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ETOP UPDATE IV-2014
OFDA-AELGA
Emergency Transboundary Outbreak
Pest (ETOP) Situation Report for April
with a Forecast till
Mid-June, 2014
Issued May 5, 2014
CNLAA/Tunisia, CNLAA/Morocco, DLCOEA2, DLMCC/Yemen, DPPQS/India, FAODLIS, LCC/Oman, NCLC/Libya,
PPD/Sudan).
Summary
The Desert Locust (SGR1) situation
remained calm along the Red Sea coasts
during April.
Several swarms migrated from
northwestern Somalia to eastern
Ethiopia where aerial and ground control
treated 2,585 ha from 8-30 April. An
unconfirmed report of hoppers in Aysha,
eastern Ethiopia suggested breeding has
begun in those areas (DLCO-EA).
In Sudan, locusts were controlled on
3,620 ha by ground means during the 1st
fortnight of April. In Yemen, the
situation remained calm along the Red
Sea coast and Gulf of Aden and only a
few numbers of solitary adults were
reported East and South of Hodeida, near
Midi and northwest of Aden during this
month. Adult locust moved from the Red
Sea coasts of Saudi Arabia to the
interior of the country and control
operations treated close to 20,000 ha
during April. Small-scale breeding is in
progress in northern Oman and
southeast Iran where hopper groups
were controlled on 730 ha total during
April. The situation remained relatively
calm in spring breeding areas in
northwest Africa and no locusts were
reported in Sahel West Africa
(CNLA/Chad, CNLA/Mauritania,
1
Definitions of all acronyms can be found at the end of the
report.
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
A locust swarm descending on a maize field in
Jijjiga, eastern Ethiopia, Zana, 04/2014)
Forecast: The SGR situation will remain
relatively calm in northwest Africa, Sahel
West Africa and central Africa during the
forecast period. Hopper bands and
groups will appear in eastern Ethiopia
and increase locust numbers in the
coming months. The Red Sea region will
experience calmness and only limited
scale-breeding is likely in the interior of
Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Southeast
Iran and western Pakistan will
experience small-scale breeding in areas
of recent rainfall (CNLA/Chad, CNLA/Mali,
CNLA/Mauritania, CNLAA/Morocco
CNLA/Tunisia, DLCO-EA, DLMCC/Yemen,
DPPQS/India, FAO-DLIS, LCC/Oman,
NCLC/Libya, PPD/Sudan).
OTHER ETOPS
Red (Nomadic) Locust (NSE): NSE
situation remained serious in Malawi
where 8,000 ha (20,000 acres) were
been detected during joint aerials
2
DLCO-EA member-countries = Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia,
Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda,
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ETOP UPDATE IV-2014
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surveys. A similar situation is expected
in Tanzania and Mozambique where
favorable breeding conditions persisted
fledged and swarms have started
developing in Ikuu-Katavi, Wembere,
Malagarasi Basin and Rukwa Valleys in
Tanzania as well as in Buzi-Gorongosa
and Dimba plains in Mozambique and
Kafue Flats in Zambia.
Forecast: Adults will concentrate and
form swarms. If left uncontrolled, the
swarms will begin migrating to
neighboring areas. The International Red
Locust Control Organizations for Central
and Southern Africa (IRLCO-CSA) has
appealed to member-states and
development partners for resources to
launch timely survey and control
operations and abate potential damage to
crops and pasture (IRLCO-CSA).
Issued May 5, 2014
Moroccan (DMA), Italian (CIT),
Migratory (LMI) Locusts in Central
Asia and the Caucasus (CAC): No locust
reports were received in CAC in April.
Locusts may have begun developing in
some regions (OFDA/AELGA).
Forecast: Locusts are expected to begin
developing in some areas in the CAC
during the forecast period (FAO-ECLO,
OFDA/AELGA).
African Armyworm (AAW): The AAW
outbreak season continued in northern
Tanzania where caterpillars were
observed in maize fields during the 1st
dekad of April. The pest was also reported
in Kenya. Positive trap catches were
reported in southern Ethiopia
(PHS/Tanzania).
Madagascar Migratory Locust (LMC):
Large numbers of hoppers have fledged
and formed adult populations. Some 20
million ha were reported surveyed and
more than 400,000 ha have been treated
or protected. In February alone, more
than 160,000 ha were treated. The
current infestation areas stretch 100 km
from south-west of Mahajanga to the
southern part of the Mahafaly Plateau
(south of Toliara) (DPV-FAO, FAO-ECLO).
