocol, data
replica configuration, data accessibility method and
power consumption procedure which has been
made balance between the data accessibility, power
consumption and data availability. By simulation
results we have shown that the EMDRA achieves
high data replication rate, data accessibility rate
while attaining low delay, overhead, minimum
power consumption than our proposed schemes
DAFN and OTOO varying the number of nodes,
node mobility and throughput.
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