Forecast: As the rainy season comes to
an end and the wind patterns change,
and the coastal areas progressively dry
out, 2nd generation swarms continue
moving to the interior of the country.
Aggressive surveillance, monitoring and
timely preventive interventions remain
imperative to avert any major crop
damage in the coming months (DPV-FAO,
OFDA/AELGA).
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
Young mailze plant damaged by armyworm caterpillars, Arusha,
Tanzania, 3/2014)
Forecast: AAW activities will continue in
the northern frontier in Kenya, Northern
Tanzania and perhaps southern Ethiopia
during the forecast period. The AAW
season has ended in Malawi,
Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe and
significant developments are not expected
in these countries during the forecast
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period (IRLCO-CSA, DLCO-EA,
OFDA/AELGA, PHS/Tanzania).
Quelea (QQU): QQU bird outbreaks were
reported in Dodoma, Tabora and Shinyanga
Regions of Tanzania and surveys to locate
more roosts are launched by the MoA’s
Plant Health Services. No reports of QQU
birds were received from other frontline
countries in eastern and southern Africa
(DLCO-EA, IRLCO-CSA, OFDA/AELGA).
Forecast: QQU birds will likely remain a
problem to small grain cereal growers in
the Rift Valley, Eastern and Nyanza
Provinces of Kenya, Kilimanjaro, Morogoro,
Dodoma, Singinda and Shinyanga regions
of Tanzania and in provinces of Zimbabwe
where winter wheat is grown (IRLCO-CSA).
OFDA/TAG’s Pest and Pesticide
Monitoring, Reporting and Response unit
(Assistance for Emergency Pest
[Locust/Grasshopper] Abatement) will
continue monitoring ETOP situations
closely and issue alerts and monthly
updates and advise as necessary. End
summary
Progresses made in SGR Frontline
Countries:
SGR frontline countries (FCs) in Sahel
West Africa, namely Chad, Mali,
Mauritania, and Niger have established
autonomous national locust control units
(CNLA) responsible for all SGR activities.
With the support they received from
external sources, including USAID/OFDA
and their own resources, FCs are often
able to launch preventive interventions and
minimize and avoid the threats the SGR
poses to food security and livelihoods of
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
Issued May 5, 2014
vulnerable communities. Preventive
interventions that Mauritania launched
from October 2013 through January
2014, with its own resources, and abated
threatening locust invasions is a good
example of a success story.
CNLAs’ continued efforts to prevent,
mitigate, avert and/or respond to
potentially devastating SGR outbreaks
and invasions are good examples of
disaster risk reduction that deserve
encouragements and support.
OFDA ETOP Activities and Impacts

Contributions from OFDA and other
donors enabled FAO to establish Pesticide
Stock Management System (PSMS) in 50
countries around the globe. As a result,
participating countries can now conduct
regular inventories and make informed
decisions to prevent unnecessary
accumulations of obsolete stocks, avoid
costly disposal operations, ensure safety
of their citizens and protect their shared
environment.
 OFDA-sponsored, three year program
on scaling up community-based
armyworm monitoring, forecasting and
early warning which was launched in FY
2013 is progressing well. The program
aims at reducing the risk of armyworm
threats to food security and livelihoods of
rural communities and vulnerable
populations. Activities are being
coordinated by the DLCO-EA in
collaboration with partners in Ethiopia,
Kenya and Tanzania. Among partners’
latest achievements is a successful
launching of a mobile based information
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ETOP UPDATE IV-2014
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collection and transmission by local
famers. OFDA/TAG intends to expand this
innovative technology to other armyworm
affected districts and countries.
 OFDA continues its assistance to
sustainable pesticide risk reduction
initiatives through stewardship network
(SPRRSN) programs by strengthening
capacities of host-countries and partners to
ensure safety of vulnerable populations
and protect their assets and the shared
environment against pesticide
contamination. OFDA/TAG has successfully
launched two sub-regional SPRRSNs in
Eastern Africa and the Horn. The Horn of
Africa SPRRSN initiative has created a
“model” Association dubbed as Pesticide
Stewardship Association-Ethiopia (PSA-E)
which is viewed as a boiler plate for future
initiatives. OFDA is considering expanding
the SPRRSN initiatives to North Africa,
West Africa, the Middle East, CAC and
other regions.
Issued May 5, 2014
threats to food security and livelihoods of
vulnerable populations.
Note: All ETOP SITREPs, including the
current one can be accessed on our
websites:
http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/workingcrises-and-conflict/responding-timescrisis/how-we-do-it/humanitariansectors/agriculture-and-food-security/pestand-pesticide-monitoring
Detailed accounts of weather and ETOP
situation as well as an ETOP forecast for
the next six weeks are discussed
hereafter.
Weather and ecological conditions
During the third dekad of April, the InterTropical Front (ITF) moved slightly to the
North relative to its position during the
previous period, but because of the strong,
dry northerly winds, the northward
movement of the Front was decreased.
 OFDA continued its support for capacity
strengthening as part of its DRR programs
through a cooperative agreement with
FAO. This program assists countries to
mitigate, prevent, and respond to ETOP
outbreaks and reduce such emergencies. It
also helps avoid misuse and mishandling of
pesticides, pesticide-incorporated materials
and application platforms.
 OFDA DRR program aimed to
strengthening national and regional
capacities for ETOP operations in Central
Asia and the Caucasus (CAC) is in
progress. The program focuses on
improving national and regional capacities
to better coordinate locust monitoring and
reporting as well as launch joint plans for
survey and prevention to minimize ETOP
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
The mean western position of the front (10W10E) was located along 14N causing aboveaverage rainfall along the Gulf of Guinea,
including eastern Guinea Conakry and Ivory
Coast. The mean eastern (20E-35E) portion
of the ITF continued its northward movement
and was approximated at 12.9N leading the
average position by 2 degrees and caused
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moisture increase along the Sudan-South
Sudan border and parts of western South
Sudan (NOAA, see map below).
From April 11-20, 2014, the ITF was
progressively migrating northward. The
eastern portion of the ITF (20E-35E)
approximated 12.3N, 2.4 degrees higher than
the mean for this time of year.
The above rainfall map displays the current
ITF position relative to its long-term average
position during the first dekad of April (NOAA,
4/2014).
This caused above-average rainfall (>50 mm)
across eastern CAR and much of South Sudan.
The western portion (10W-10E) of the ITF was
located along 13.2N, about 0.7 degree N of the
mean position. Enhanced, moist southerly wind
caused the higher than average precipitation in
Liberia, Cote d'Ivoire, and Ghana during this
period (see map below, NOAA).
During the first dekad of April, ITF showed
significantly northward migration and caused
above-average rains across portions of the gulf
of Guinea and Eastern Africa. The mean
western (10W-10E) portion of the ITF was
positioned along 11.9N, which is 0.4 degree
north of the average position for this time of
year. The strong southerly flow brought wetter
than average conditions throughout eastern
Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin.
The IFT’s mean eastern (20E-35E) portion was
approximated at 11.2N; 2.4 degrees north of
its average mean position, bringing surplus
rain over southern Sudan, South Sudan, and
southwestern Ethiopia during the period.
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
Light to medium-high rainfall were reported
along the Ethio-Djibouti and Ethio-Somali
borders during April. These areas are also
where locust activities intensified. Arid areas
around Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia also
received enough rainfall during the month to
create suitable conditions for locusts to
survive and breed. Moderate to heavy rain
was recorded on April 5 in summer breeding
areas in Hadramout, Shabwa and Marib
Provinces in Yemen. Rainfall was also
reported in these areas on 29, 30, 31 March
and April 1. This will likely cause ecological
conditions to improve and allow breeding
(DLCO-EA, DLMCC/Yemen). Ecological
conditions are favorable in a few locations for
the survival and reproduction of locusts in the
Ziz-Ghris valley and the southeastern slopes
in Morocco (CNLAA/Morocco).
In the NSE outbreak areas, heavy rainfall was
recorded in Mozambique and Tanzania: 176 in
Mafambisse (Buzi-Gorongosa), 180 mm in Buzi
(Buzi-Gorongosa) and 159 mm in Caia (Dimba)
Mozambique and 49.7 mm in Masenge
(Wembere), 137 mm in Kaliua (Malagarasi),
83.2 mm in Mpanda (Ikuu-Katavi), and 88.8
mm in Muze (Rukwa plains) in Tanzania
(IRLCO-CSA).
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No update was received from CAC at the time
this report was compiled, but ecological
conditions are expected to have begun
improving gradually for locust activities to
commence (OFDA/AELGA).
In Madagascar a late received update
reported optimum rainfall throughout areas
stretching a 200 km diagonal wide from Belosur-Tsiribihina to Vangaindrano in March. The
rest of the country received below optimum
moisture requirement for the LMC, i.e., 1.7
mm in Betroka (AMI-C) and 4.0 mm in
Tranomaro (ATM-S), but surplus (45 mm) in
Amboahangy (ATM-S). The soil moisture level
was still high and vegetation remained green
in areas that received heavy rainfall in
previous months (DPV-FAO).
Note: Changes in the weather patterns
contribute to ecological shift in ETOP habitats
and can increase the risk of pest outbreaks,
resurgence and even emergence of new pests.
Case: Moroccan locust in Uzbekistan has
shown a considerable vertical habitat
expansion by up to 1,000 feet or 300 meters
from its normal development altitude. The
Asian migratory locust which was once
known as univoltin (a single generation per
year) in the recent past exhibited two
generations per year. These phenomena are a
serious concern to farmers’ rangeland
managers. Regular monitoring and timely
reporting of anomalous manifestations in pest
habitats and behavior remain essential. End
note.
DETAILED ACCOUNTS OF ETOP
SITUATION AND FORECASTS FOR THE
NEXT SIX WEEKS
SGR - Western Outbreak Region: The SGR
situation remained calm in winter breeding
areas in the western outbreak region during
April. Only a few isolated solitary adults were
observed in Southeastern Ghris in Ziz Valley,
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
Issued May 5, 2014
northeast of Bouarfa in the Figuig Province
and the city of Central Guelmim in southern
Morocco. No locusts were reported in
Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Algeria or,
Tunisia during this month (CNLA/Chad,
CNLA/Mali, CNLA/Mauritania, CNLAA/Morocco,
CNLA/Niger, FAO-DLIS, NCDLC/Libya).
SGR situation in winter and spring breeding areas during April,
2014, FAO-DLIS
Forecast: The locust situation will likely remain
calm and significant developments are unlikely
without precipitation in spring breeding areas in
northwest Africa in Mauritania, Morocco,
Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya during the forecast
period. Sahel West Africa, i.e., Mali, Niger,
Chad, Niger and Senegal, Burkina Faso and
Guinea will also remain calm during this period
(CNLA/Chad, CNLA/Mali, CNLA/Mauritania,
CNLAA/Morocco, CNLA/Niger, FAO-DLIS,
NCDLC/Libya).
SGR (Desert Locust) - Central Outbreak
Region: In April, several highly mobile
immature SGR swarms migrated from
northwestern Somalia and reached eastern
Ethiopia. Aerial and ground control operations
were launched from 8-30 April by the Desert
Locust Control Organization for Eastern Africa
and the Ministry of Agriculture, respectively,
and controlled immature and mature swarms in
2,370 ha. Swarms were detected in several
locations, in Shadet and Gebere Jiri in Awbere
District, in Chirimit in Dire Dawa Administration
and in Garba Annano, Kalabed and Ruchis.
Ground operations controlled swarms in 180 ha
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Issued May 5, 2014
in Muluale, Gobieyer and Gedeb from 8-10 April.
th
th
Attempts were made on April 6 and 7 to
control swarms in Awbere District in Jijiga near
northwestern Somalia border and on April 9th
and 14th in Lega Bira and Banke near Dire
Dawa, but failed because the swarms were
highly mobile and escaped into rugged
mountainous terrains. Survey and control
operations are in progress (DLCO-EA).
SGR swarm basking in morning sun in eastern Ethiopia
(DLCO-EA, April, 2014)
Maize plants destroyed by locust in Jijjiga, eastern Ethiopia, April
2014, Zana
Swarms were reported damaging young maize
plants in Jijjiga (see picture above) in eastern
Ethiopia during April. Several immature,
maturing and mature swarms were treated
in many locations during April, i.e., Shadet,
Gebere Jiri in Awbere District, Chirimit in
Dire Dawa Administration. Earlier, swarms
were reported appearing from Aysha bordering
Djibouti to Degehabur southeast of Jijiga in
eastern Ethiopia during the 6th through the 10th
of April. Most of the swarms are highly mobile
and difficult to target for control.
In Sudan, ground control operations treated
immature swarms and adult groups on 3,620 ha
in Wadi oko, Wadi Dayet and near Wadi Aldaiib
during the 1st fortnight of April. A few individual
locusts were also detected in Toker Delta, but
did not require treatment. The situation
remained calm and control operations have
stopped in Eritrea where 105 ha were reported
treated during April (FAO-DLIS, PPD/Sudan).
In Yemen, the situation remained calm along
the Red Sea coast and Gulf of Aden. Only very
few solitary adults were reported in East and
South of Hodeida, near Midi and Am Rija
northwest of Aden during this month. As
ecological conditions continued becoming
unfavorable, adult locusts moved from the Red
Sea coasts of Saudi Arabia to the interior of
the country where small-scale breeding will
occur during the forecast period. Control
operations treated 19,994 ha in Saudi Arabia
during this month. Small-scale breeding is in
progress in northern Oman and hopper groups
are forming where control operations treated
130 ha during April (DLCO-EA, DLMCC/Yemen,
FAO-DLIS, LCC/Oman).
Forecast: Hopper groups and bands will form
ADLCO-EA spray play controlling locust swarms in Jijjiga, eastern
Ethiopia, Zana, April, 2014)
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
in eastern Ethiopia and perhaps in
northwestern Somalia as well. Small scale
breeding is likely in the interior Saudi Arabia
and Yemen as well as Oman during the
forecast period, but significant developments
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ETOP UPDATE IV-2014
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are not expected (DLCO-EA, DLMCC/Yemen,
FAO-DLIS, PPD/Oman, PPD/Sudan).
Vigilance and active monitoring, reporting and
preventive interventions remain essential to
abate locust migration to neighboring countries
(CRC, DLCO-EA, DLMCC/Yemen, FAO-DLIS,
LCC/Oman, PPD/Sudan).
SGR - Eastern Outbreak Region: Smallscale breeding occurred in Qaleganj, Kerman
Province in southeastern Iran where limited
scale control treated 600 ha during April.
Locusts were not observed in adjacent areas in
southwestern Pakistan or India during this
period (DPPQS/India, FAO-DLIS).
Forecast: Hoppers will begin appearing in
southeastern Iran and small-scale breeding
may commence in areas of recent rainfall in
southwestern Pakistan and cause locust
numbers to increase slightly during the
forecast period, but significant developments
are not expected (DPPQS/India, FAO-DLIS)
Red (Nomadic) Locust (NSE): Large
numbers of NSE swarms and concentrations
(50,000 to 300,000 locusts/ha) were detected
on 8,000 ha and 1,240 ha were treated in Lake
Chilwa plains in Malawi during joint aerial
surveys carried out by IRLCO-CSA and MoA.
Financial assistance was provided by the
UN/FAO. A fungal-based safer biological
pesticide - GreenMuscle was employed.
However, the locust threat continues given
that large areas were left untreated due to lack
of pesticides.
In Tanzania MoA carried out ground surveys
in parts of Ikuu outbreak areas accessible by
ground means revealed locust concentrations
and swarms, suggesting that locusts have
fledged and started forming swarms in IkuuKatavi, Wembere, Malagarasi Basin and Rukwa
Valleys in Tanzania. A similar situation is
expected to prevail in Buzi-Gorongosa and
Dimba plains in Mozambique and Kafue Flats in
Zambia.
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
Issued May 5, 2014
Forecast: Swarms from Malawi and
Tanzania will likely invade adjacent areas
and migrate further into neighboring
countries, i.e., Rwanda, Uganda, Democratic
Republic of Congo, Burundi, Kenya,
Zimbabwe and Botswana and pose a threat to
food security in the region. In light of the
increasing swarm sightings and the possibility
of the swarms invading neighboring rice
paddy fields, it was decided to use
Chlorpyrifos 240 ULV to be made available
during the second week of May and help
resume control operations. IRLCO-CSA has
issued an alert and appealed to its memberstates (IRLCO-CSA3) and development
partners to avail resources to maintain
aggressive and timely survey, monitoring and
coordinated control operations in Tanzania
(Ikuu-Katavi, Malagarasi Basin, Wembere and
Rukwa Valley), Mozambique (Buzi-Gorongosa
and Dimba plains) and Zambia (Kafue
Flats).to avert any serious damage the pest
could cause to crops and pasture and impact
food security in the affected regions down the
line.
Madagascar Migratory Locust (LMC)
Large numbers of hoppers have fledged and
formed adult populations. A late received
report indicated that as of March 20, some 20
million ha were reported surveyed and more
than 400,000 ha have been treated or
protected. Current infestation areas stretch
100 km from south-west of Mahajanga to the
southern part of the Mahafaly Plateau. Aerial
and ground survey and control operations are
in progress (DPV-FAO, FAO-ECLO).
3
IRLCO-CSA member-countries = Botswana, Kenya,
Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
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Forecast: As the rainy season has tapered
off, the coastal areas are progressively drying
out and the wind patterns have changed from
south to east and northeast and the 2nd
generation swarms will continue migrating
towards the interior of the country where they
will concentrate and become a problem.
Survey and control: As of now, more than
20 million ha have been surveyed and in the
upwards of 400,000 ha treated or protected
since aerial operations began in late
September, 2013.
Resources: So far $26.2 million has
been contributed by GoM (through a
Work Bank loan), Austria, Belgium,
CERF-OCHA, European Union, France,
Italy, Norway, and USA to the $43.9
million appeal for the three year project.
This does not include hundreds of thousands of
liters of pesticide donated by non-traditional
donors Morocco, Mauritania, Algeria…)
estimated at millions of dollars.
Three helicopters have been deployed
along the central, mid and north western
parts of the country to canvas large areas
of invasion. A fixed-wing spray aircraft was
dispatched on March 1st to Tsiroanomandidy
(in the Middle-West) to cover remote areas
inaccessible by helicopters. Aerial deployment
is closely monitored by the FAO-DPV team and
adjusted according to locust phenology and
migration. Vehicles and equipment for
camping, survey and personal protective
equipment, etc. are being delivered. Key
technical specialists, Campaign Coordinator,
two Junior Locust Experts, one Junior
Logistician, a Security Expert, a Geographical
Information Systems Expert, two Aircraft
Logistics Experts, a Bio-pesticide expert and an
Environmental analyst are on site to organize
field activities and train national staff. Human
Health and Environmental Management Plan is
being implemented in close collaboration with
the National Anti-Locust Centre, the Plant
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
Issued May 5, 2014
Protection Directorate of the Ministry of
Agriculture and the National Coordination
Unit, and national specialized expertise has
been mobilized.
Pesticides: As of March 20th, 353 858 l of
Chlorpyrifos 240 ULV; 134 450 l of
Teflubenzuron 50 UL and 680 kg of Green
Muscle were reported available. It is worth
noting that 260,000 l of pesticides were
received as GIK by GoM from Algeria (30,000
l, will arrive soon), Mauritania (30,000 l) and
Morocco (200,000 l). Donations from Morocco
and Mauritania have been delivered. The
stock pledged by Algeria was expected to
arrive by mid-April 2014 (DPV-FAO).
For further detail, please, visit the
following web:
http://www.fao.org/emergencies/resou
rces/documents/resourcesdetail/en/c/224857/
Forecast: As the rainy season progressively
comes to an end and the wind pattern is
changing, the coastal areas will progressively
dry out. As a result, swarms from the second
generation will continue migrating towards
the interior of the country.
Aggressive surveillance, monitoring and
timely preventive interventions remain
imperative to avert any major crop damage in
the coming months, all the more so in the
West Central Invasion areas, North Central
multiplication and Concentration areas (DPVFAO, OFDA/AELGA).
Moroccan (DMA), Italian (CIT),
Migratory (LMI) Locusts in Central Asia
and the Caucasus (CAC): No locusts were
reported in CAC during April, but some locust
activities are expected to have commenced in
the region (OFDA/AELGA).
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Forecast: Locust activities are expected to
continue appearing in CAC during the forecast
period (FAO-ECLO, OFDA/AELGA).
QQU roosts in Kitui, Kenya in February
(Courtesy: Daily Nation Kenya, March, 2014)
(Locust prone CAC countries, FAO)
Timor and South Pacific: No update was
received from East Timor in April
(OFDA/AELGA).
African Armyworm (AAW): AAW outbreaks
occurred in Kilifi, Taita Taveta and Kwale
Counties in Kenya as well as in Arusha,
Mtwara and Mbeya regions in Tanzania
(IRLCO-CSA, PHS/Tanzania).
Forecast: AAW situation will likely remain
clam in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and
Zimbabwe and outbreaks will continue in
northern Tanzania and Kenya and perhaps
begin appearing in southern Ethiopia towards
the end of the forecast period (IRLCO-CSA,
DLCO-EA, OFDA/AELGA, PHS/Tanzania).
Quelea (QQU): QQU bird outbreaks were
reported from Kilimanjalo and Shinyanga regions in
Tanzania and in Makueni County in Kenya. QQU
populations were reported in Chokwe district in Gaza
province in Mozambique (DLCO-EA, IRLCO-CSA).
Forecast: QQU birds will likely continue being
a problem to small grain cereals in Kenya and
Tanzania and Zimbabwe (IRLCO-CSA).
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
Facts: QQU birds can travel ~100 km/day
looking for food. An adult QQQU bird can
consume 3-5 g of grain and perhaps destroy
the same amount each day. A QQQU colony
can contain up to a million or more birds
(very common) and is capable of consuming
and destroying 6,000 to 10,000 kg of
seeds/day, enough to feed 12,000-20,000
people for a day.
Rodents: No rodent outbreaks reports were
received during April. However, rodents
remain a constant threat to cereal and other
crops and produces in many countries and
require regular surveillance and preventive
interventions (OFDA/AELGA).
Front-line countries are advised to remain
vigilant. Invasion countries are cautioned to
maintain regular monitoring. DLCO-EA,
IRLCO-CSA, national PPDs, CNLAs, DPVs,
ELOs, and others are encouraged to continue
sharing ETOP information with partners and
stakeholders as quickly and as often as
available. Lead farmers and community
forecasters are encouraged to remain
vigilance and report any ETOP sightings to
concerned authorities immediately.
Inventories of National Stocks of Acridid
Pesticides
Pesticide inventory showed a minor change in
April as few countries where engaged in limited
control operations: Ethiopia (2,585 ha). Eritrea
OFDA/AELGA
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(105 ha) Sudan (3,620 ha), Oman (130 ha),
Iran (600 ha), Yemen (0), Saudi Arabia (19,994
ha), No changes were reported in other
countries during the reporting month.
Note: Some of the inventories shown below are
not necessarily current, as many countries tend
to their inventories after activities are concluded
and/or use acridid pesticides for controlling
other agricultural pests. End note.
Issued May 5, 2014
help reduce pesticide related health risks as
well as minimize and prevent environmental
pollution, and thereby improve food security
and ultimately contribute to the national and
regional economy. End note.
Estimated Quantities of pesticides
available for ETOP operations in frontline
countries as of November, 2013
Country
Quantities l/kg$
Mindful of the risk of pesticides becoming
Algeria
1,190,000~D
obsolete passed their use of life and posing
Chad
43,400
serious health and environmental threats and
Eritrea
-9,885~
become considerable financial burdens, ETOP
Egypt
Data not available
countries with large inventories and less likely to
Ethiopia
1,200~
use them within a reasonable time period, are
Libya
25,000
encouraged to test their stocks regularly and
Madagascar
176,580~
determine whether they should use, retain,
Mali
32,000 D
share or safely discard them.
Mauritania
49,000D
Morocco
3,757,000~D
With the support from USAID/OFDA, Japan, the
Niger
42,805~
Netherlands and other donors, FAO has been
Oman
19,400
able to install a web-based tracking system –
Senegal
156,000~D
Pesticide Stock Management System (PSMS) Saudi Arabia
Data not available
in more than 50 countries around the globe. The
Sudan
774,000~
System has enabled dozens of countries to
Tunisia
36,575~
identify stocks that require testing, or put to an
Yemen
22,[email protected] + 300 kg GM~
immediate use, or shared or promptly disposed.
$
Include different kinds of pesticides in
ULV, EC and dust formulations
OFDA/AELGA encourages countries to continue
~ data not current
exploring options that are proven safe and
D
=
Morocco,
Mauritania
and Algeria
effective in preventing the risks pesticide
donated/pledged 200,000, 25,000 l, and
stockpiling could pose to vulnerable populations
30,000 l of pesticides to Madagascar in
and communities, their shared environment and
2013; Mali donated 21,000 l for NSE to
assets as well as beneficial organisms and to
Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania in
minimize and ultimately avoid financial burdens
2012 and FAO facilitated the triangulation
associated with disposal of obsolete pesticide
Mauritania
donated 25,000 and 30,000 l of
stocks. It promotes IPM at all times. A
pesticides to Libya in 2012 and Madagascar
judiciously executed triangulation of usable
TM
stocks from countries with large inventories to in 2013; GM = GreenMuscle (fungal-based
biological pesticide); @includes donations
where they are much needed is a win-win
from Saudi Arabia
situation worth considering.
Note: The core message of sustainable
Pesticide Stewardship Program is to strengthen
the national and regional pesticide delivery
systems by linking partners at different levels to
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
LIST OF ACRONYMS
AAW
African armyworm (Spodoptera
expempta - SEX)
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AELGA
Assistance for Emergency Locust
Grasshopper Abatement
AFCS
Armyworm Forecasting and
Control Services, Tanzania
AfDB
African Development Bank
AME
Anacridium melanorhodon
APLC
Australian Plague Locust
Commission
APLC
Australian Plague Locust
Commission
CAC
Central Asia and the Caucasus
CBAMFEW
Community-based armyworm
monitoring, forecasting and early
warning
CERF
Central Emergency Response
Fund
CIT
Calliptamus italicus
CLCPRO
Commission de Lutte Contre le
Criquett Pélerin dans la Région
Occidentale (Commission for the
Desert Locust Control in the
Western Region)
CNLA/CNLAA Centre National de Lutte
Antiacridienne (National Locust
Control Center)
CRC
Commission for Controlling
Desert Locust in the Central
Region
CTE
Chortoicetes terminifera
DDLC
Department of Desert Locust
Control
DLCO-EA
Desert Locust Control
Organization for Eastern Africa
DMA
Dociostaurus maroccanus
DPPQS
Department of Plant Protection
and Quarantine Services
DPV
Département Protection des
Végétaux (Department of Plant
Protection)
ELO
EMPRES Liaison Officers
EMPRES
Emergency Prevention System
for Transboundary Animal and
Plant Pests and Diseases
ETOP
Emergency Transboundary
Outbreak Pest
Fledgling
immature adult locust
/grasshopper that has pretty
much the same phenology as
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
Issued May 5, 2014
mature adults, but lacks fully
developed reproductive organs
and hence cannot breed
GM
Green Muscle (a fungal-based
biopesticide)
ha
hectare (= 10,000 sq. meters,
about 2.471 acres)
Integrated Regional Information
Networks
IRLCO-CSA
International Red Locust Control
Organization for Central and
Southern Africa
ITCZ
Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
ITF
Inter-Tropical Convergence Front
= ITCZ)
FAO-DLIS
Food and Agriculture
Organizations’ Desert Locust
Information Service
Hoppers
young, wingless
locusts/grasshoppers (Latin
synonym = nymphs or larvae)
Hopper bands groups of hoppers aggregated
and marching in unison and
pretty much in the same
direction
Kg
Kilogram (~2.2 pound)
L
Liter (1.057 Quarts or 0.264
gallon or 33.814 US fluid
ounces)
LMC
Locusta migratoriacapito
LMM
Locusta migratoria
migratorioides (African Migratory
Locust)
LPA
Locustana pardalina
MoAFSC
Ministry of Agriculture, Food
Security and Cooperatives
MoARD
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development
NCDLC
National Desert Locust Control,
Libya
NOAA
National Oceanic and Aeronautic
Administration
NSD
Republic of North Sudan
NSE
Nomadacris septemfasciata
OFDA
Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster
Assistance
PHD
Plant Health Directorate
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OFDA-AELGA
PHS
Plant Health Services, MoA
Tanzania
PPD
Plant Protection Department
PPSD
Plant Protection Services
Division/Department
PRRSN
Pesticide Risk Reduction through
Stewardship Network
QQQU
QQUelea QQUelea
SARCOF
Southern Africa Region Climate
Outlook Forum
SGR
Schistoseca gregaria
SWAC
South West Asia DL Commission
TAG
Technical Assistance Group
Triangulation The process whereby pesticides
are donated by a country or
countries, with large inventories
with no immediate need, to a
country or countries with dire
need and a third party steps into
the negotiation table and assists
with shipments, etc. Usually FAO
plays the third party role.
USAID
Unites States Agency for
International Development
UN
the United Nations
ZEL
Zonocerus elegans, the elegant
grasshopper
ZVA
Zonocerus variegatus, the
variegated grasshopper; this
insect is believed to be emerging
as a fairly new distractive dry
season pest, largely due to the
clearing of its natural habitat
through deforestation, i.e. land
clearing for agricultural and other
development efforts.
Issued May 5, 2014
http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/workingcrises-and-conflict/responding-timescrisis/how-we-do-it/humanitariansectors/agriculture-and-food-security/pest-andpesticide-monitoring
Who to Contact:
If you have any questions, comments or
suggestions, or know someone who would like
to subscribe to this report, please, feel free to
contact:
Yeneneh Belayneh: [email protected]
Tel.: + 1-202-712-1859
To learn more about our activities and programs,
please, visit us at:
:/SITREPS 2014/ETOP update for April, 2014
OFDA/AELGA
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